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thither before) that as Water and Blood came out of Christ's side, when pierced by Longinus, so when the Priest here pierces the right side of the Seal, this Water, now mixt with the Wine, might represent that. But St. Cyprian large- Epift.63. Oxon. ly gives us the Primitive Interpretation of it, as many other Fathers have done Edit
. p.153. the like. The Wine represents the Blood of Christ, the Water represents all the Christian People. So that this Mixture expresses to our thoughts, the Union of Christ the Head, the rest of the People the Members of his whole entire Mystical Body the Church; both being only Tokens and Memorials of it. And if the Primitive Fathers added yet more Water at the Sacrament to the common Wine, which was diluted before, (as it is very likely they did, by jujtin's ύδατα και κράματG-, and by νάματα και ύδατΘ here, which is taken from the Ancients, ) it was in order only to express more Sobriety, at the Sacrament, then at common Meals. And hence the following Greek Writers (by an ordinary carelesness amongst them) might as well in time take viua, liquor, and ägáma mixture, for plain or pure Wipe, as well as they now do, xgzori, mixture, for it, as is above faid. But now what Edification can this Ceremony p. 8. give to the People, who, being in the Choir, neither see, nor hear, nor know any thing of it, or of the meaning of any of the rest, all being done by the Priest and Deacon, mumbling their several parts over oply to themselves at the Prothesis. And the like may be said of all that follows.
The first Seal] I have alreaded noted, that the great Seal or Square raised -. * Piis out of the middle of the first Oblation, or Loaf; is particularly often called, árias äptos, the Holy Bread, for I take that to be Christ's, magis, Portion. The orher Pieces, or Portions, here following are called also opparidis Seals, and a goo pogaj, Oblations or Offerings. For if there be many Sealed Loaves offered, they take out all these Portions out of several Scaled Loaves; especially in Monasteries at Athos, and some elsewhere; and perhaps at first these Portions were the very Sealed Parts of the several Loaves then made of several Bignesses; but chefe might thus take up tco much Room, and therefore they now often, only with the point of the Spear, dig our not whole Seals, but little Pieces severally for the Portions as followeth. I have very often feen only one Sealed Loaf made use of for all the Portions, not only in small Congregations, but in the Patriarch's Church it self
. Therefore the first Seal here, signifies the first sealed Loaf, which the Priest takes after that out of which the Holy Bread was taken, if there be more then one, and that Loaf be then laid by, and new ones used for the rest of the several Portions. And here the second Seal, or Loaf (which is here named the firt after the Holy Bread) but in Goar it is called the second, is in Honour of the Virgin Mary; the third Loaf (which is here called the second Seal) is in Honour of the several Saints there mention'd; so the fourth Loaf (here named the third Seal) in Honour of their Bishops; and so the Seal which the Deacon takes, is a Loaf; And all these by their Constitution should be several Loaves, but I have often seen all these Portions taken out of one and the fame Loaf, as is said.
This Sacrifice unto thy Altar ] This must be meant only of a Spiritual F. p. is. Sacrifice of Prayer, &c. as hereafter more at large.
Mégis. A Portion] It signifies every ones Mess, or Portion, or Part, of x. p. 16. which I shall speak more at large, in a more proper place.
Right Hand side] Goar hath here made a great Blunder ; He hath set the G. p. 16. Portion of the Virgin Mary on the left Side. For according to him and the po 117. Greek Exposicion before mentioned, the sealed Part of the Holy Bread
repre. sents the Back of Christ, and by consequence, that must be the left side where he hath set it, and in my Copy there is a particular Explication added to the lame Sense. And in all Places, where I have been, I never faw that Portion of the V. M. fet otherwise then as I have set it; and it is clear by the Versicle TAB. 11. following, Upon thy right Hand did siand, &c. And the other nine Portions F16. 2. %. are likewise order'd to be placed on the right Hand near the Portion of the V. M. and he hath placed them also in his Figure; but that of the V. M. is
p. 119. 43.
on the contrary Side; and the like mistake is in Habertus his Pontificale. Goar was sensible enough of this improper coupling of the following Verficle,
with the Virgin's Portion set on the left hand; and therefore he tells us, p. 119. $.42. That the Copy which he (and Habertus and others) followed, is according to
the true antient Rite and Custom; and declares that the later Greeks, as in my printed Copy (which is now daily used by them) and in others, have instead of, at deigegev, on the left hand, now pit, c's Tô Soçiã peégt, oil the right side of the Holy Bread. So that if the old way of setting it on the left side be observed, the words following would be very absurd, upon thy right hand stood the Queen. To avoid this oversight of the former Greeks, the later ones representing the Court of the Heavenly King, feem, faith he, truly to say, on thy right hand stood the Queen; and so made fome Sense of it. Buc I shall instance in many inore fuch odd careless Expressions in their Liturgies, which the Latines can never fairly reconcile with their present Enorinities, or indeed with the very Design, many times, for which they are brought.
Of the Honourable] Here, and in all the rest that follow, is to be under. stood and repeated, cis nun sj periuliw, To the Honour and Memory, of the
Honourable, &c. 1. 2. 3. 4. esco 126.96.36.199. &c.] The placing of the nine Portions following in Rank and File, vid. TAB. II. I think it is as odd a Piece of Holy Pageantry as ever was seen. They are
nine forsooth, to imitate the nine Orders of Angels, which Dionysius Areopag. Hier. c. 6,7,8. speaks of (and out of him Glycas in his Animals) as we are told by the Greek p.76397178. Exposition in Euchologiæ ; so the Inventer of this pretty Mystery, hath mar
thald these Bits of Bread, to represent it seems, the Army of Saints and Martyrs, in a square Battalion. Goar ingeniously confesserh, that there is not the least ground for this in all the Antient Records. And truly it most evidently appears to have been a meer vovel Invention by the Modern Saints there mention'd, and by my MSS. which here are very different from the pripted Copies and from themselves, as likewise from what we find in Habertis his Pontificale.
The first Portion] He means the first Portion of the pine which follow.
A third Seal] That is a third sealed Loaf, if they have so many, and use
more then two of them. See not. 1.x. 0.7. p. 16. Our Bishop, our Governour] This part of this Suffrage is more peculiar to
Monasteries; and the scason why here the particular Bishop is distinguished from the Governour, is this, Because some Monasteries are quite exempt, and are only under their Abbat, or their own Superior, who is called in some places, 'Hygula, in others, as here, Kagney buy, Leader or Governour; others are under a Bishop or Metropolite, as their Visitor, whom they here remember. In other Congregations they here only mention Bishops, Priests and Deacons,
and all Christian Brethren in general. X. p. 16.
A Portion] I have seen (especially at Mount Athos) him that celebrates, dig out a little piece of the Loaf for his Portion, as likewise for the Founders in the next ; but for all the rest he only scrapes off little Mites with the Spear from the Crust of the Loaf. You must understand that before they go to the Prothesis to begin the Liturgy, all good People who are so disposed to have their absent Friends (Dead or Living) commemorated, go to them that cele. brate, and get their Names set down, (there being two Catalogues, one of the Living, the other of the Dead) for which they deposite fome Aspers, or richer Presents, in Silver or Gold, as they are able, or disposed; this being a great part of the common Priests maintenance, especially in countrey Villages. And as the Priest and Deacon read over these Catalogues, at every name there written, and at every name of those recommended to them or whom they themfelves think fit to Commemorate, there is a scrap made upon the Crust to rub off some mites as their particular Portions. It would indeed be a very tedious service should they pick out a particular bic for every one they name; for sometimes, especially at great Festivals, the numbers of them which are to be
», p. 16. I. p. 16.
N. P. 17.
Commemorated in particular, are very great. And though there may be then many fealed Loaves offered, yet it would be impracticable to take many Loaves, or dig out particular bits for every one of these petty Portions.
The Deacon takes a Seal] You will find in Goar a great dispute whether L. P. 17; the Deacon hath Authority to offer these Portions, Sim. Thessalonicensis abfolutely denies it ; so doth G. Paclıymer, and also Arcudius, who would have these Rubricks quite taken away, being of Novel Invention. But Goar defends this practice by the Authority of St. Germanus ; how well may there be feen; for I leave this Matter wholly to them and others, who have leisure or a longing to decide this weighty Trifle. But now if these. Portions be only in order, for a vicarious Communion of all the absent Persons commemorated (as 1 shall endeavour to prove hereafter, and Goar plainly allows) why may not p. 120. 46. the Deacon put in what Friends he plealeth with the rest?
Place the Portions] You must understand that all these Mites picke out, or M. p.19. fcraped off, by the Priest and Deacon, (some few being bigger then ordinary duít, upon particular respect to fome Persons, as above faid) are laid in several little Heaps under the Holy Bread, those for Persops of more Note, for the Living, for the Dead; those commemorated by the Deacon, being scraped apart or placed, as you see Tab. 2 Fig. 2. 0.0.
The Asterisk] It is an Instrument which opens with four Legs crosswise, s. p. 19. which being set over the Portions keep up the Covering from touching them. Tab.2. Fig. 3. It harh its Name from the next Versicle,
A Star] They who contrived this Comical Service (as they pretend) to reprcient Christ's whole Oeconomy or History, methinks made a great Blunder here. To represent the Star which stood over him when he was born, they fer this Asterisk (or artificial Srar) over him when he is here represented as slain, that is, Dead, vid. p. 14. nót. S.
The Lord is King] It is the beginning of the 93d Pfalm, and goes on to the o. p. 17. end of the 3d Verse, according to our old Translation. This also is very pretty, Goar. p.62. d. to express the glorious Apparel in the Psalmist by a common Covering, not to say a Clout. And the other mystical Representations which follow in the two other Coverings are likewise as remarkable.
The Aer] It is the largest square Covering, and covers both the Dish and -- p: 17. the Cup together.
O God our God] This is the Prayer of Proposition, which you have entire in the Eucholog. p. 36. and St. Basil's Liturgy begins with it there, p.58. For thus far is only the Preparation of the Elements upon the Prothefis, in order to the following Sacrament; and I believe in the primitive Church, when this Prayer was first pen’d, it was used just after the placing of the Offerings of Bread and Wine upon the Table; but after all that long Trumpery about making and placing the several Portions, as above, was invented (in following and much later times,) it was at last postponed and thrust in here, so far off from the setting on of the Oblations, to which it refers, as it is now made fomething obscure.
Glory and now] These are only the Beginning, or Parts of several Suffrages or P. p. 18, Versicles, which the Deacon knows, having got them by Heart; as we mean the whole Lord's Prayer, by only, Our Father, and the Latins, by Pater Nofter.
Vpon the Deacon's left Shoulder] It is often laid upon both Shoulders, as B. p. 20. here, he is said to take the Aer off from bis Shoulders, and the Dish is often carried upon the Deacon's Neck and Shoulders upon the Aer there.
The Deacon's Head] The Dish is often placed upon the Deacon's Neck, or hinder part of the Head, when they make the solemn Entrance, or Procession ; the Deacon can thus better see what is before him in his way, and step over the Sick, who are often Jaid on the Floor, before the Door, entring into the Tab. I. *o*. Chancel, as fhall be noted afterwards. But in Country Churches, or poor Villages, where there is no Deacon, but only one Priest to officiate, He takes the Dill coverd in his left Hand, and so bears it upon the Nape of his Neck,
v. p. 17.
C. p. 20.
E. p. 20.
Goar. p. 92•
134. §. 45
and carries the Cup cover'd in his right Hand, before his Breast, and thus makes a forty Procession alone. I have seen the same at Holy Fountains in the fields, and other Holy Places, where there are anniversary Mcctings upoi fome certäin Festivals, and only one Priest to officiare.
Á Round in the Church] In the Patriarch's Church, They go out of the Prothesis at a, and going down the North-Isle, they turn into the Nave of the Church at w, and fo go right up to the Chancel, x.g. 7. Before the Door x. in that patt of the Nave, (that is between the Singers f. f. at the spotted Rows x.) they lay their Sick and infirm People for the Priests and Deacons to pass over them in the Procession. The Pomp of this Procession, especially on high Days, or when the Patriarch celebrates, is very great. Many of the Lectors go before with lighted Candles; Subdeacons, Deacons, Priests follow, Then comes the Deacon with the Dish, and the Priest with the Cup. Then feveral
carry the various Vessels and Instruments to be used at the Table, or to adora De Offic. p. it. See this stately Pomp described briefly in Goar's Comment upon Codinus,
and at large in his Comment on the Eucholog. But I never saw the Deacon P.131. S. 110.
who carries the Dish, go backwards all the way to the Chancel, as he faith neither can I see how it may well be dones especially amongst a Croud, he would be in danger of falling over the Sick, which lye in his Way, if it were so; and it would be ridiculous for Tapers to be carried before to light him, if his Back was always towards them, ; At those Anniversary Meetings in the Fields at Holy Fountains, or che like (mention'd in the foregoing Note) there is commonly but one poor Altar or Table made up of Brick, or Stone, or Earth, and repair’d against the day, if decay'd, or any part be broken down) and that férves both for a Prothesis and à Holy Table too. The Priest having first prepared the Elements and Portions upon it, and laid them in the Dish, and put the Wine and Water in the Cup, he carries them in the manner before faid, and makes his Procession from that Altár, fetching a Compass among the People to it again, and here they lay their Sick likewise before thc Alcar, that he may pass over them in his retard. Here I cannot but take notice, that at this Great Entrance or Procession, as the peentes, Portions or Elements are carried
through the Body of the Church, The Patriarch (if he be present, and doth Tab. I. $. hot celebrate) comes dowd from his Throne a step of two, and He, and all
the Metropolites, and Bishops present, adore them, pulling off their, é box2422réxin, outward Hood, or Vail of their Head; and all the rest of the People bow with Reverence, every one according to the various Measures of his Devotion. This Custom gives a ground of much dispute amongst both Latines and Greeks, fome in both Churches Commending and Defending it, others as much opposing or blaming it. You may see an account of this in Goar, who palliates the matter, and at last offers in fome measure to éxcuse it, from other Customs of like nature, instancing in the Reverence and Respect which Courtiers in England pay to the Chair of Staté as they pass by it, though the King (or Queen) be not there present. Yet in another place a little before, he owns the bare Truth; That the People adore the Elements
, as if the King of All himself was there, firrounded or guarded invisibly with Troops of Angels; and they call upon Christ as if present, in these words, Lord remember me when Thort comest in thy Kingdom. Some blame this Adoration, and say it atose only out of mistake; Because they did adore the Elements (already Confecrated) as they are carried by it, årsregíd † a gongie oueéver, the Lenten Liturgy, they by inadvertency used the fame Adoration here, not well minding the difference between the two Offices. The cleverest come off, feem to be hitted by Sim. Thessalonicensis, That this Adoration may be only a civil Reverence paid to the Priefs, whole Prayers, by it, they seem humbly to defire ; and this may appear inore reasonable, because both Prics and Deacon all along as they go, are to say the Ejaculation following, May the Lord God remember us all, &c. But of this whole matter, i thall humbly offer my own Conjecture in afiother Place. I remember, the Illustrious Marquefs de
G. p. 20.
Nointel, the French Embassador, was once with me present at the Patriarch's Church, upon a new Patriarch’s Enthronment, and seeing this Adoration, he smiled upon me, and afterwards used it as an Argument for the Latines adoring the Holt; but when I informed him that the Elements were not as yet Confecrated, he drop the Discourse.
Honourable Joseph] This Scrap is taken out of Mark 15.43, 46. and you F. p. 262 have it entire in Goar.
Bodily in the Sepulcher] Here we meet with a very different Reading, or father a confuled Jumble. These words are the beginning of an Eulogy or Acclamation to Christ, and are in this Euchologio here order'd to be faid by the Priest, when he sets the Elements upon the Holy Table; of which Goar's Copy (which he follows) here mentions nothing; but in him (where you have p. 63. it entire) it is order'd to be mumbled over by the Deacon himself, who goes out from the Prothesis to the Holy Table, whilst he incenses it round about ; and this he is to say, whilst the Elements are still upon the Prothefis before the lesser Entrance of the Gospel is made ; and by consequence much longer before the
great Entrance of the Elements. Goar takes notice in his Various p. 91. I. Lections, that the later Copies, Printed at Venice, have this Passage as it is here in my Euchologio; but it is not in any of the other Copies which he gives us afterwards. I doubt not but it was design'd (by those who first new modeld this Office, to represent Christ's whole Oeconomy or History ) to represent Christ now taken from the Cross and laid in the Sepulcher; and fo the right place was then where Goar's Copy hath put it, Christ being fupposed to lye there on the Prothesis for some time, (as he did in the Sepulcher) till they take him up to carry him to the Holy Table. But following Managers of this matter, either being ignorant of that Mystery, or out of Carelesness, or perhaps from some new Conceit afterwards thrust it in here. Phelonium] See note A. P.
18. The Greek word is variously written among H. p. 20. Authors: φελώνη, φελόνη, φελόνιον, Φελώνης, Φελόνης, φαινώλιον, φαινόλιον, Φαινόλης. Grer/er in Co
din, de offic. This Variety, I suppose, comes from the Vulgar Greeks, ou and e, o and w, being by them pronounced alike, and often written one for the other, and ~ and y Mich. Ducas
. are often transposed. There is some dispute amongst the Criticks whether the 6:37. P.146.b. Antient Penula was of this fashion, and so this word might be taken from thence; I confess I am inclin’d to the Opinion that it was so, not mecrly from the gingle of the Word, but from the usefuluess of such a Garment. Penula Lamprid. in was worn both by Men and Women in Winter upon their journeys, for I take it to have been made of this very Fashion, purely to fence off Rain or cold Winter-like Weather. For (it being made in the form of a Woman's Peticoat) when the Head is put through the Top, all the rest hangs down round on all Sides, sloping like the Top of a round Tower, or the Roof of a House, and with ease will cast off the Rain; which in our Riding-Coats is stopt at the Sleeves, and in the various Foldings (if they are girded close) and lodged in the Wrincles, where it soaks thorough. Under this Cloak one may on Horseback hold his Bridle and use his Hands, and yet keep all dry. Tully takes Orat. Milone notice that it was a peaceable Garment, (and so much more becoming St. 4o. Paul and a Greek Priest) for he excuseth Milo from being guilty of Murder 2 Tim.4. 13. from having it on; cum Penula irretitus, when he was wrapt up in his Winter Peticoat, what could be less prepared or fit for Fighting? For a Man cannot handle a Sword or any Weapon under it, either to assault another or to defend himself. I have seen, i Siou toàn, cioban, a Turkish Herdsman, shelted in such a Coat; Their common, jaghmurlyk, or Mantle against Ruben. dere Rain, is nor much unlike it, if it was but closed before. But perhaps you&c. would have it rather taken from some other Sacred Garment used by the Heatben, as Telesphorus is represented in one not unlike it, in Sculptures spon. Miscell. and Basserilievo's which I have seen, only his seem fometimes open before.p. 312. The Reasons which Goar gives for this Ceremony here, (to wit, the Priest p. 125.95. his thus letting fall his Phalonium) are notable indeed, Because it shews
be.c. 182. 3.
Goor. 112, 20.
Alex, Severe. p. 184.