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His satires, which with one exception are written in prose, show great of Port Royal,' the 'Fragmens Historiques,' several discourses delivered power of observation, and a cheerful disposition combined with a in the French Academy, of which he was a member, and other small considerable sbare of wit; the style is easy and attractive, though compositions, with a biography of Racine. sometimes rather prolix. They were first published in several His son, Louis Racine, published memoirs of his father's life, two periodicals, but collected in 1751 at Leipzig in 2 vols.; in 1752 volumes of commentaries on his plays, and a poem, ‘La Religion,' in another, and in 1755 a fourth volume was added. A complete edition, six cantos. He was born in 1692 and died in 1763. with a life of the author, was published in 1777 in 6 vols.
Racine adhered strictly to what are called the classical unities, and RACINE, JEAN, was born towards the end of 1639 at Ferté Milon, his subjects were chiefly taken from ancient history; but his personages, in the present department of Aisne, France. He was the son of an though Greek or Roman by name, are French in their character. His officer of the excise, but lost both his parents while he was a child. great merit lay in his delineation of the passions, his exquisite pathos, He studied first at Beauvais, and afterwards in the celebrated school and the harmony of his verse. By common cousent he stands at the of Port Royal des Champs, under Lemaistre, Lancelot, and the Abbé head of French dramatists of the classic school. Hanon. He applied bimself especially to the study of the Greek poets. RACZYNSKI, EDUARD, a Polish nobleman of literary tastes and After three years spent at Port Royal he went to finish bis education talents, was born at Posen in 1786, the son of Count Philip Raczynski, at Paris, in the Collège d'Harcourt, in 1658. He had long shown a a Polish general. Count Eduard entered the Polish army, and took decided inclination for poetry, and on the occasion of the marriage of some share in Napoleon's campaign of 1807 ; but on the fall of Louis XIV. in 1660 he entered the lists with various other poets who Napoleon I., when he became a simple Prussian subject, he withdrew wrote in honour of that event; and his composition, 'La Nymphe de from a military career. He travelled in Turkey in 1814, and publa Seine,' being considered as the best, was noticed by the king, who lished an account of his journey in one of the most splendid volumes sent to the young poet, through Colbert, a present of 100 louis-d'or. in the Polish language, 'Dziennik Podrozy do Turcyi' (folio, Breslau, In 1664 Racine brought out his first tragedy, 'La Thebaïde, ou les 1821, illustrated with numerous plates). The rest of his life was Frères Evnemis,' a subject which was suggested to him by Molière. chiefly devoted to literary pursuits. His 'Obraz Polakow i Polski' He next wrote his 'Alexandre,' which is a feeblo composition. Cor- ( Picture of the Poles and Poland in the 18th Century,' 21 vols., neille, who was then grown old, advised Racine to give up writing Breslau, 1840, &c.), is a valuable collection of memoirs, most of them tragedy. Boileau, on the contrary, encouraged bim; and Racine, before unpublished. Another of his most prominent works is his having studied hard for some years to improve bimself
, produced in ‘Gabinet medalow Polskich,' or “Cabinet of Polish Medals,' in 4 vols. 1667 bis · Andromaque,' which was acted with great applause. In the | 4to (Berlin and Posen, 1841-45), with a text in Polish and French. His next year he wrote · Les Plaideurs,' a humorous comedy in imitation Wspomnienia Wielkopolski' ('Memorials of Great Poland,' 2 vols., of the Wasps' of Aristophanes, which was so much relished by with an atlas of plates), is also deserving of mention. The Codex Louis XIV. that he bestowed upon the author a pension, accompanied Diplomaticus Majoris Poloniæ,' or collection of documents illustrating by a very flattering letter. Racine now produced in succession the history of Poland, which he edited, had been originally compiled Britannicus,' “ Bérénice," "Bajazet,' Mithridate,' 'Iphigénie,' and by his grandfather, Count Kazimierz Raczynski; but a companion Phèdre,' which last is often considered his masterpiece; but when work, the Codex Diplomaticus Lithuaniæ,' was his own. Among *Phèdre' was first brought on the stage in 1677, a rival coterie other benefactions to Posen, he founded a public library in that town, intrigued against him, and succeeded in running down the work, erecting a building for the purpose, presenting to it a collection of which so disgusted Racine that he resolved to write no more plays. 21,000 volumes, and endowing it with a fund for the maintenance of About that time he married the daughter of the treasurer of Amiens, the librarian, who is at present Lukaszewicz, one of the first historians a match which proved a happy one.
and antiquaries in Poland, to whom the count gave the appointment. Racine frequented the court, where he bad a warm friend in Madame On the 20th of January 1845 Raczynski destroyed himself, by means de Maintenon, and he was appointed by Louis XIV. bistoriographer of an ornamental cannon which was kept in his park. It was currently of the kingdom, together with Boileau. Of his historical labours reported that the motive of the act was, that in looking over some old however only a few fragments remain. Several years after, at the family papers, he had found that one of bis ancestors had received entreaty of Madame de Maintenon, he wrote another drama, 'Esther,' part of the family estates as a bribe from Catharine II. of Russia to which was acted in the house of education of St. Cyr in 1689, and was betray the cause of his country. The lady of Count Raczynski, who well received. In the following year he wrote 'Athalie,' which was survived him, was the widow of Count Jan Potocki, also a Polish performed in the same place, and was afterwards published; but it author of eminence, who destroyed himself thirty years before in was received very coldly, although it has since been acknowledged to 1815. His son, Count Roger Raczynski, who succeeded him, gevebe Racine's noblest composition. This was also Boileau's opinion at rously abolished the feudal dues that were payable to him by 4000 the time, who told him so, adding that the judgment of the public peasants of the twenty-seven villages on the estates of the family. would right itself in time—a prediction however which was not * RACZYNSKI, ATHANASIUS, the younger brother of Count accomplished till long after Racine's death.
Eduard, born on the 2nd of May 1788, entered the Prussian diplo• Athalie' was the last play of Racine. He continued to visit matic service, was in 1840 the Prussian ambassador at Copenhagen, Madame de Maintenon, to whom he used to read parts of his pro- and afterwards at Lisbon and Madrid, but quitted the latter post in jected history of Louis XIV. As he came to advert to the system of 1853, and has since lived in retirement. His literary works have been administration, he could not help reflecting upon the wanton prodi- chiefly on subjects of art, and written in the French language. His gality of expenditure, the enormous burden of taxation, the disastrous account of modern art in Germany (* Histoire de l'Art Moderne en wars caused by mere ambition, and the consequent distress of the Allemagne,' 3 vols. 4to, with atlas, Paris, 1836-42), though not a work country, and the misery of a great part of the population. Racine of much depth, is the most convenient general view of the subject was a man of honest feelings; he became animated with his subject; that has yet appeared. The same praise may be given to his Arts in and Madame de Maintenon was evidently affected by his picture. She Portugal,' and Historico-artistical Dictionary of Portugal,' both in suggested to him to draw up a memoir of what he thought could be French, published at Paris in 1846 and 1847. done in the way of alleviating the distress of the people. Racine RADCLIFFE, JOHN, M.D., was born in 1650, of a good family at complied, and delivered his memoir to madame for her perusal. As Wakefield in Yorkshire. From the grammar-school of his native town she was reading it one day in her cabinet, Louis XIV. entered, and he passed to University College, Oxford, at the age of fifteen. He she could not conceal from him the paper nor the author of it. Louis, took his degree of B.A. in 1669, and became senior scholar of his having glanced at the memoir, observed with a frown that, “as M. college, but, as no fellowship became vacant there, he accepted a Racine could make excellent verses, he fancied that he knew every fellowship at Lincoln College. He took his degree of M.A. in 1672, thing; as if, because he was a great poet, he ought to be also a minister and commenced the study of physic, which he pursued in no other of state.” Racine was informed of this, and from that time he was medical school, but attended the different courses of anatomy, chemistry, banished from the court. He had been for some years in a declining and botany delivered in the University. He is represented by his state of health, under the influence of mental excitement and of biographers as having “recommended himself more by ready wit and melancholy, and the mortification which he now felt embittered bis vivacity than by any extraordinary acquisitions in learning:" being sufferings. His complaint, which was an abscess in the liver, was visited in his rooms by Dr. Bathurst, the president of Trinity College, badly trated by the physicians, and he sank rapidly: Louis XIV., and asked by him where was his library, he is said to have pointed to being informed of bis danger, showed great interest in his fate, and a few vials, a skeleton, and a herbal in one corner of his room, and sent to inquire after him; indeed, the whole court sympathised with exclaimed with emphasis, " There, sir, is Radcliffe's library.” In 1675 the dying poet. At last an operation was performed; but three days he took his degree of M.B., and began to practise as a licentiate in after Racine expired, in the midst of acute pain, on the 22nd of April | Oxford, where by some happy cures he soon acquired a great reputa1099, in his fifty-ninth year. He was interred, according to his request, tion. În 1677 be relinquished his fellowship in accordance with the in the abbey of Port Royal des Champs, a spot for which he had always statutes of his college, which require all the fellows after a certain time retained a great affection. After the destruction of that monastery in to enter into holy orders. He wished however to keep his rooms in 1709, the remains of Racine were transferred to Paris, and deposited college, and to reside there as a commoner, but this Dr. Marshall, the in the church of St. Etienne du Mont, by the side of those of Pascal. Rector (whom he is supposed to have offended by some witticisms), Louis XIV. bestowed upon his widow a pension of 2000 livres, and refused to allow, which so much disgusted him that in after-life he the reversion of it on her sons till the death of the youngest.
lavished the whole of his munificence on bis former college, University, The plays of Racine
have gone through many editions; one of the leaving to Lincoln only the second presentation to a living if no fellow best is that of 1768, 'Euvres de Jean Racine, avec des Commentaires of University chose to accept it. In 1682 he took the degree of M.D., par Luneau de Boisjermain,' 6 vols. 8vo. It also contains his ‘History and went out a Grand Compounder. At length, in 1684, he removed
to the metropolis, and settled in Bow-street, Covent Garden, where in instructed him in drawing and perspective, and would have brought less than a year he got into great practice, to which perhaps his plea him up to his own profession, but perceiving his predilection for santry and readly wit contributed as much as his reputed skill in bis painting, he placed bim under A. van Goor, à respectable portraitprofession. He was now in the high road to wealth and reputation, painter. Gerard applied himself to bis studies with unremitting per. and he arrived at both, though his success is said to have been due severance so long as his master lived ; and at his death, being suffirather to his manners than to his ability. On the other hand we have ciently advanced to give lessons in design, he was engaged by the the testimony of Dr. Mead, that "he was deservedly at the head of his Bishop of Sebaste to teach his niece drawing. His agreeable manner profession, on account of his great medical penetration and experience." gained the favour of the bishop, who, being soon afterwards obliged to
In 1686 he was appointed by the Princess Anne her principal go to Rome, invited Rademacker to accompany him; he spent three physiciau, and from this time till his death he enjoyed the undisputed years at Rome, where he greatly improved himself. He was fond of favour of the court, during the reigns of William and Anne; and representing views of the principal ruins and ancient wopuments, although he often offended both the king and queen by his freedoms, which he designed with accuracy and spirit. On his return to Hoiland yet such was the opinion of his medical skill, that he was always sent his success produced him numerous friends and abundance of employfor in any case of danger. There are few events in his life that requirement. He did not however confine himself to architectural subjects, particular notice, and the greater part of his biographers bave only but painted many historical and emblematical pieces. His fertile given a collection of anecdotes--which it would be out of place to invention and facility of execution enabled him to paint many pictures repeat here--showing at once his wonderful skill forming a correct in a short time. He is reckoned one of the best masters of the Dutch prognosis, his rudeness and brutality towards his patients even of the school for a certain grandeur of style, which had been cultivated by highest rank, and the enormous sums of money which he received as the study of the best models. He died at Amsterdam in 1711. fees. Towards the end of the reign of James, the then celebrated RADEMACKER, ABRAHAM, supposed to be a younger brother of Master of University College, Obadiah Walker, his fellow-collegian, GERARD RADEMACKER, was born at Amsterdam in 1675, and attained was in vain employed to influence his religious principles. The answer a high rank as a landscape-painter. At first he drew in Indian ink, in of Radcliffe was firm and dignified : "being bred up a Protestant at which style he acquired great perfection. He then practised in waterWakefield, and having continued such at Oxford, where he had no colours; and he subsequently painted with equal success in oil-colour. relish for absurdities, he saw no reason to change his principles and His invention was fertile; he composed readily and agreeably, and turn Papist in London.” In 1713 he was elected into parliament for embellished his landscapes with picturesque ruins and buildings, and the town of Buckingham, but only two of his speeches have been with well-designed groups of figures and animals. He engraved in a preserved, and it does not appear that he was at all distinguished as a masterly manner a set of nearly 300 plates, from his own designs, of senator. He was sent for to attend Queen Anne when she lay at the the most interesting views of ancient monuments in Holland and the point of death, but, being much indisposed himself, and knowing the Austrian Netherlands; they were published at Amsterdam in 1731. case to be desperate, he declined coming, for which he was much He died in 1735. blamed at the time, and intimation was given him that the populace RADETZKY DE RADETZ, FIELD. MARSHAL, COUNT in London were disposed to tear him in pieces if he should venture to JOSEPH, was born at the castle of Trebnice, in the Klattauer come to town from his country-house. It is probable that the agitation district, in Bohemia, on the 2nd of November 1766. He was the son of his mind concurred with a broken constitution in bringing him to of Count Peter Eusebius Radetzky, and of the Baroness Maria an end two months afterwards, November 1, 1714, at the age of sixty: Bechyne. The family name was formerly spelt Hradecky. Having four. His body lay in state at the house at Carshalton, where he entered the army as coruet, in the 2nd Austrian Cuirassiers, in 1784, died, till November 27, it was then removed to an undertaker's in the he became sub-lieutenant, February 3, 1787. In 1788 he served in Strand, and thence escorted to his favourite city Oxford, where it was the Turkish campaign under Marshal Lacy, and was raised to the interred with great solemnity in St. Mary's church.
rapk of first lieutenant for his services at the siege of Belgrade. It only remains to give a brief account of his posthumous benefac. When the Austrian army entered France in 1793, Radetzky, then a tions, which were indeed most munificent, and which well entitle bim captain, was sent to the new scene of war; and he was present in all to hold an eminent place in the long list of benefactors to the Univer- the Italian campaigus from 1795 to 1800, serving alternately under sity of Oxford. After making a life provision for some of his relations, Beaulieu, Wurmser, Alvinzi and Melas, and distinguishing himself he bequeathed his whole fortune to public uses. To St. Bartholomew's greatly at the battles of Arcola, Rivoli, and Marengo. Meanwhile, in Hospital in London he gave for ever the yearly sum of 5001. towards 1797, he was promoted to the rank of major, and in 1799 he became mending their diet, and a further yearly sum of 1001. for buying of adjutant-general to Melas, who soon learned to appreciate bis zeal linen. He left 40,0001. for the building of a library at Oxford, which and gallantry, and repeatedly mentioned his name in his despatches. he endowed with an annual stipend of 1501. for the librarian (who is For his gallant behaviour at the battles of Novi (May 15, 1799) and chosen by the same electors that appoint the travelling fellows, to be Marengo (June 14, 1800), he was created colonel, and appointed to hereafter mentioned); 1001. per annum for repairs, and 1001. per command the Archduke Albert's cuirassiers, and received the order of aupum for the purchase of books and manuscripts relating to the Maria Theresa. science of physic; comprehending, as that term was then understood, From the peace of Luneville in 1801, to 1805, Colonel Radetzky avatomy, botany, surgery, and natural philosophy. (A description of was not employed in the field; but at the latter period he was made this building is given under Oxford in GeoG. Div., vol. iv., col. 31.] major-general. During the contest at Aspern, May 21-22, 1809, when To University College he left 50001. to build the master's lodge there, the place was six times retaken by the Austrians from the French, making one side of the eastern quadrangle. He also left them his few officers contributed so much to the victory as Radetzky. On the Yorkshire estate in trust for the foundation of the two Travelling 1st of June he received the command of the 4th corps, with the rank Fellowships to be held by “two persons to be chosen out of the Uni- of lieutenant-field-marshal. At the battle of Wagram, July 6, 1809, versity of Oxford, when they are M.A., and entered on the Physic he commanded the Austrian cavalry. In April 1810 he was nomi. line." The electors are, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord nated commander of the military order of Maria Theresa. From that Chancellor, the Chancellor of the University, the bishops of London period until the end of 1812 his services were employed at home in and Winchester, the two principal secretaries of state, the two chief the war-office. justices of the Queen's Bench and Common Pleas, and the Master of During the whole campaign of 1813, when the tide of war had the Rolls. The appointment is 3001. per annum to each of the fellows, turned against Napoleon I.
, Lieutenant-Field-Marshal Radetzky acted and apartments in University College. They hold their fellowships as chief of the staff to Prince Schwartzenberg; and the Austrian " for the space of ten years, and no longer, the first] half of which commander attributed the victory of Kulm mainly to Radetzky's time, at least, they are to travel in parts beyond sea for their skill and gallantry. But his crowdiug feat of arms was at the battle better improvement.” He also bequeathed the perpetual advowson of Leipzig, October 18, 1813, the plan of which he drew up. As is of the rectory of Headbourne Worthy, in Hampshire, to trustees for well known this decisive action was a succession of battles which the benefit of University College for ever, so that a member of that lasted three days. The Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia society should always be presented to it on every vacancy. He gave were present, and 1600 pieces of artillery thundered over the field. to the same college during his life 11001. for increasing their exhibi. Although he had then been nearly thirty years in the service, tions and for general repairs, and the painted window at the east end Radetzky received his first wound at Leipzig. Throughout the cam. of their chapel appears from the inscription under it to be his gift. paign of 1814 within the French territory he was continually in action, After the payment of the bequests above mentioned, he gave to his and on the 31st of March he entered Paris, riding by the side of the executors, in trust, all his estates in Buckinghamshire, Yorkshire, Emperor Alexander. Radetzky was appointed in 1822 CommanderNorthamptonshire, and Surrey, to be applied in such charitable pur- General of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom; and in 1830, in his poses as they all, in their discretion, should think best; but no part sixty-fourth year, after forty-six years of service, he was created fieldthereof to their own use or benefit. Out of these funds were built the marshal. Infirmary (1770) and the Observatory (1772) at Oxford, and the Lunatic But it was the Italian insurrection, in 1848, which first gave promi. Asylum on Heddington Hill near that city also received in 1827 so nence to the name of Radetzky. As early as the year 1846, manifest much assistance from the same source, that the committee gave it the signs of a turbulent spirit were visible in Italy. The stringent rule of Dame of the 'Radeliffe Asylum;' and the trustees have ever been the Austrian government had long excited a rancorous feeling against found ready to contribute according to their means to every charitable their foreign masters, and the Italians panted for an opportunity to and useful purpose.
reject the yoke. The reforms of Pope Pius IX., served only to pro. RADEMACKER, GERARD, was born at Amsterdam in 1673. His mote the smouldering irritation. Societies were formed to diffuse the father, an architect, much esteemed by Lairesse and other artists, secret spirit of revolt throughout the entire peninsula.
the movement was all but brought to a crisis, when Austria claimed (March 28) of that year, as Vasari erroneously fancied. He was the and enforced the right to place a garrison in Ferrara. Immediately a son of Giovanni de' Santi, a painter of merit in that city, some of Civic or National Guard was constituted in every Italian state. Then whose works still exist; a specimen of them may be seen in the Berlin came the revolution in Paris, in February 1818, followed by similar Gallery (No. 215, first division), bearing the name of Giovanni, and movements in Vienna and Berlin, which raised the spirit of insurrec showing considerable beauty, but with weak colouring: . Although tion to its height. .
Raffaelle lost his parents before he was twelve years old, he imbibed On the 18th of March 1848, barricades were erected in every street the rudiments of art from his father. Other artists of that peculiar in Milan; the fighting lasted for three days; after which Marshal school which fixed itself in Umbria, such as Nicolo Alunno of Foligno, Radetzky drew his troops out of that city, and retreated to Verona and Andrea Luigi of Assisi, probably exercised some influence over the The Austrian army, at that time in Italy, amounted to nearly 75,000 yomg painter. At what age he became the pupil of Perugino we men; but it was scattered over an extensive line of operations. Con- know not, but traces of the scholar's hand are supposed to be visible sequently the insurgents were at first triumphant; the tricolor flag in several of the works of the master; among others in the frescoes of appeared upon all the towers of Italy, except tliose of Verona, Mantua, the Cambio at Perugia, which were painted about the year 1500. Legnano, and Peschiera; and Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, having The career of Raffaelle is usually divided into three periods, of united himself to the league, a most gallant contest was maintained which the first terminates with his visit to Florence, in the autumn of for five months. More than once the veteran marshal had to quit the 1504; the second comprises the time from that date until he was field; but every time he retired in good order. At other times invited to Rome by Julius II., about the midule of 1508; and the victory was on his side. At levgth, on August 4, 1848, Radetzky, third extends to his death, in 1520. after a series of successful attacks on the Italian posts, advanced 1. To begin with the works executed before Raffaelle's visit to against Milan, at the head of the Austrian army; the Milanese lost Florence. One of the earliest of these now extant is probably the heart, and deaf to the remonstrances of Charles Albert, urging them Virgin with the Book,' in the Berlin Gallery (No. 223, first division), to defend the city, they held a council of war, and determined to and a still more important picture of this period is the. Adoration of abandon Milan. A deputation was sent to Marshal Radetzky, and the the Magi,' in the same collection (223 a). The latter is executed on terms obtained were : " that the Piedmontese army was to be with linen, in size colours (“al guazzo'), and was originally intended for drawn in two days from the Lombard territory; that the Austrians were the high altar at Ferentillo; it was purchased by the late king of to enter Milan on the 6th of August; and that the lives and property Prussia from the Ancajani family at Spoleto, for the sum of 6000 of the people were to be respected.” 'The struggle was now virtually scudi, and has suffered a good deal from the peeling of some of the at an end. Radetzky's superior strategy, and the disunion of his colours. opponents rendered it an easy task for him to break up the Sardinian The pictures painted at Citta di Castello were, the ‘Coronation of forces, and he was again master of all Lombardy. The Emperor of St. Nicholas of Tolentino' (said to have disappeared from the Vatican Austria in return for bis services sent him an antograph letter of during the French occupation); the 'Sposalizio, or Marriage of the thanks, accompanied by the first class order of St. George. In March Virgin' (now in the Brera at Milan), and the Christ on the Cross,' in 1849, the rebellion in Hungary incited the Italians to make a new the collection of Cardinal Fesch. Lanzi, on the authority of mere attempt to establish their independence; but it was rendered abortive tradition, states that the first of these three was painted when by the prompt and energetic measures of the marshal. Since then, Raffaelle was only seventeen, that is, in 1500; and he assigns the last full of years, and loaded with honours by his sovereign, he several to about the same time: both probably approach very nearly in time times applied in vain for leave to resign bis command. Nor was it to the ‘Sposalizio,' which bears the date of 1504. The Coronation of until the opening of 1857, that he obtained this permission, in a the Virgin’ (now in the Vatican) clearly shows the struggle of new courteous letter from the emperor, after a prolonged service of principles, although Vasari, whose contempt for the simplicity of the seventy-three years in the Austrian armies.
earlier style led him to content himself with very general resemMarsbal Radetzky married in 1798 the Countess Frances Strassoldo- blances, refers to this picture as one of those which prove how closely Gräfenberg, by whom he has a son and daughter living. (See Sup.] Raffaelle imitated the manner of Perugino. Notwithstanding Vasari's
RAEBURN, HENRY, the son of a manufacturer at Stockbridge, assertion to the contrary, it seems probable that both the 'Coronation near Edinburgh (which now forms part of that city), was born there of the Virgin' and the "Crucifixion' belonging to Cardinal Fesch were on the 4th of March 1756. He lost both his father and mother whilst posterior to the ‘Sposalizio.' young, and was apprenticed by his elder brother to the business of a Raffaelle's share in the frescoes executed by Pinturicchio, in the goldsmith. During the time of his apprenticeship he painted minia. Libreria of the Cathedral at Siena, has been much exaggerated. tures, which were executed in such a manner as to attract notice, and There is little doubt that he never worked there in person, although soon came to be in general demand. As he was able to complete two be furnished some drawings to his fellow.pupil; two of these are yet of these in a week, bis master readily agreed to allow him to withdraw extant, one in the Florence Gallery, and the other in the Baldeschi from the trade, receiving as an equivalent part of the young painter's collection at Perugia. Vasari's whole account of Raffaelle's first visit earnings.
to Florence is confused in the highest degree. He describes him as Obtaining some of David Martin's pictures to copy, he adopted induced to quit Siena by the report of Leonardo's “ Battle of the oil-painting, and after a time wholly abandoned miniatures. At the Standard' and of M. Angelo's Cartoon, although the latter work was expiration of his apprenticeship he became a portrait-painter, and not exhibited till 1506, while the frescoes of Pinturicchio were pro. gained very extensive practice. In 1779 he married, and some time bably completed in 1503, and the date of Raffaelle's journey is fixed after came to London, where he was much noticed by Sir Joshua to October 1504, by the letter of recommendation for the Gonfaloniere Reynolds, by whose advice he went to Italy, where he remained two Soderini from the Duchess of Sora. Quatremère de Quincy tries to years, carefully studying the works of the great masters. In 1787 he solve the difficulty by assuming a visit to Florence in 1503, and returned and established himself in Edinburgh, where in a short time another in the following year, but a strong presumption against this he became the chief portrait-painter. He was elected a member of the supposition is furnished by the total absence of all trace of Florentine Royal Society of that city, of the Imperial Academy of Florence, and principles in the 'Marriage of the Virgin. Susceptible of new impresof the South Carolina and New York academies. In 1812 he was sions in art as Raffaelle afterwards showed himself, it is impossible elected an associate and in 1815 a member of the Royal Academy, that the first introduction to his great Florentine contemporaries London. On the visit of George IV. to Scotland in 1822, Raeburn should have left no trace in his works. Now the pictures of 1505 was knighted at Hopetown House, and in the summer of the following exbibit clear traces of a new influence. In fact, at the time of his year he was appointed portrait-painter to the king for Scotland, an arrival at Florence, art had just reached the point which enabled him honour which he did not long enjoy. He died on the 8th of July to reap the fullest benefit from the new field thus thrown open. He 1823.
studied the works of Masaccio, and became the friend of Fra BartoAmongst his chief portraits may be enumerated those of Lord lomeo and Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. In the following year we find him Eldon, Sir Walter Scott, Dugald Stewart, Professor Playfair, James employed again at Perugia. The fresco in San Severo, and the altarWatt, Francis Jeffrey, Henry Mackenzie, John Rennie, and Sir Francis piece for the Ansidei family (now at Blenheim) were painted in 1505. Chantrey. His style was free and bold, his drawing correct, bis Whether the picture executed for the nuns of St. Antonio of Padua colouring rich, deep, and harmonious; and the accessories, whether at Perugia, which is at Naples, be of the same or of a later date, is a drapery, furniture, or landscape, appropriate, and though carefully disputed point. executed, always kept duly subordinate. He had a peculiar power of Four pictures of the Virgin and Child' of Raffaelle's Florentine rendering the head of his figure bold, prominent, and imposing. The period are distivguished by different characters, though all exquisitely strict fidelity of his representations may in a great degree be attributed beautiful. The Madonna del Gran Duca,' in the Pitti Palace, is the to his invariable custom of painting, whether the principal figure or most simple, and, to our judgment, the most admirable of them all. the minutest accessory, from the person or the thing itself, never giving it still breathes much of the spirit of the Umbrian school. The a single touch from memory or conjecture. The portraits of Sir Henry other three are the “Madonna Tempi' at Munich, the Colonna Raeburn, with some deficiencies, possess a freedom, a vigour, and a Madonna’ at Berlin, and the picture in the possession of Lord Cowper spirit of effect, and convey an impression of grace, life, and reality at Panshanger. To the same time must be attributed the ‘Madonna which may be looked for in vain amidst thousands of pictures, both del Cardellino,' in the tribune at Florence, the ‘Belle Jardivière' at ancient and modern, of more elaborate execution and of minuter Paris, and the Holy Family, with the Palm, in the Bridgewater finish.
collection. The first of these three, was painted for Lorenzo Nasi. RAFFAELLE, RAFAEL, RAFFAELLO, or RAPHAEL, SANZIO, Raffaelle's power and fidelity as a portrait-painter are well shown in was born at Urbino, on the 6th of April 1483, and not on Good Friday the beautiful portraits of Angelo and Maddalena Doni, in the Pitti
palace, and in two heads of monks, ia the Academia at Florence. The controversy has taken place. It is certainly difficult to detect much *St. Catherine,' which passed from the Aldobrandini collection into resemblance between the portrait in the Florence collection and that that of Mr. Beckford, and afterwards into the National Gallery, was purchased by the king of Bavaria from the Altoviti family; and the executed in the latter part of the artist's residence at Florence. The expression of Vasari, “à Bindo Altoviti fece il ritratto suo," is two works which must be considered as closing this division are the ambiguous, but nevertheless we believe the picture now at Munich to • Madonna del Baldacchino' or 'di Pescia,' left unfinished when the be the work of Raffaelle and his own portrait. painter started for Rome, and the Entombment of Christ. The Three portraits exist, which are believed to represent Raffaelle's former picture bears some resemblance in its technical details to the mistress, the so-called Fornarina, painted by himself. One of these is works of Fra Bartolomeo: it is now in the Pitti palace. The latter in the Barberini, another in the Sciarra palace (at Rome), and the was painted by order of Atalanta Baglioni for S. Francesco at Perugia, third is in the Tribune at Florence. This last picture bears the date and forms part of the Borghese collection. It is an elaborate compo- of 1512, and was at one time attributed to Giorgione. Certain it is sition, of the greatest beauty and power of expression, proving how that the colour would be worthy of the Venetian master, and that the much Raffaelle had profited by his Florentine studies.
face and form are Venetian in their character. The invitation given by Julius II. to Raffaelle would be sufficiently The Madonna della Seggiola, the Madonna del Duca di Alba, and arcounted for by the celebrity of the artist himself, although it is very several others of somewhat similar feeling belong to the early part of probable that his connection with the family Della Rovere, or the Raffaelle's residence at Rome. The Madonna di Foligno, now in the favour of his fellow.countryman Bramante, facilitated his introduction Vatican, was painted for Gismondo Conti, probably about the time at the papal court. He seems to have left Florence, rather suddenly, of the completion of the Camera della Segnatura. The Vision of towards the end of the year 1508.
Ezekiel is said to have been paid for in 1510; two pictures of the The 'Stanze' decorated by the pencil of Raffaelle were the living subject exist, one in the Pitti palace, and another, from the Orleans rooms of the papal court in the time of Leo X. His frescoes suffered gallery, in the collection of Sir Thomas Baring. It is disputed whether during the occupation of Rome by the imperial troops in 1527, and either, and if either, which of these two is the original. The St. by subsequent neglect, when the popes had transferred their residence Cecilia at Bologna was ordered about 1510, and completed somewhat to the Quirinal. "In the years 1702 and 1703 they were cleaned and later; it has suffered greatly from restoration. restored by Carlo Maratti, who repainted the larger portion of the The four great altar-pieces of Raffaelle's later time aredecorative framework.
1. The Madonna del Pez, painted for San Domenico at Naples, and The Camera della Segnatura was the first worked on by Raffaelle. now (1833) in the Iglesia Vieja of the Escurial. It is a composition The figures of Theology, Poetry, Philosophy, and Justice on the ceiling, of the purest and simplest beauty. 2. The Madonna di Santa Sisto, preceded in execution the large paintings on the walls. Of these last the wellknown pride of the Dresden gallery. It is painted on canvas, the Disputa del Sacramento, as it is commonly called, was the and Rumohr conjectures that it was intended for a "drapellone,' or earliest. In simple beauty and severe dignity, in energy and individual large standard, to be carried in procession, attached to two poles. A character, this work has never been surpassed; in technical excellence, picture, by Guido, painted on grey silk, and called “il pallione,' from and the picturesque qualities of breadth, con position, and softness, it being used in this manner, is to be seen in the Pinacoteca at Bologna is certainly inferior to the · Parnassus' and the School of Athens,' (No. 138). The most striking points in the Madonna di Santa Sisto are which came next. The allegorical figures of Temperance, Fortitude, the deeply meditative anticipation of future suffering in the Virgin, and Prudence, in the semicircular division on the remaining side of and the superhuman character imparted to the Christ by the union the room, are among the most beautiful of Raffaelle's designs. of a childish form with the severe thoughtfulness of maturer age.
In the Stanza d'Eliodoro, the fresco of 'Heliodorus,' together with 3. The Spasimo di Sicilia, executed for Santa Maria dello Spasimo, that of the 'Mass of Bolsena' and the scripture subjects in the ceiling, at Palermo, is now in the public gallery at Madrid. There is somewere executed in the pontificate of Julius. It is impossible to show thing academical in the figure of the executioner, but the deep feeling more complete understanding of the application of painting to a story in the right-hand group of women reminds us of the Borghese entombthan Raffaelle has displayed in the first of these compositions. The ment. This picture has suffered much by restoration, and has colouring of the Mass of Bolsena' is admirable.
acquired a sort of brickdust colour. 4. The Transfiguration, usually In 1513 Leo X. succeeded to the papal chair. The two remaining considered to be Raffaelle's masterpiece. It was left unfinished at frescoes in the Stanza d'Eliodoro, that is to say, 'Attila repelled from his death. Rome' and the ‘Liberation of St. Peter,' belong to his reign. The Besides the above-named works, we must allude to the Visitation latter is supposed to allude to the pope's escape, when Cardinal de' and the Perla, both in the sacristy of the Escurial. The latter formed Medici, after the battle of Ravenna; and the former to the retreat of part of the collection of Charles I. of England. the French from Italy.
The Archangel Michael, and the Holy Family, painted in 1518, for In the third room, or Stanza del Incendio, the ceiling contains some Francis I., are first-rate pictures of the artist's later time. In this paintings of P. Perugino, which were spared when those of other portrait of Leo X., with the Cardinals de' Medici and Rossi (painted masters were destroyed to make room for the works of Raffaelle. The not earlier than 1518), Raffaelle has shown that he could rival the subjects on the walls are the ‘Burning of the Borgo' (or suburb of Flemish masters in the accurate imitation of ordinary household Rome), the 'Victory over the Saracens at Ostia,' the Coronation of objects. The Violin-Player, in the Sciarra palace at Rome, also bears Charlemagne,' and the · Death of Leo III. The execution of all the date of 1518. The portraits of Joanna of Aragon, Baltasar these was more or less left to pupils; those in the Sala di Costantino Castiglione, and others, we have not space to dwell on. were wholly painted by Julio Romano and others, from designs by Raffaelle occupied himself with architecture as well as painting, and Raffaelle.
seems to have felt a zealous interest in all remains of ancient art. The The loggie, or open colonnades, designed by Bramante, were deco- Psyche and the Galatea, executed in the Farnesina at Rome for rated under the directions of Raffaelle by his principal scholars. The Alessandro Chigi, are his principal works which represent mythological cartoons for the tapestry to be hung round the Sistine Chapel were subjects. prepared in 1515 and 1516, at the desire of Leo X. These cartoons On his birthday the 6th of April 1520, being Good Friday, this were cut into strips for the convenience of the workmen at Arras. greatest of all modern painters died of an attack of fever, at the age By some unaccountable neglect they remained in Flanders, and seven of thirty-seven. All that is recorded of his public and private charac. of the ten were, after the expiration of a century, bought by Charles I. ter represents him as most amiable, and as the object of sincere at the suggestion of Rubens. When the property of the crown was affection on the part of his immediate friends. As an artist he was sold by the Commonwealth they were valued at 3001., and purchased especially distinguished in two things. In the first place, whatever by Cromwell's order at that price for the nation. William III. caused was the principle of art which he adopted at different periods of his these precious fragments to be properly mounted and put up at life, in each and all successively he attained the greatest excellence. Hampton Court. In 1766 they were removed to Buckingham House, In his early pictures the spirit of Perugino and of the Umbrian school thence carried to Windsor, and in 1804 again restored to Hampton beamed with double purity and beauty ; but his powers were not Court. There they remained till 1865, when they were placed, on limited within the narrow circle wbich hemmed in his master and loan, in the South Kensington Muscum. The cartoons are among the caused him to reproduce the same forms and the same expression noblest works of Raffaelle extant. In composition they are unrivalled, through the course of a long life. Raffaelle came to Florence at a and their whole conception is admirably adapted to the purpose which fortunate moment. The anatomical studies of Leonardo and M. they were meant to fulfil.
Angelo, and the powers of Masaccio, had exactly provided the fresh The 'Isaiah' in San Agostino was probably painted in 1512 or 1513, food for which his genius was craving. The religious feeling of his and the 'Sibyls' in Santa Maria della Pace shortly afterwards. earlier works became a little upspiritualised in the worldly city of Rumohr, on technical grounds, places the latter (one of the artist's Florence, but his technical power received a great accession of most admirable works) about 1515. Their subjects and their mode of strength, while his capacity for seizing real life is sufficiently shown treatment sufficiently establish in a general sense that imitation of by the portrait of Maddalena Doni. His Madonnas at this time lose Michel Angelo of which so much has been said.
something of their thoughtful melancholy, and often acquire a smiling We must now return to the smaller works of Raffaelle.
character, such as we fiud in the works of Leonardo. Still his Vasari says that his portrait of Julius II. was so like as to inspire pictures exhibit excellence peculiar to himself. fear, as if it were alive. The original thus spoken of is supposed to be In his third period, many persons, like Monsieur Rio (l'Art Chrétien) in the Tribune at Florence. Two copies of it are in the Pitti palace, may consider the ‘Disputa' as the last gleam of primitive simplicity and one in our own National Gallery. The last came from the Borghese or beauty. It may be said that thenceforth the Christian painter collection. On the subject of Raffaelle's own portrait a good deal of | became paganised by contact with the heathen courts of Julius II.
RAFFLES, SIR THOMAS STAMFORD.
RAFN, CARL CHRISTIAN
and Leo X. It is true that at this particular time a change took place time he effected many improvements in the political constitution of in the style of art adopted by Raffaelle. He had acquired a new sense the colony and in the condition of the inhabitants. He emancipated for the effect of masses in his drapery and in his lights and shades, the slaves here, as he had done in Java, for which act he did not howand he worked ou principles more consonant with the modern notions ever escape censure. He established a British settlement at Singapore, of picturesque con position. Wbich of the two sources of pleasure which lias proved a most important commercial station, and founded from painting is the purest and the most genuine may be a subject a college there for the encouragement of Anglo-Chinese and Malay of dispute; but there can be no dispute as to the fact that in literature. Though distinguished by his administrative abilities, Sir each line, as he successively adopted them, Raffaelle attained the Stamford Rafles owes his reputation chiefly to his researches into the highest pitch of excellence of wbich they respectively admitted. We natural productions of Sumatra, and particularly to his numerous cannot however allow that an artist who could execute the Cartoons zoological discoveries. During one of his journeys into the interior, had lost the power of conceiving and worthily embodying Christian accompanied by the enterprising and lamented Dr. Arnold, he dissubjects.
covered the gigantic parasitical plant (or rather flower) which has been The second consideration which seems to place Raffaelle before all called the “Rafilesia Arnoldii. In 1820 he sent home a large collecother painters is the fact that of the large number of works attributed tion of preserved animals, which are now in the museum of the to him with any certainty, bardly one can be called ordinary or London Zoological Society. The excitement of various official and common-place iu its character. If we consider the early age at wbich scientific engagements in a pestilential country, together with many he died, his pictures are very numerous. The best of them are con- domestic afflictions (four out of his five children, and almost all his fessedly superior to the finest productions of other masters, and their personal friends, dying from the effects of the climate), so completely average quality is in a still greater degree superior to the average destroyed his health, that he was obliged to resign his appointment quality of the works of any other painter. Besides the 'St. Catherine,' and return to England in 1824. In February of that year he embarked and the ‘Portrait of Julius II., mentioned above, the National with Lady Rafiles on board the ship Fame, which took fire the same Gallery possesses a small fraction on panel, by Raffaelle, of “ The Vision night, by the carelessness of the steward. The crew and passengers of a Knight,' with the original pen-and-ink drawing from which it was with difficulty saved themselves in the boats, and Sir Stamford was traced ; also a portion of a cartoon of The Murder of the Innocents,' obliged to remain at Bencoolen till the following April. By this painted over with oil, and the Garvagh (or Aldobrindini) Madonna, disastrous event he entirely lost the greatest part of the extensive one of the most exquisite productions of his earlier Roman period; it collection which he had formed of animals and plants, as well as many was purchased in 1865 for the large sum of 9,0001.
volumes of manuscripts and drawings relative to the civil and natuRAFFLES, SIR THOMAS STAMFORD), the son of a captain in ral bistory of nearly every island in the Malayan Archipelago ; the West India trade, was born at sea, off Jamaica, July 5, 1781. His besides this, which might be considered as a public loss, his own early education was imperfect, for he was taken from school at the pecuniary loss by the burning of the ship amounted to upwards of age of 15, and placed as an assistant clerk in the India House. In this 20,0001. situation he showed so much talent and industry, that he attracted After his return to England he founded the present Zoological the notice of the directors, and in 1805 was appointed under-secretary Society, of which he was the first president. His health, however, to the new government formed by the East India Company at Pulo- never recovered the shock which it had sustained, and he died in 1826, Penang, or Prince of Wales' Island. Here he devoted his attention to before he had had time to arrange the numerous materials wbich he the study of the Malay language, the vernacular dialect of almost all had collected in the East. He left several manuscripts behind him. the Eastern islands, in which he made rapid progress, as well as in a ("Memoir by Lady Raffles.') knowledge of the productions of Peuang and the adjoining country, RAFN, CARL CHRISTIAN, the great living promoter of Ice. and the manners of the inbabitants. These acquirements rendered landic literature, was born on the 16th January 1796, at Brahes borg him so useful to the government, that he was soon appointed chief in the island of Funen. Even when a boy at the Cathedral-school of secretary, an office which he filled with the greatest ability: intense Odensee he voluntarily applied himself to the study of Icelandic ; he application in an unhealthy climate, however, soon brought on serious followed up the same pursuit at the University of Copenhagen, where illness, which compelled him to go to Malacca, in 1803, for the recovery he took his degrees in jurisprudence. Being appointed in 1821 to a of his health.
post at the university library, his attention was directed to the vast During his stay at Malacca, Raflles had an opportunity of mixing quantity of Icelandic manuscripts, yet unpublished, belonging to the with a great number of natives congregated there from all parts of collection bequeathed there by Arpas Magnæus, and to the use that the Archipelago, from Chiva, Cochin-China, &c., with whom he freely might be made of them for shedding a light on hitherto obscure associated. He thus obtained a very considerable knowledge of their portions of history. Early in 1824 he had a meeting of three Icelandic customs, trades, and languages, which was afterwards of great value students at his lodgings to consider of the best means of promoting to bim. In 1809 be published bis first literary essay, 'On the Malay this object, and in 1825 he proposed and set on foot the "Society for Nation,' by which he attracted the notice of Lord Minto, governor. Northern Antiquities,” “Selskab for Nordisk Oldkyndighed,' which a general of India, who sent for him to Calcutta, and was anxious to few years after was taken under the patronage of the King of place him in the government of the Moluccas. Other events however Denmark, and wbich has awakened the attention of the world to the interfered with this intention, for Raflles so strongly represented to subject it has prosecuted. Rafn was appointed its earliest secretary, Lord Minto the advantages which would accrue to the English govern. an office which he continues to hold, and he has devoted his life to its ment from the reduction of the Dutch settlement of Java (Holland objects. It had been customary to issue such Icelandic works as were being at that time annexed to France), that an expedition was fitted published by the Danish government and the Arne-Magnæan Comout against Batavia, in 1811, which was attended with complete mission, in volumes of cumbrous size, with Latin or Danish transla. success, that place being speedily captured. Raffles offered such tions and sometimes both, printed on the same or opposite pages, and valuable assistance in the preliminary arrangements of this expedition altogether in the most unattractive form. Under Rafn's direction and in the execution of it, that he was appointed lieutenant-governor twelve volumes of the 'Forumanna Sögur' or 'Stories of the Ancients' of Java and its dependencies. He was only thirty years of age when were printed in portable octavos, twelve volumes of a Danish transhe undertook this responsible situation, which he held for five years, lation and twelve of a Latin were printed to correspond with them, being recalled in 1816, shortly before the island was restored to the and thus the student had an opportunity of acquiring either the Dutch. In his administration he evinced great energy of character, original only, or in case he wanted one, whichever translation be and displayed an anxious desire to advance the welfare of the native pleased. Rafn took a great share in the translation and editorship population. He found it necessary to make great alterations in the connected with these works and with the other publications issued by economy of the government, and a complete revision of the judicial the society. The 'Antiquitates Americanæ,'issued by him in a quarto system of the colony. He likewise abolished the system of slavery volume in 1837 is of all the one that has produced the most sensation. in the island. The policy of some of his measures was considered in this a collection made of all the passages in the old Icelandic doubtful by the authorities at home, and his youth made him sagas which describe the voyages to and history of Vinland. A an object of jealousy to some of his colleagues; a number of charges summary in English by Dr. Rafn is prefixed, entitled 'America were consequently brought against him, which led to his recal. But discovered by the Scandinavians in the Tenth century, an abstract of the board of directors of the East India Company afterwards acknow the historical evidence contained in this work. The abstract, which ledged that his measures were all undertaken from most benevolent was reprinted in the “Transactions of the London Geographical and laudable motives. Raffles devoted a considerable portion of time Society,' has been translated into every language of Europe, from to the investigation of the patural productions of Java, and during his Polish to Portuguese, and it is now a received doctrine that Masresidence there he made many excursions into the interior, and col. sachusetts had been reached by the Northmen five centuries before lected much geological and geographical information respecting the Columbus. Dr. Rafn is now engaged on a siinilar work entitled, island, as well as many interesting facts concerning the numerous · Antiquités Russes,' to prove by scattered passages from the sagas ruins and other antiquities, and the character of the different native that the Russian monarchy was founded by Scandinavian sea-rovers. tribes. He arranged and published the different materials which he In his .Gronlands Historiske Mindesmærker,' or 'Historical Memorials had thus collected, on his return to England, in his ‘History of Java,' of Greenland,' (3 vols. 1838-40) brougbt out in conjunction with which appeared in 1817, 2 vols. 4to.
Finn Magnusson, he rendered a similar service to the less attractive In 1818 he was appointed lieutenant governor of Fort Marlborough, annals of that barren coast. Among his other works is an edition of the seat of the English government at Bencoolen, on the island of the Færeyinga Saga,' or History of the Feroe Islands,' in which the Sumatra, and again returned to India, having first received the honour Icelandic original is accompanied not only by a Danish translation but of knighthood. He remained at Beucoolen six years, during which by one in the Feroe language, made by a resident clergyman, and &