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280, 281, 284.
& c. 13. p.152.
Bellarmine would have it; and the Prayer following plainly distinguishes these T. Po 196. two feveral Senfes και τον ευδόκησας προχειρισθαναι παρέμε, τωhom thou haft been pleaJed, or by thy good Will permitted, to be promoted by me; and xx ta' to our ágeçou, according to thy good pleasure; and in the next Prayer, 'Oy vatnEÍNois, wbom thou hast vouchsafed; there is the first Grace, that is, Favour. Then Preserve him, ev aréon oejevórnto
, in all Honesty, (Gravity or Reverence) in a pure Conscience; bestow upon him the Grace (the assistance) given to Stephen; and in the next Prayer, by the descent of thy Holy Spirit fill him with all Faith, Charity, Virtue, &c. There is the special Grace or divine Aslistance pray’d for.
But now whether the Greeks (like the Schoolmen ) will make these folemn Words, the divine Favour, &c. or the Prayers, (or both) with Imposition of Hands, the very Essentials, which make their Ordination compleat; either way they must needs make many more Degrees or Species, (or Sorts) of this Sacrament, then the three Superior Orders. For many of the Patriarch's chief Officers, (as ó péyas 'Oixovóu@, the high Steward,' ó xagtopúna?, the Chancellor and others, though they were in Orders before, as Deacons at least, and io like manner the protopresbyter or first Priest; the Archdeacon1; the Abbot or T. p. 197. Prior of a Monastery; a Deaconess (when used) and others, were all Consecrated, Ordain'd, or put into their posts and Stations, by Imposition of Hands, and Prayer, and these very same folemn Words, the Divine Favour, &c. and hands were sometimes laid on with these Words; sometimes only with the Prayers; as you may fee in Morinus, and Goar, and therefore I must chink part 2.93, 94, that they are all Sacraments alike, or none at all. Symeon Thessalonic. was aware of this; for though by him they are all called alike by the same name oc. Xeigotovicu, Ordinations, by Stretching out, or laying on, of the Hands, yet he Offers at a Reason or two, which Morinus would have pass for a fufficient c. 1. p. 166. distinction between them ; so as to make the three superior Orders Sacraments, but the rest only Ministerial Functions. Only these three Orders, faith he, are conferd, ev ta Ravani
, in the Chancel, but all the others without; which may indeed signify a greater Respect paid to these three, then to the rest, but surely a place (as the Chancel, or by the Altar) cannot be counted any ways Esential, but must be purely Accidental to Orders; for they were undoubtedly given by the Apostles before such holy places were contrived or feriled. But then he adds a second reason, in these three Orders, the ordaining Prelate prononnced, ó fãą zagis, the Divine Favour, &c. but in the other he vid. fupra. p. (aid only, η χάρις το αγία πνέυματα προχειρίζεται σε Ν, εις Οικονόμον, εις χαρτιο 186. Qúnave, the favour of the Holy Spirit promotes thee N. to be a Steward, to be a Chancellor, and the like. Goar takes notice indeed that this was a
p. 240. §. 2. usual Form of old, and perhaps it was then Practised in Symeon's Church at Thessalonica, and it may be also at Constantinople, (though I could easily prove that even they differ'd in many Rites and Observances,) but it is plaid by Leo Allatius's Manuscript Euchologion in Goar and Morinus, that the Officers were Ordain'd in other places with ý Jáa zágs, the divine Favour, &c. But the using or not using of those solemn Words, cannot make any ching for his purpose, since as I have said before, they were Originally only a Testimonial and no Formal or constituent Part of the Ordination; and to Morinus also himself hath at large evinced the same; and therefore that Form, the Favour of the Holy Spirit, &c. must signify altogether as much, (as 2. c. 3. to Ordination) to all intents and purposes as that other, the divine Favour, &c. So that this second note of Distinction seems as insiguificant as the first. However give me leave bye the bye, here to Note the various and diffefent Observances of Churches; for to me they seem no small proof, that only the Church, or rather several Churches (having no particular Consti. tution or Prescription for Ordinations from Christ) contrived and made and altered, and sometimes quite changed all their Forms of Ordination, as they did all other Rites and Ceremonies. Take one Instance of this from Goar, cyen in this form which Sym. Thessalonic. tells us above, was used to p. 285.18
part 3. Exerto
T. p. 197. distinguish the Orders from the Offices. If the Bishop, faith he, hath not the
Prayers ready at Hand to Create the Officers, they use this Form, s uetgió tris mecbi, our Meanness, (pot á xágos tê árix avévpct, the Grace of the Holy Spirit) nigoxereitetay Toy surabicatov, promotes the most religious Deacon N. Chancellor, or Steward, of the Church N. in the name of the Father and of &c. First it is plain that there were Prayers appointed for thefe Offices;
vext that the Bishop roight use them, or this or another Form, as he pleased, part 2. p. 85. And though Morinus took Allatius's MS. to be, the manner of the Syrians P. 3. 196.5,6. Ordination, or of the Church of Antioch, and hints also that the Maronites
ufed the same ; yet be allows it to be as Authentick as that of Constantinople or any other Church from which it differs; and at last owns that Symeon might be mistaken and very much deceived in framing such a distinction; and joins with me in my last Reflection, ejusmodi Ritus vim habere ex Ecclesiæ Instituto, that these Rites or Forms of Ordination derive their Force, or Authority, from the Institution or meer Appointment of the Church. Symeon's last reafon is, that the three bigh Orders are Universal, but the others particular, or limited; I suppose be means, a Deacon, is a Deacon; a Priest, a Priest, a Bishop, a Bishop; all the Christian World over; whereas the rest are tied to particular Offices or Places; If this be his meaning, furely a
Deaconness at least (not to mention an Archdeacon, or a First-priest, an AbT. p. 198. bot,&c.) was every whit as Universal as any of the other three. Sce how
Goar p. 266. 3.4, s.
shuffles to distinguish those two Orders; but all will not make one a Sacrament, part 3. Exerc. and the other pothing. Morinus seems to equal a Deaconnels her Ordination in 10. C. 1. gr.gc.
Point to that of a Deacon ; And then he adds to this Distinction, that a Deacon or a Priest can have a Dignity or Office join'd to his Orders, but one Dignity cannot be join'd to another at the same time; as a Deacon or Priest may at the same time be a Deacon and high Steward, or a Priest and Chancellor; a Bishop an Exarch or (as with us ) a Lord; but none can at the same time be Steward and Chancellor. Surely to me this seems as forry a reason of Distinction as any of the rest; chis shews indeed some difference of Honour or Preferment between the Orders and Offices, but as to the making those three, real Sacraments, and quite excluding those in their Ordinati
on from that Privilege, I cannot see any force at all in it. For first thefe Of0.13. P. 153.E.
fices are all called by Symeon iegà natogynuato, sacred Functions, and none
but Perfons already in Orders, Deacons or Presbyters, ought to have them, p. 152. D. E. and a little before he faith, these Perfons execute their Functions, xx år não
zij a's ftuxir, not as ordinary Men do, or as it happens; but receiving the Grace, or Favour, of the Spirit, that they might have from the Prelate
(thar Ordains them) Blessing and Sanctification and Permission (or Leave ) Exerc. 1. c. 1. and Power to Aft through Grace; And Morinus (to reconcile the Latins and §. 2. p. 4• Greeks indeed all Ordinations) lays down this as a Maxim, that the true Mat
ter and Form of Ordination are most properly contain’d in those Rites and Words which are Common and generally used by all Churches; and therefore concludes only Imposition of Hands and Prayer (as being thus Universally used by all) to be the only true Substantials, and necessary Ingredients or Conftituents of Ordination. Now then fince all the above named Ordinations are called alike, sacred Offices; all alike are own'd to have the Favour of God; to receive from the Prelate, Blessing, Sanctification, Licence, and Power to Aēt through Grace, (which is at all these Ordipations Respectively and conftantly pray'd for) and seeing all this is confer'd upon them after the fame manner, by prayer and the Imposition of Hands, (the two only necessary and substantial Rites,) I cannot apprehend how Greeks or Latins can make out
this pretended Difference between them. Morinus to solve this Difficulty is 5. 3. p. 195. forced to make use of that piece of Scholaftick Sophiftry, only the Orders are
truly Sacramentals, the Offices or Dignities are only Sacraments; Indeed if those be Sacraments, thefe, I confess, look very Sacramentalish; for I think the fame Schoolmen tell us, that where there is the very fame Matter and
Exerc. 14. C.3:
Form, the very fame Essentials, those things must needs be the very fame; T. p. 198. so that all thele Ordinations must either be Sacraments alike, or rather (as I have and shall further prove them ) none at all.
For God's sake whence came all these contrary ways and far different Manners of Ordinations amongst Greeks and Latins, Eastern and Western Churches ? And every one of these according to different Ages, are in their forms of Ordination different from themselves? If Ordination had been looke upon by the Primitive Church as a Sacrament, (though neither the Matter nor Form (as they call them) had been either commanded or prescribed by Christ or in Scripture, but only taken up by themselves) methinks they would have sertled one standing universal unalterable Rubrick or Prescription, to be used all over the whole Christi. an Church, for so Sacred and so Solemn a Performance; ac lezit in Imitation of Christ's own Rites, in the two undoubted Sacraments or Covenants of Baptism, T. p. 1993 (in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost) and of the Lord's Supper, (this is my Body, this is my Blood.) If Clemens Constitutions were such fettled Prescriptions, (especially if, as they are pretended, they were Apostolical,) how dare Greeks or Latins or any Christian Governor of the Church in the least vary from them? But the naked and plain Truth of the whole Matter is this; Christ appointed the Twelve and the Seventy, and their Successors, Bishops and Priests, to Preach the Gospel; to Publish and Propagate
his Law; and to Execute and Maintain it, to the end of the World; as indeed when He himself left the World it was absolutely necessary for him so to do. The Apostles upon a new, but weighty Emergency, added Deacons to the Ministry. All these I call Evangelical and Apoftolical Orders; but as the Church increased there were without doubt still fome new Officers daily required in the Church; as for Example all those about the five great Patriarchs ; about the Metropolites and Archbishops and Bishops ; and in many particular Churches, particular ones; and thus at last came into our common Churches, Churchwardens, Overseers of the Poor, Parish Clerks, Sextons and the like; All these I call Ecclefiaftical Officers, or Church Attendents, whose very Institution is only from the Church in general, or from several Churches in particular. But the Methods and Rules, or Manners and Forms, of Consecrating and Creating those Evangelical Orders, as well as the ways of making of these Ecclefiaftical Officers, are plainly left to be devised, contrived, and prescribed and used by the particular Governors of the Church in several Ages and in their several Provinces. And hence the greater Churches, both in the East and West, have taken up their own Forms and Fashions; their Governors partly transcribing, or borrowing from one another; partly by following their own Conceit and valuing their own Authority. And although the three Evangelical Orders are far of a higher nature than the rest, being appoioted by Christ himself and his Apostles, and being wholly employ'd about purely spiritual Matters, and therefore truly and by way of Excellency called, Holy Orders; yet there are in them no more folemn Compacts, Fæderal Rites, Covenants, or Stipulati, ons between God and Man prescribed or commanded by God, or any thing particularly promised on God's part, then in the others; and therefore those Orders are no more true Sacraments then these. And although we allow Imposition of Hands and Prayer, in the Holy Ordinations to have been
Primitive, yet we cannot say they were constantly used, since, as I have said we find no mention of the first in Clemens, and several of the Schoolmen have Morin. Comm. exploded it as Accidental and unnecessary; and if with Morinus (to recon. part. 2. 108 cile the Practice of all Churches, ) I should allow these two to be in the School Notion) the very Matter and Form of holy Orders; yet as hath often been said, they being no where in Scripture either particularly commanded or prescribed, nor having any particular Promise or Covenant from God; that Learned Man must with me Abdicate that fond Doctrine of Orders being a Sacrament, as well as he hath generously done many more of the Frantick Norions of the Schools.
T. p. 199.
T. p. 200.
From this liberty of Churches and their Governors in ccutriving and appointing their Rites of Ordinations, come those various Lections and different Copies of them in Morinus and Goar, and in some MSS. of my own. It would be too tedious and troublesome, as well as needless here to compare them all, they being at large ser down in those two Authors; yet for one single In
stance I will here make a short abstract out of the Form of Ordination for a Morin. part 2. Bishop, in Allatius MS. Euchologion, which you may compare with those p. 97. Goar Forms which I have given you above.
One of the most honourable Clerks presents the Candidate Bishop in these words; · The most Beloved of God, N. Presbyter, confirmed by Suffrage, is » presented to be Ordained Bishop and Prelate of the City.N. Then the Ordaining Bishop asks him what he comes for. Anfwers, That I may have Ordination and évégyecay tūs ásxregatxñe zágıt@, the Faculty (or Power) of Episcopal Favour, or Grace, the Clergy of the most Holy Bishoprick'.N. having by their Suffrages pitcht upon me.
Here Note who were of old the proper Electors of the Candidate Bishop. The Ordaining Bishop asks, “What do
“What do you believe? The Candidate repeats aloud the Nicene Creed; which he brought in his Hand described with other Forms of his Faith. The Prelate then blessing him Crofwise, faith, The " Grace of the Allholy Spirit be with you. Then the Candidate (moving farther) is presented again in the same manner and words; and at the Prelate's command makes another large Confession of his Faith concerning the Trinity. Then the Bishop blessing him again Crosswise, faith, “The Grace of “ the Allholy Spirit be with thee, Illuminating, Confirming thee, and giving “ thee Understanding all the days of thy Life. Then the Candidate is presented (farther on) a third time as before ; and at the Prelate's command makes another long Confesion of his Faith about Christ's Incarnation, &c. Then the Prelate blesseth him again Crossways, saying, “The Grace of " the Allholy Spirit by my meanness, atgoedmeta, promotes the .N. Presbyter “ most beloved of God and Elect Bishop of the City .N.
Now one would think this his real Ordination or full Commission to be a Bishop, though indeed there is no Imposition of Hands as yet, but only the
Prelate hath moved his hand Crossways towards him in the Air, and it seems Morin. part 3; that alone without touching the Person, is sometimes as sufficient as real Im
position. And though Morinus seems to make all this Form, (of Allatius, his MS. Euchologium,) not to have been that of Constantinople, yet Sym.
Thessalonic. feems to follow some fuch one, or at least one different from the C. 7. P. 128. common Form; and though he there is pleased to call the Candidare after all
this Ceremony only, ráda perasaip, compleatly espoused or contracted to the
Church, yet what immediately follows seems to justify that foregoing conMorin. part 2. jecture th
jecture that he is complear Bishop. For immediately in this form the Candidate receives to aoyoreTIV, the peculiar badge of a Bishop (which is a piece of quilted or ftitch'd Silk stuff, made in a long square, Lozengewise; which is hanged from his girdle down to his right knee, as you may see in Goar.) Next the Prelate gives him a Prelatical, or Pastoral, Staff, saying, “ Take this
Staff that thou may'st feed the Flock of Christ entrusted to you, and be chou
a Staff and a Support to those under you which are Obedient; but to those “ who are Disobedient and Extravagant, use the same as a restraining Rod of * Correction Surely this must give him full Episcopal Authority if the other Form did not. Yet then he is brought up to the Holy Table and kneels before all the Bishops; one of which takes the Gospel and lays it open upon his Head and the other. Bishops hold it there. Then the (Ordaiving) Prelate ( whithout laying on any Hand) faith aloud, “By the Suffrage and approba“ tion of the Priests moft beloved of God, and of the Clergy of the City of .N.
Jūs gágis, the Divine Favour &c. Trgoxugicetch ot. Promotes you, or, zgoXergiseta Too
, Promotes, N. Priest most beloved of God and Elect Bishop of the T. p. 201. City . N. and President of the City .N. guarded by God. Let us pray for him
p. 101. Goar. p. 310.
part 2. p.60.61.
" that the Grace of the Allholy Spirit may come upon him. Then all the T. 'P 2014 Priests say, “ Lord have Mercy upon us three times, and the Bishops hold the Gospel Hill, whilst the Ordaining Prelate makes three Crosses upon the Candidate's bead blessing him, “In the name of the Father, and of the Son, " and of the Holy Ghost, now and always, and unto Ages of Ages. Then lay. ing his Hand upon his Head he prays, the two Prayers in the Common Form ; Goar p. 302, and if the Schoolmen will make the Imposition here the Matter, what will 303, Moring they make the Form. If they say the Prayers are it, I ask which of the two is it? For they are disjoin’d by the, OurAtt), or diaxonixà, the Suffrages, interposed by one of the Bishops there 'present; However, ý gâa zagis, the Divine Favour, &c. cannot here be the Form, for their Matter (Imposition) is not join'd with it; And Morinus hath proved the same at large. part 3. Exerc.
Now therefore to me, by this MS. of Allatius, it is plaio that the Can- 2. c. 220.127.116.11. didate is made a compleat Bishop, and invested with all Prelatical Authori. ty, by the Forms before going (especially at the receiving of the Pastoral Staff) without either Imposition or Prayer ; but in all this whole large Prescription of the Ordination of a Bishop, or in any of the foregoing Ordinations of a Bishop, or in any of the foregoing Ordinations of Priests and Deacons, in the Ealt or West, I cannot see any standing, folid, Rite or Circumstance, that can in the least prove Orders a Sacrament. And the Impoli. tion and Prayers, that afterwards follow (in Allatius his Form) are plainly made only by way of Benediction, and recommending of the Ordained to the Grace and Guidance of God's Holy Spirit ; according to his Suffrage, Oremus pro eo, let us Pray for him, &c. and his Blessing him, &c. as above; And to conclude; all facred Ordinations are really no more then settling the Candidates in their respective fun&ions, by the Ordaining Bishops, Blessing them and Recommending them to the Divine Protection and Asistance. This
way of Blessing being done of old by the Jewish Patriarchs themselves, Gen. 27. 22, by laying on of Hands, Kiling, and Prayer ; our Spiritual Patriarchs 26. & C. 48. and Evangelical Fathers in the Primitive Church, only in Imitation of them, (not by any positive command ) :did Admit and Bless all their Spiritual Sons in the same manner. And in many old Rituals and Canons, Ordination is therefore called, Consecratio, Benedictio, a Dedicating or Confecrating to p. God (of this or that sort of Minister) a Blessing of him in his Office by 125.00c.part Supplication and Prayer; and of old, Confecration, Ordination, folemn Be-108. 6, 7, 8. nediction of sacred Persons signified one and the same thing. But why Confecrating, or Dedicating of a Person to God by Benedi&tion and Prayer (without any particular direction or Method prescribed by God) should be a Sacrament, more then the Confecrating or Dedicating of any other thing else (as Churches, Altars, Grounds, Vesels, or the like) by meer human Inventions and Prescriptions (and the others are no more,) I must confess my self not able to understand; supposing Orders to be Sacraments it is amazing to see what special work the Schoolmen and learned Doctors of the Latio Church have made about the Orders of Pope Farmasus, and the Practice of Stephanus his Successor.
lofinite more inftances of various Readings and Forms of Ordination amongst T. p. 202. the Greeks, Maronites, Neftorians, Jacobites, Eutychians, Coptics, and Latins you may gather from several Authors, especially from Morinus; where you may also see how Schoolmen and Others (whom he justly taxes as abso
part 1. Pref. Iurely ingnorant of the matter,) have blunder'd and laboured in vain to reconcile them to one another; and his own expedient (that only Imposition of part 3. P. S. Hands and Prayer in general were Substantial and Necesary) will not be fufficient, it being by no means clear that Imposition was every where and at all times used, as hath been above said. However he can pever by them prove 235. Clem. Ordination to be a Sacrament, for he approves of Isembertus bis Opinion, that confi. 1. 8.6.4. Christ did no where appoint, this or that particular Matter of Orders, but is.19.6 p.118. only gave a general Commission or Authority to the Church to chuse what a. &- part 2. Pr.
Morin, part 2. p. 215. 219,