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and again proves, that there is Grace necessary to Married People, from the T. Difficulties attending them, of for faking the Father that begot them, and the Mother that bare them, and with sorrow brought them forth, and nurst them with the tenderest care; and from their Duties of teaching their Childrenthe true Religion, and endeavouring to make them true Members of Chrift; but, faith he, God never enjoins Duties above Nature, but he at the same time also gives or promises Grace by which they may be performed. And the same may be faid, of keeping the Bed undefiled, and of mutual Love and Charity and Spiritual Affection towards one another, which ought never to fail or lacken or decrease.
All this we readily own. Grace is absolutely necessary to the performance of all Christian Duties, for as much as all are attended with what is hard to Flesh and Blood. But is there a singular or special Grace given or Promised more to Marriage, then to any of the other Relative Duties above faid? Is it not as great and as difficult a Duty, for Servants to obey froward Churlish and Cruel Masters; for Masters to be Patient and Favourable to Negligent, Saucy, Cross, and ( many other ways ). wicked Servants; For Parents to bear with diffolute and stubborn Children; For Children to Obey extravagant and unkind Parents; For Kings to Govern a Stiffnecked and Rebellious People; For Subjects not to resist a Tyrannical though natural Soveraign ; Nay, for a Man to suffer with Christ his Head, and for his fake to give up his own Flesh, to the Sword or to the Fire, whilst Nature bids him to Cherish it and Nourish it; I say are not these as hard Duties, as for Husband and Wife to forsake all, and hold together for better for worse till Death depart them? These are all alike Instituted by God, and Grace is equally necessary to the Performance of them all. Now this doth nor appear, that there is one Singular, Special, Proper, Distinct Grace given to each of them; as one sort of obeying Grace to Servants; another to Children; another to Subjects; another to the Wife ; or one sort of loving Grace, to Masters; another to Parents; another to Lords and Kings; another to Husbands; another for Christ when we are Persecured ; or another for our Love to our very Enemies. By all these Graces is meant nothing else, but the Almighty Asistance of one and the same Holy Spirit, for the Performance of our Duties in all our several Callings, States, and Cozditions and Difficulties. And this divine Asistance is once Promised unto every one in their Baptism, and renew'd by the holy Communion. There is no difference between the Jew and the Greek; for the same Lord over all, is Rich unto all that call upon him; whether Married or Unmarried, Bond or Free, Princes or Subjects, whofoever shall call upon him shall be saved. In all our needs and distresses, if we again and again be seech the Lord, as St. Paul did, we shall undoubtedly receive the fame Answer from Him, my 1 Cor. 12. 8.9. Grace is sufficient for thee. And this Doctrine is most clearly, and largely set down by the fame Apostle and exprest by that common Symbol of Christ and the Church, I mean, Man's Body and Members; as the Body is one, and hath many Members, and all the Members of that one Body, being many, 13. are one Body; so alfo is Christ; For by one Spirit are we all Baptized into one Body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be Bond or Free (and in like manner, whether we be Married or not,) and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. By Baptism and partaking of the same Cup at the Lord's Supper, we are all alıke loterested in God's Promise of his constant Af Sistance. And this is not only true in his dispensing of those higher Spiritual gifts there mention'd, as Prophefy, working of Miracles, Speaking with Tongues, and the like; but in his distributing of his Grace, or divine Help, also, to every one for their Performance of every Christian Duty; as from the same Symbol of Christ's one Body, St. Paul elsewhere måkes God's Grace, (or
Röm. 12.45 the Comfortable Assistance of his Holy Spirit,) as it were the common Life and Soul of Christ's Mystical Body, distributed through every Member, and manifesed not only in Prophefy, or Ministrý, or Teaching, or Exhortation ;
Rom. 12.6,7, Dd 2
Rom. 10. 12, 13.
1 Cor. 12, iz:
T. p. 209. but also in the Performance of every Christian Duty; as in unfeigned Love;
Abhorrence of Evil; Diligence in Business; Patience in Tribulation ; Being of the same mind, and not Wise in our own Conceits; Living, if poffible, Peaceably with all men; and to fumm up all
, in being never overcome Rons. 8. 32, of Evil, but always overcoming Evil with Good. So again, he that spared
not his own Son, but delivered bim up for us all, how shall be not with
Him also freely give us all things. Through bis Grace in all things we .Cor. 10, 13. are more then Conquerors. For he will not suffer us to be tempted (or
prest in any Dury enjoin'd by him), above what we are able to bear. So, Eph .4. 6, 7. from that other Symbol of God and his Church, a Father and a Family,
there is one Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in us all, and unto every one of us is given Grace according to the meafure of the Gift, (the Office, or State, or Condition, or Calling, which is the Gift, ) of Christ The Scripture is every where full of God's Promises of Grace,
( suitable to our needs) made on his part in our Baprifm unto every one, with. Col. 2. 12. our any respect of Persons; take one Passage more out of St. Paul, we are c. 3.10. verf. all alike buried with Christ in Baptism, and we are risen again with him,
5, 8, 9. verf. 12,13,14.
and have put on the new Man after his Image; and we are all alike obliged to mortify our Earthly Members. All fiotull Lufts and Affections; and to put of all Uncleanness, Anger, Wrath, Malice; and all of us (Married or Unmarried, without distinction ) as Elect of God, Holy, and Beloved, are bound to put on bowels of Mercies, Kindness, Humbleness of Mind, Meekness, Long suffering, Forbearing one another, and Forgiving one another; and above all Things, Charity, which is the Vinculum, bond of Perfectness. Theo as conformable to these general Duties of every Christiao, or Subordinare to them, or rather plainly included in them, he particularly mentions the Duties of Relations, Husbands and Wives, Children and Parents, Mafers and Servants all alike; and if he had not pamed them particularly, (as he hath not here mention'd the Duty of Masters) yet they had every one of them been mutually obliged to these particular Duties, by the force of the
general Duties of all Christians whatever.
Now then let us review the three Things by which Bellarmine and the Schoolmen would prove Marriage to be a Sacrament truly fo called. First it is Instituted by God; fo is Government; so was the Body and Members of Man and of every living Creature; and they were commanded to Increase and Multiply. Secondly, It is a sign of a Holy Thing, Christ and the Church. So is Government; King and Subjects, Master and Servants, Father and Children, are often made in Scripture Representations or Signs of the fame; But nothing more commonly then the Head and Members of a Man's Body;
God when he first framed it, stampt upon it the sacred Principle of self Pre. Job. 2. 4. fervation. Skin for Skin and all that a Man hath will be give for his
Life; is a common Truch, though spoken once by the Devil; and Man's patural Love to himself, is made the Standard by which he must meafure his love
to his Neighbour; Nay, and his Love to his Wife too, so ought Men to love Eph. 5. 28.
their Wives as their own Bodies. Self. Love then is a Symbol of Marriage Love, if that is a Symbol of Christ's Love; and if you please you may fay Mar and Wife are Symbols of Body and Soul; or rather these are Symbols of thofe. And the Care of the Head for every Limb, and the most admirable Union, and Symetry, and agreement and usefulness of every part in our Bodies to one another, is certainly the most Sacred, as it is the most common and the most lively, Symbol of Christ and the Church; and therefore we have these so often set out in Scripture, as one Mystical Body and Members; but rarely as a Mystical Marriage.
Thirdly, there is Grace promised; Grace is indeed necessary to the performance T. p. 210.
of the Duty between Husband and Wife, and it is promised to them also, as it is to all other Christians in their Baptism and Communion; Bur what Prerogative of Grace, or what Privilege of Grace is promised or given to it more then to other Relative Duties of as difficult Performance, docs pot
P: 510. F. 509. D.
appear; fo that thus far we see no real or proper Sacrament in it, more T. p. 118 then in those.
But Bellarmine will still have it to be a Sacrament, and farther advances this wonderfull Paradox upon it; He owns that Matrimony hath been from the beginning of the World, and that it is yet amonght Infidels; and that there is no difference between the Marriage of the Antients and that of Christians as to all its Rites, its Matter and Form and the Minister of it; and that those of Infidels were true Marriages; Tet, he faith, that only the Marriages of Christians are Sacraments, and none of the others are re; because Chriftian E: 499.H.993. Marriages are the cause of Grace, but others are not; and that these or the p.503.c.509. like words, I do now take thee as mine own; bave not the same force amongst Infidels, as amongh Believers; among those they make only a civil Contract, but amongAt thefe they fignify not only a Union of Bodies, but also 4 Vnion of Minds, or a Resemblance of the Union of Christ and the Church, and they fanétify Men.
It is plain then by him, that amongst Christians the Vnion of Minds in the Married, resemble the Union of Christ and the Church, and fanétifies the Party, upon this I have above made a remark our of the old Pontifical. But p. 206. why should not a perfect Vnion of Minds between Man and Wife amongst Infidels, Represent (naturally at least) the same Thing, and fanctify likewise, for like is like? And where fuch perfect Vnion is, the Persons furely are in a happy and blest Estate. Now was there never such a loving Couple amongst the Infidels? What Thall we say to fome of the Pythagoreans, as ro Myllias lambl, in vit and Timycha? Or to Admetus and Alcestis? To Penelope and Wyljes ? Ari. Pythag.S. 1921 Stotle makes thefe last a most amazing Example, cogyñs, pinius, Tigeous, of natu- Oeconom. 1. 1. ral Affection, mutual Love, and Faithfulness. She would never admic the P. 282: A.. Addresses of any Lover during his long absence; and He refused the offer of Immortality it felf, rather then violate his Faith to Her, counting it the greateft Plague and Punishment for a Husband to be unfaithfull, though he should gain, by being so, even everlasting Life. But if we look upon these Instances as meer Romances or Poetick Fables, yet we must own that the Philosopher's Morals or Applications, which he draws from them, are most egregious Rules and Directions for Husbands and Wives; He urges them to strive to overcome one another in Kindness, and presses; ó óvoiar, owo@goorov, š the toxborov, åmå ting Jan, the very fame extraordinary Charity, the same mutual Concord and blessed Vnion of minds between them, as St. Paul himself doch. They are Such Precepts as, I fear, will make many Chriftians blush, and one day con. demn them. Now can any one be so illoatur d or hardhearted, or rath as to think or say, that never any Heathen Couple lived up to these Rules? There never was such a Vinculum, divine Knot of Love and Affection in any of them? Bur if there were such eminent Couples amongst them, there must then be allowed, to Jémov, Jérce požgen(as Plato calls it ) a Divine Alistance, a Di.
Meno. p. 99. e. vine Dispofal amongst them, a Conscience and an Inward light to enable T. p. 211. them; which I must call Grace, unless you will make the Power of meer Nature to equal or exceed it; And I must also call it faving Grace; for fioce Christ died for the Sins of the whole world, at least some of them will be the better for it.
1 Joh. 2. 2. What must we now fay of the Jews before Christ came? The case of their haviog many Wives, seems to be por fo well considered by the Cardinal, when he faith, the House could not be so well Governed where there were many p. 516. a. Wives. For in his Instance of Leab and Rachel (and their Maids,) each of Gen. gr. 33. them had their feveral distinct Tents apart to themselves; As the Jewish Wives had afterwards their separate Rooms and Apartments when they came to live in Houses and Cities; As the Turks fashion (which they borrow'd from them) is to this day. One Wife have her feveral Lodgings and Family her telf, and the other have nothing to do there, but every one govern only in their own; and they visit one anothet as now two Neighbours do with us. And
P. 1002, 3:
T. p. 211. Leah with her Maids, and Rachael with hers, were plainly two distinct Fami
lics; and the Emulation that was between them made them better Wives, and more pleasing to their Husband, as it is amongst the Musselmen every where. And Jacob was a truly loving Husband to both his Wives, and as Loving a Father to all his Children ; yet he might have a greater tenderness for one Wife, then for the other; and more fondness for Jofeph then for the rest of his Sons, ( as Fathers commonly have for the youngest,) aod yet the common bond of true Affection to both his Wives was no ways in this violated or broken; no more then his true Fatherly Love to all his Sons was quite destroyd by his particular kindness to Jofeph. And Jacob as a Husband with his Wives; as a Father with his Childreo; as a Lord or Master with his
Servants, most truly represented God and the Jewish Church, which was his 11. 50. 1. peculiar People; his Wife; his Children; his Servants; Nay, St. Augustin Tech. 1631;. Taith Expressly, plures uxores antiquorum Patrum. The many Wives of the Hof. 2. 2. 19, antient Fathers have signified our Churches which were to be out of all De bon, conjug.
Nations subject to one Man, or Husband, Christ. And there a little after, c. 18. T. 6. he calls the Polygamy of the Patriarchs illius temporis, in those days, Sacra
mentum, a Sacrament, as he calls there the Marriage of one Man and one P. 501. D. E. Woman, noftri temporis, in our days a Sacrament too; wbich the Cardinal
owns but he cleverly endeavours to shuffle it off, as he does most things else which pinch him. Sacrament there, faith he, is taken in a large Sense not truly and properly. But by his favour Monogamy of Christians and Polyga. my of the Jews, are there both called Sacraments in one and the fame Sense; yer he owns it is Improperly, or only as nominal Sacraments, or Representations; so then to St. Augustin, one was no more a real Sacrament then the other. I am apt to think from hence, that Polygamy more clearly represented Christ and the Church, then Monogamy did. All Christians dispersed over the Face of the whole Earth, Greeks, Latins, Armenians, Abasslines, Britains, Lu
therans, Calvinists, Sc. make up one Catholick Church under Chrift; and SoT. p. 212. Lomon and his true Wives may seem theo to represent it better then Adam and
Eve, or any one Man and one Woman. But perhaps the Cardinal would make us believe that Christ now hath but only one true Spouse, i.e. the Church of Rome. Yet I think she hath gotten (he best knows how) a very bad name amongst some in these quarters of the World. What is next objected against Polygamy, is that it cannot consist with the entire Affection and
Love which is requisite to a true representation of Christ and the Church. 516. A. B. There must be a defrauding of each Wife in ber due, and dissention must a
rise from thence. But that might be well adjusted then amongst the Jews, plur. in ejus as the Turks (their Imitators) do it now; and as Solon did in his Laws of vit. p. 89. C. old. And some such agreement was between Jacob and his Wives, as appears
by the exchange of the Mandrakes. But of these Matters 1 take occasion to speak more fully in another Treatise.
However, if Exceptions are taken against Jews that had many lives, that they could not be proper Representations of this Sacramental Union; what can be said to those who had but one ? Was there never, before Christ came, 4 pious Couple amongst them, who had that Spiritual Vranimity, that Spiri.
tual Love and perfect Concord mutually between them, which the Cardinal 500. A. B. Ác. makes the only Form of his Christian Sacrament? To pass by Abraham and
Sarah, Ifaac and Rebecca, how was it with devout Anna and her Husband ? Luk. 2. 36, 37. How was it with that Righteous and blameless Couple Zacharias and Elizabeth ?
What can be said of Joseph and the blessed Virgin? She was first bis Spouse Mat.1.18, 24. and then his Wife; and lach Marriages, though they are not consummated,
faith the Cardinal, retain the principal Signification fill, of the conjunction
Gen. 30. 15.
P: 504. H
Deut. 11. 18, 19. C. 32. 46.
19, 20, 21.
fhould think it a Piece of hellish Pride and unpardonable Arrogance, in any T. p. 212. Christian Couple, to think themselves any way able to equal, much more to surpass any of these blessed Pairs, these renowned Saints, in any conjugal Grace or Respect whatever.
Yer Bellarmine advances another Privilege to Married Christians above all others; Because besides getting of Children which is common to all Nations, nay, even to Beasts themselves; Christians are bound to instruct their Children in the Faith and Religion, that they might be made true and living Members of the CatholickChurch. But the Heathens had the very fame Plut. de leg. Notion, not only that they should in a manner perpetuate Nature and l. 6. p. 773. £. Themselves, and set up a kind of Immortality by carrying on Propagation from Fathers to Children, and to Childrens Children; but thereby to leave, inngétas TẬ gã, a succession of Servants and Ministers, or Worshippers, to God. And at their Weddings they had always, Juoias, (pres, euxds, de Repub.l.s. Sacrifices, Hymns, and Prayers; so that Marriages with them were ever, Sacraments, that is, sacred Things. And they were as careful in bringing 546. A. 461. A. up their Chrildren under the best Philosophers. And the Jews were again Exod. 12. 16. and again commanded to take the same care of their Children ; and at all times and upon all occasions to teach them and admonish them; and we go. may fufficiently understand the Father's Authority over them, and their strict Discipline towards them by that severe Law, a Stubborn and Rebellious dif- Deut. 21. 18, solute Son was to be stoned to Death, that all Ifrael might hear and fear.
Now what a forry trifling Anfwer have we to all this. Though the Jews p. 503. D. (and he might have faid the fame of the Gentiles) were obliged to bring up their Children in the Faith and Religion of God, yet this end was extrin- T. p. 213. fical to their Marriage, but intrinsical to the Marriage of Christians. Was not Virtue and Morality, and the Happiness which attended these qualities, the chief end of all the Nobler Heathen; and was not this the main Spring and oply Motive which put them upon the Education of their Children? Was not the awful fear of the only true God, Jehovah, and the inward Love and pious Zeal for his Service the true end of all the Jews performances; and their only aim in their Instructing and bringing up of their Children in the same way ? Avd have Christians any other end then Happiness. by teaching and practiceing the Law of Christ? The whole Matter then stands thus, God hath in various Measures given Light (which I must Call Grace), unto all Mankind; He plainly Revealed and Manifested himself to the very Heathen, even his Power and Godhead. They had a Law written in their Hearts; and by their own Conscience and natural Reason judged them, accusing or else excusing them; and particularly about their Marriages, they had as folemn Ceremonies Seld. Ux. heb. and as facred Thoughts as any others; most of our Christian Rites are borrow'd l. 2. p. 215.
222, 223. C. from them, as I could easily shew. They had a good (though the lowest) degree of God's revealed or manifested Light. As for the Jews God took them unto himself, and made them his peculiar People; and told them that he was their God, and that he was the only true and living God; and delivered unto them his lively Oracles by the Hand of his servant Mofes.
The Act. 7. 28. old Testament is one entire Proof of all this; but I will direct the Reader on. ly to one Chapter for his Meditation herein, and point out only a verse or two of it. Ask of the days that are past, since the day that God created vers. 32, 335 Man upon the Earth, from one side of Heaven unto the other; did ever People bear the voice of God as thou hast heard? Hath God asayed to' take him a Nation from the midst of all others, by Signs aud Wonders, and with a mighty Hand, that thou mightest know that the Lord he is God, and none else besides him? Out of Heaven he made thee to hear his voice that he might Instruct thee.
The Jews then had a much higher degree of Revelation then the Gentiles. They had not only the law of Nature written on their Hearts; but positive Laws and Instructions given them besides from the mouth of God
Rom. 1. 18. 19.