Obrazy na stronie

T. p. 157. he cannot escape the Inquisition. Therefore neither Dofitheus, nor any one, 2. pó 158. either of his Greeks or of any other Perswalion, need fear any thing directly

from the Turk as to his Religion ; yet God knows there is nor one of them free from Fear as to civil Accounts; for there are those amongst the Turks who would be glad of any Occasion, nay, some fall Study any likely, though falle pretence, to oppress any of these poor People, and Eat Money (as the Phrafe is ) out of them right or wrong; and this is a dreadful calamity, which in General concerns them all alike. But there is a more dismal, a more abominable, more astonishing Fear than this spread, more or less, all over the East; Parties and Factions are oftentimes by their Father the Devil fo desperately infamed and exasperated against one another, as to make use of this very Scourge, the governing Power, to their mutual Ruin. Amongst the Jews the Rabanaims are far the Richer and more numerous Party ; how often in my time did they make the poor Karaims, at Heskioi and elsewhere, a prey to the greedy Turkish Officers by their Sycophantick tricks, and Malicious informations, gilded over with a lusty bribe which they themselves could well spare; that is the devilish Nature of some malicious Men, to part with one of their own Eyes to put out both the Eyes of their Enemy. The same Methods Jews will taket against Christians; and Christians (O horrid Scandal to the Name of Christ!) against one another. Who strangled the famous Cyril Lucar? Who cut of Cyril of Berrhæa? The Turk indeed did it, but it was not because they were not Mahometans, but because devilish and designing Men by force of Money purchased this Bandog, and let him thus loose upon them to devour them. And the fame Barbarous and Uochristian practice hath been used in Poland to Nicephorus, who was Protosyncellus (as much as Cardinal at Rome or Alsessor in the Conclave) to the famous Patriarch of Constantinople Jeremias. He

was condemn'd to perpetual Imprisonment by Sigismond the third, and died 1. 4. c. 3. in that miserable condition. Arcudius indeed endeavors to give the Story

another turn, but meer Truth forced him to say at last expressly, that it was done at the Instance and Accusation of the Prince of Moldavia, because he had began to disturb the Concord which was made betwixt the Rules and the Church of Rome. That is, he had endeavor’d to reduce the Rules to their old Greek Religion and Communion, from which the Jesuits aud Latins

had perverted them. Arcudius yet minced the matter saying only, miferè morChron.p: 447. tem obiit, he died miserably; but H. Hilarius tells us plainly that he was Regenvole. S. Strangled, and that Cyril Lucar even then, (upon the fame account, and in p. 470, 472. the same place) very narrowly escaped the fame moft barbarous usage. Such ma

licious and revengefull treatment as these bloody Actions, must needs ( in my Opinion) make all lnferior Grecks, (if not the brave Dofitheus himself,) very fearful and very wary how they ftir up a nest of Romißh Hornets, by oppofing their mealures and designs in places where the Church Governors are by Birth and Education of their Party, or will be made fo at any time by the Power of Money, or some other base and private Interest. And this made Jeremias so cautious as is abovelaid. And I will here positively affirm the presene state of the Eastern (especially the Greek) Church to be this, the Turk and other Governors let them all alone in the free Profession and Practice of their Religion ; But wealthy Rome and Her peftilent Emissaries will not; being in this point far more Inhuman and Barbarous then the Mahometans themselves. To lay nothing more of the See of Constantinople. I think Dofitheus his own

Church affords me Instances enough of this Fear. What made his Predecessor In ejus vila.

Ne&arius give over his care of that Church and put in a Deputy? What MS. p. * 3. 4. made him fly from Jerusalem when the French Embasador was there?

When some of the Greek Monks were knockt on the Head, and their blood
Spilt even before the Holy Sepulcher it self? How was it with his Predecessor

Sophronius about the year 1590 ? He overcame the Latin Fryars, faith my primar. Pap». Author, έκ όπλοις και σιδέρω πολεμήσας αλλα χρυσό και αργύρω δις και οι αντίπαλοι MS. in Epilogo éxgwrto, not fighting with W'eapous and with Iron, but with Gold and Sil

$ .

P. 433

Nectarius de


p. 159.

p. 146.

ver, which Weapons his adversaries had first made use of. And a little before T. p. 158. he tells us the common naked truth, it was the Practice of the Latins, dwpodoxíais

S. 3. και άφθονία χρημάτων της μεγισίνας και τις κρατώντας σοκλέπτειν, by vribcry. by secret Presents and vast Summs of Money, to gain the great Men and Governors, whenever they had any design upon the Greeks. What made Theophanes (successor to Sophronius) post away to the Grand Seignor for his relief, when the Latins made an attempt against him? And Dofitheus knows very well, that there was a time when he himíelf was not a little afraid (of which fomthing more in another place) and his Fear was not over for a good whilc after I left Conftantinople, as his Letters very well assure me. Thus the Grecks are above all Fear indeed from the Turk, unless the Jeluits and the Latins fer him upon them; and they may take up what Opinions and Per. fieasions in Religion they like best when they please for all him; But there is yer a fufficient Terror which furrounds chem; if their Doctrines thwart the Didates of the Infallible Chair, they cannot easily forget Cyril Lucar's Fate, but must expect all the Mischiefs that Money and Malice can bring upon them. If then you have Money enough to wage War with the Conclave, and dare tun the hazard of a bow-ftring, Courage noble Patriarchs, and manfully recover the antient Glory and Freedom of your Church, and the Truth of your Primitive Faith; and be no longer en flayed by your domineering Rival, Old Rome, nor Bewitch'd and Poisoned with her monstrous Abominations. But now to fpeak the very Truth, notwithstanding Dofitheus his Rant, that his Greeks under all their Presures and Calamities, déu ten ús Morgtugas,

do Shine as Martyrs, amongst all the Metropolites and Bishops of my acquaintance, I have found but very few who had Learning and Knowledge enough, pone who had the Heart, to ser about to great, and, as things now stand, fo hazardous a Work. I have in my Travels found this our old Proverb as a settled Maxim, (indeed amongst topping Latins as well as Greeks, ) It is beft sleep. ing in a whole Skin; and were i lo base a Villian as to betray any one who have used a Freedom in discourse with me, I cculd name several Men of note in both Churches whose Sentiments have been much to this purpose ; Let bilsy and designing Men make a Noise and Bussel about intricate Speculations and Notions which none can understand, nor themselves believe; I will never trouble my Head to maintain them or confute them; To believe as the Church, (the Rulers of it, ) believe, hath been an old Rule; and it is followed, as far as I can perceive, as well in all Particular, as in National Christian Congregations; I have been born and bred and lived in this Church, and I cannot in Honour declare against it; I shall live an Honest and Quiet Life in it, and leave the rest to God Almighty. Where this loose and carele!s Principle reigns, ( especially if Fire and Faggot, or Dragooning and the Gallies or Banishment arrends every one that dares bur whisper any thing against the Enormities of Rome, as at home; and the bloody Hands of the Civil Governors may be bought, as in Turky and all over the East;) matters will still go on at the old rate, from worse to worse. I really expect that in few Years, not only the Greeks, but all the East will be forced to own all that the Conclave shall dictate. Though perhaps the Latins, having made already fo great a progress, may for a while rest content.

For should they attempt to fertie that chief Point, the Pope's Supremacy, in Turkey, as they have done it in the Church of Malabar (where the very fame dreadful Methods have been taken,) I believe neither the known Pride of the Greeks, nor the grand Seignor himself (who would be Jealous of fuch a Monarch) would ever bear it. Yer if I know any thing of the present Greeks, I take their Ignorance to be so

general, and the Cowardice and Laziness, or the Carelessness and Love of Security and Ease, of the Grandees amongst them, to be fo great and prevalent, as I cannot expect as yet any more Cyril Lucars, any Protestant Martyrs there. I shall now go on with Dofitheus his Treacife, where I find the Decrce of Cyril of Berrhad's Syood against Cyril Lucar, fet down and owo'd by him as


p. 147.

p. 128. Q. p. 170. Q.

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p. 103. d.

P. 226.

T. p. 159. Authentick. Though I have above given a fufficient account of this matter

in gencral, yet I cappot but here add one remark upon what is there cited, as T. p. 160. out of the first Council of Nice in favour of Tranfubfiantiation ; by which

we may plainly see what wretched shifts they will make to support that monstrous Doctrine. First there are no fach words in all that Auchentick Coun

cil; but the words here quoted are taken out of Gelasius Cyricenus, whole Hift. conc. Nic.

Authority is not much to be valued, as the admonition to the Reader there tells us; where amongst other matters you have this general account of him. Non pauca in hac historia leguntur, There are not a few things read in this Hi.. story, which seem to convince it of Falsity, seeing they thwart the Opi. nions of better Writers. Next the Words as they are cited by Cyril of Ber. rhæa and Dofitheus, are mangled and Shaped so as they might best suit with their purpose. The real words are these, 'Ez tās Deias igazésrs un tə agıza, peéve ägta, Let us not be lowly intent upon the Bread and the Cup proposed upon the Holy Table, but lifting up our Understanding, let us conceive by Faith that the Lamb of God, which takes away the Sin of the World, is laid upon that Sacred Table, Sacrificed by the Priests, not after the common way of Sacrifice; and that we, truly receiving his precious Body and Blood, do believe these things to be Symbols of our Resurrection. This passage taken entirely, is so far from Transubstantiation, as it plainly destroys it. The Bread is Bread still, and no more than a Symbol; and Christ is Sacrificed by the Priest, and received by the People Spiritually, (pot Bodily) by Fait la and the Understanding. I will now pass on to Dofitheus his own Synod, where he tells us, that we must believe the Scriptures, as ń zaborunn exxanaia ngMaveuge, as the Catholick Church have delivered and expounded them. I luppose he means, as to all the Articles of our Creed only, according to the confiant Practice and primitive Discipline of it; for otherwise I know of no general Interpretation or Exposition of the whole Scripture authorized by the Catholick Church; but as to other Points all Learned Men have ever had, and still have, liberty to enquire into the true Sense and Meaning of it, without any breach of due respect to the Church, or of Charity towards one another. Let any one but cast his Eye, but upon Corp. a Lapide alone, and he shall again and again find Greeks differ from Greeks, and Latins from Latins, and those from these, about the same Texts; and he often leaving them all, shall close at last with a more Modern Exposition; and, where the primitive Faith and Practice of the Church are silent, I cannot see why I should vor prefer even John Calvin's exposition of any Text, before that of the Couclave, if it hath more Reason to back it. This is my Body, faith Christ; show me a plain Explication of this Text, authorized by the Primitive and True Catholick Church, and I will for ever abide by it; But since, in these latter Ages only, such a Monstrous Sense hath becn by wicked and designing Men put upon it, as neither our fore fathers have ever heard, nor we can bear, we must take so much Christian Liberty as thoroughly to examine it; and we must then abso. lutely close with that exposition which most clearly agrees, with the Tenor of the whole Scripture, with the plain expressions of the Primitive Fathers; and with the most folid Reafons; and by Consequence we must conclude,

That to be the mind of Christ. We cannot believe What and when we will; T. p. 161.

and we cannot but believe, what we do now believe, until better Reason or Revelation change our Mind. This methinks alone should make thoie bloody mioded Men seriously consider, what they have done; who have burned their Brethren, for not believing what they then could not believe, that is, for not doing what was then to them imposible. Next Dofitheus recounting the leven Mysteries or Sacraments, hath very odly patcht this Scholastick Article of the Latins, to the Greeks Notion of the Confecration of the Eucharist; It, faith be, being Instituted, by God's Word, and Sanétified by the Invocation of the Holy Spirit, is perfected by the Subsistence, or Prelence, of that which is signified, to wit, the Body and Blood of Chrifl; for its Perfecti


141. Q.

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on necesarily proceeds its use; or it is necessarily compleated before it is used; T. p. 161. and a little after, so that it hath its Perfection not from its being used, but before it is used; and afterwards yet more fully, (as I have above given ic p. 29+ you, ) Also that what is kept in sacred Boxes for the Communion &c. All this is plainly part of the Advices sent to him from the French Embassador and his Latiocs; for he, as I have faid before, could himself peither read Bellarmine nor understand him or any other Latin Author, where this point is mapaged; And it is purely of Latin Original, and as it had its Rise with that Chimæra, Transubstantiation, so it must stand and fall with it. Bellarmine endeavors to maintain this assertion against the first Reformers, that the Sacra. De Euch. 1. 4. ment of the Eucharist

, is not the whole Action, but only the thing Conse. c. 1. F. crated, or the Species (the Accidents) containing the Lord's Body; So tbar according to him, so soon as the Bread is Consecrated, Christ's very Body C. 2. B. is then actually there under the Accidents, and then the Sacrament is compleated, whether it be received or whether it be kept in a Box. Nečtarius, and his friend Cygala, in their Answer to Peter the Spanish Fryar, con. p. 132. §. i. cerning the Pope's Supremacy, tells us a wretched Story of a picce of the Pra fanétificate Bread, which by the carelessness of the Priest had been lected and laid by till it was quite Putrified; but it was Purificd over live Coals, and made a moft fragrant Perfume; which, for the Hononr of their Greek Church, tbey Instance in as one of their Miracles. I find the very fame Cale in Pachymer; and the Priests then had fo lietle Reverence for it, as they Andronic. I. i. threw it into, xcovevtágiov,) which they there call itvor byar ) the common Jink c. 28. p.49.ç. by the Altar, into which they cast all things that are defiled or putrified or no p. fupr. 14. 3. farther fit for ule. Nectarius may boast what he pleases of his Miracle, but to my knowledge the Latios ridicule it as much as we can do. And as for the second Cafe, if those Priests then thought that it had beep Transubstantiated, or that it was then Cbrist's real, entire Body, Flesh, Bones and Blood, they put a most Horrid and Damnable Indignity upon Him. Though much hath been said to fhew the absurdity of this Affertion, yet I count my self obliged to add here fomething, which at least farisfies my felf, and perhaps it may

ferve a little to clear this point to others. I have at large spoken my thoughts concerning the first part of this Doctrine, that the Confecrated Bread is not Transubftantiated. I will now consider whether the Consecrated Elements of Bread and Wine, are, or can be properly called, the perfect and compleat Sacrament, whether they be received or not. The words Eucharist and Sa<crament, are taken two several ways. The Eucharist is sometimes raken for the Consecrated Bread, as in Irenæus, the Bread when it receives the word of God (or is coniecrated ) is made the Eucharist. But properly it must be taken for the whole Solemnity of the Commemoration of Christ's Passion, by Confecrating the Symbols of bis Body and Blood, according to his appointment and Example, and receiving them with Pepitent and faithful Hearts and Prayers, and Praises, and particularly with giving of Thanks, from whence it most properly took its name; for without Thanksgiving it is improperly called the Eucharift. So I confess the consecrated Element alone is called, the Sacrament, by St. Augustine ; But the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in its full Sense, must properly be taken for the whole Action, for according to Aquinas bimtelf, when there are many Aftions ordain'd to one Effect, (as suppl. q. 30. Taking Blessing, Breaking, Distributing, and Eating the Eucharist) it is the last Action, (i e. Eating, according to his Doctrine in a like Case ) which must be Formal, and which infufe Grace, and gives the Effect, (i.e. Perfection) to the whole; and R Simon will surely be inclined to allow all this, who, with other great Men of his Church, will have the whole Canon of the p. 147. 178. Mafs together to consecrate the Eucharist, and neither Christ's words nor the 181. cc. Invocation to do it feparately; fo that the words Eucharift

, and Sacrament, which properly are applicable only to the whole - Performance, are sometimes improperly given to only this part of it. That this is fo; I consider first in:


1. 3:

T. p. 161. the Commemoration of our Lord's Passion, or in the Celebration of his last

Supper, the proper meaning, or nature of a Supper; I always thought, a Sup. per properly and compleatly so called; did necessarily require these two Ef sentials amongst the rest, Food prepared, and then, Eating and Drinking.

Can only saying Grace, or Blessing the Table, or what is upon it after it is T. p. 162. blest, be properly called a compleat or perfect Supper? Or thould the guests

then fay, see, here is a noble Supper, but then all depart without tasting one Crumb or Drop; I must think it would be by them very improperly called a Supper ; for all this thus far is but the Preliminary part, or rather as a Preface to all that follows. So the Blessing or Confecrating of the Elements, at the Lord's Supper, or the Elements themselves fo Consecrated, cannot properly be called, more then a preparatory part; a letting on, and Blessing or Sanctifying of, the Food on the Holy Table, in order to the Eating of this Supper of the Lord; by only this preparation it cannot be truly and properly called, a compleat or perfect Supper, or which is all one to me, a compleat or perfect Sacrament; for though there hath been much variance about

the use of the word Sacrament, yet as to Baptism, and the Commemoration Bellarm. 1. 1. of Christ's Passion in the Lord's Supper, I think all agree that it signifies c. 8.p.17.b.c.

only, a Sacred, Solemn, Ceremonious Performance which Christ himself hath prescribed; in the first, to Initiate, or enter us into his Covenant of Grace; and in the other, to renew us and strengthen us in the same. Now if this Ceremonious Action of celebrating Christ's last Sripper and Commemorating his Pasion, be not performed exactly according to his own direction, (as to every part as well as in one,) it cappot be said to be perfect and compleat as to the outward Prescription; and unless we bring Faithful, Penitent, Charitable, Thankful, and well disposed Hearts, it cannot be laid to be Perfect, and Compleat, as to the Inward Prescription of this folemn Feast; But the punctual observance of all parts of this outward and inward Prescrip

tion, to me, makes up the compleat and perfect Celebration of the Lord's Ut sup. 1. 1.c.9.

Supper, or the folemn Commemoration of his Passion; call it a Sacrament,

or Religious Ceremony, or Sign, or what you plcate. Bellarmine's Sophiftry 1.4.C. 2.- by which he would Thuffle off this plain and intelligible account of the matter, p. 257. c. d. would seem very ridiculous if thus apply'd to. a common Supper. If I was a

guest and was asked, when was the Supper perfected or compleated, I am
sure I could not say, just when Grace was said; if I was asked again
it compleated at the first, or. Jecond, or third course; At the desert; At
the Grace Cup; At latter Grace, &c. I must confess I am so simple as to
think, the Supper was compleated and perfected when all was over, or
when all was done, as we plain People say. This Ceremony of the Lord's
Supper was plainly taken up and appointed in place of that of the Bread of
Affliction and the Cup of Blessing amongst the Jews, as hath been abovelaid;
and that in many things explain this, especially as to this, They being both
Commemorations and Suppers. Now Thould I ask a sew, when their Solemn
Commemoration of their Affliction in Ægypt is compleated and perfeted?
Would he answer me, it is just then when these words are said, this is
the Bread of Affliction, which our Fathers did Eat, &c. Or would he tell
me, that the whole continued Action made it Compleat and Perfect? Surely
the case must be the same in our Commemoration as it was, and is, in
theirs; and as they meant by this Phrase, this is the Bread of Affliction,
this is in the Memory of it ; fo Christ by, this is my Body meant, this is in

Remembrance of it. But Bellarmine, and his Merusiasts, must needs have, 1. 4. c. 3. b.

Rem permanentem, A permanent thing which may be calied, and may be the Eucharift or Body of our Lord, or the Sacrament of his Body. And we say, that by the words of Consecration the Elements of Bread and Wine are compleatly and perfectly made the Symbols, or Signs, or Representati

0ns, or Tokens of Christ's Body and Blood, and that they Remain so during hic fupr. ps.the whole Action; (as the Jewys Cake are Remaining Symbols or Emblems of



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