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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
CAREY AND LEA.
BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY
CARTER & HENDEE.
EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to woit : BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit :
“ Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time ; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth.”
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned;" and also to the act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, * An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to tho authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints.”
LINNEUS. (See Linné.)
arrangement of plants, or the sexual sysLINNÉ, Charles, but more generally des- tem of botany, relative to which he wrote igrated by his Latinized name, Linnæus, a memoir, which was shown to Rudbeck, the most celebrated naturalist of his age, the botanical professor, who was so struck was a native of Sweden. He was the son with its ingenuity, that he received the of a clergyman, and was born May 13, author into his house, as tutor to his sons, old style, 1707, at Ræshult, in the province and made him his assistant in the office of of Smaland. His father was fond of gar- delivering, lectures. Forty years before, dening, and his little domain was stocked Rudbeck had made a journey to Lapland, with plants not commonly cultivated--a which excited the curiosity of the loarned. circumstance to which the prevailing taste A new journey was now concluded upon, of the son may be fairly attributed. He and, in 1732, Linné was sent, by the acadwas sent to the grammar-school, and af- emy of sciences at Upsal, to make a tour terwards to the gymnasium of Wexio, to through Lapland, from which he returned be educated for the ministry ; but, as he towards the close of the year. Fifty disliked the studies of the school, and pre- Swedish dollars were thought sufficient ferred to collect plants and catch butter- by Linné to defray his expenses, and with flies, he remained behind his fellow-pupils this small sum he made a journey of more in Latin and Greek, and the teachers de- than 3500 miles, unaccompanied. In clared to his father that he was only fit 1733, he visited the mining district around for a mechanic. The father sent him to a Fahlun, and gave lectures on mineralogy, shoemaker; but the physician Rothmann, having formed a system of that science, having discovered talents in the boy, in- afterwards published in his Systema Natuduced his parents to let him study. As ræ. While he was thus adding to his repubotany afforded him no prospect of a tation at Upsal, he became involved in a support, Linné was obliged to study medi- violent quarrel with the medical professor, cine. In 1727, he entered at the univer- Nicholas Rosen, who seems to have acted sity of Lund in Scania, whence he re- with a great deal of illiberality, and found moved, the following year, to Upsal. means to prevent Linné from continuing During his early residence there, the nar- his private lectures. He therefore engaged rowness of his father's circumstances ex- in a scientific tour through the province posed him to great difficulties, from which of Dalecarlia, and remained for some he was relieved by the patronage of Cel- time at Fahlun, lecturing and practissius, the theological professor, an eminenting medicine with considerable naturalist, who had become acquainted cess. He again went to Lapland on a with him in the botanical garden at Upsal, mineralogical tour, with seven young men; and through whose recommendation he and, in 1735, published a complete Flora obtained some private pupils. He also of this country—a classical work. In the formed a friendship with Artedi, a med- same year, he went to the university of ical student like himself
, devoted to the Harderwyck, in Holland, and took the decultivation of natural history. He now, in gree of M. D. He then visited Leyden, bis 24th year, conceived the idea of a new where the first sketch of his Systema Natu
ræ was printed in the form of tables, filling appeared originally in two volumes, 8vo. ; 12 folio pages. He became acquainted but the edition published by Willdenow with Jolin Frederic Gronovius, Boerhaave, at Berlin, 1799–1810, is extended to ten an i Jolin Burman of Amsterdam; and he volumes. In 1753, this great naturalist then published a work, entitled Funda- was created a knight of the polar star—an menta Botanica, exhibiting the basis of his honor never before bestowed on a literary botanical system. Mr. Clifford, a rich man. In 1761, he was elevated to the merchant of Amsterdam, made him su- rank of nobility. Literary honors were perintendent of his garden at Hartecamp, also conferred on him by scientific socienear Haerlem, rich in curious exotics, of ties in foreign countries. In 1768, be comwhich Linné drew up a systematic cata- pleted the plan of his Systema Natura, logue. In 1736, he made a visit to Eng- which, through successive editions, had land. He returned to Holland with many been enlarged to three octavo volumes. new plants for Mr. Clifford's garden, his Linné acquired a moderate degree of opdescription of which, entitled Hortus Clif- ulence, sufficient to enable him to purfortianus, with 37 plates, was now publish- chase an estate and mansion at Hammared in a most splendid form. He also pub- by, near Upsal, where he chiefly resided lished the first edition of his Genera during the last 15 years of his life. There Plantarum. In 1738, he made an excur- he had a museum of natural history, on sion to Paris, and, towards the end of which he gave lectures, and to which he that year, returned to bis native country, was constantly making additions, from and settled as a physician at Stockholm. the contributions of travellers and men of At first, he experienced neglect ; but, science in various parts of the world. through the influence of count Tessin, he His health, during a great part of his life, was appointed physician to the navy, and enabled him to pursue his researches with had a salary for giving public lectures on vigor and activity; but in May, 1774, he botany in the summer, and on mineralogy had an apoplectic attack, which obliged in the winter. The establishment of the him to relinquish the most laborious part royal academy of Stockholm, of which he of his professorial duties, and close his was one of the first members, contributed literary labors. A second attack occurred to the advancement of his reputation, by in 1776, and he afterwards experienced a the opportunities which it afforded for the third; but his death did not take place display of his abilities. In 1741, he suc- till January 11, 1778. Besides his works ceeded Roberg in the professorship of on natural history, he published a classimedicine at Upsal, to which was added fied Materia Medica, and a systematic the superintendence of the botanic garden, treatise on nosology, entitled Genera Morto the new arrangement and augmentation borum. Few men in the history of sciof which he devoted much of his time ence have shown such boldness, zeal, and attention. In 1745, appeared his activity and sagacity as Linné : natural Flora Suecica, and the next year his cata- science is under unspeakable obligations logue of Swedish animals, entitled Fauna to him, though the different systems esSuccica. He was elected to the post of tablished by him may be superseded by secretary of the academy of sciences at more perfect ones. Charles XIV, king of Upsal. In 1746, an honorary medal of biin Sweden, in 1819, ordered a monument to was struck at the expense of some noble- be erected to him in his native place. men; and, in 1747, he was nominated By his wife, the daughter of a physician royal archiater. Through his influence, at Fahlun, he had a son and four daughmany young naturalists were sent to ex- ters. The former, Charles von Linné, jun. plore various countries ; and to his zeal in was joint-professor of botany, and afterthe cause of science we owe the discove- wards professor of medicine at Upsal. ries in natural history made by Kalm, Os. He was well acquainted with science, but beck, Hasselquist and Loefling. He was distinguished himself by no discoveries employed by the queen of Sweden to de- of importance. On bis death, without scribe her museum at Drottningholm, issue, in 1783, the family became extinct. when he made a new scientific arrange
-Elizabeth Christina von Linné, one of ment of the shells contained in it. About the daughters of the great naturalist, 1751, he published his Philosophia Botan- studied botany, and became known by ica, and, in 1753, liis Species Plantarum, her discovery of the luminous property containing a description of every known of the flower of the tropæolum, of which plant, arranged according to the sexual an account was communicated to the system. This work of Linné, which Hal- academy of Stockholm. der terms his Maximum Opus et Æternum, LINSEED Oil. (See Flax.)
5 Lint, in surgery, is the scrapings of mentioned improvements, and calls him fine linen, used by surgeons in dressing the first lyric poet. A few fragments of wounds. It is made into various forms, poetry, under his name, are to be found which have different names, according to in Stobæus. the difference of the figures. Lint, made Lion (felis leo). The lion, like all up in an oval or orbicular form, is called a other cats, is armed, in each jaw, with pledgit; if in a cylindrical form, or in six strong and exceedingly sharp cutting shape of a date or olive stone, it is called a teeth, two formidable canine, and six dossil
. These different forms of lint are others, occupying the usual place of the required for many purposes ; as, 1. to molars, but differing from these by termistop blood in fresh wounds, by filling them nating in sharp protuberances. Besides up before the application of a bandage; these, there is a small tooth, or tubercle, though, if scraped lint be not at hand, a on each side of the upper jaw, immediatepiece of fine linen may be torn into small ly posterior to all the others. The tongue rags, and applied in the same manner: is covered with rough and elevated papilin very large hemorrhages, the lint or læ, with their points directed backwards. rags should be first dipped in some styptic The claws, which are five in number on liquor, as alcohol, or oil of turpentine, the fore feet, and four on the hinder, are or sprinkled with some styptic powder: of great length, extremely powerful, and 2. to agglutinate or heal wounds; to much curved; like those of the other cats, which end lint is very serviceable, if they are retractile within a sheath enspread with some digestive ointment, closed in the skin covering the paws. balsam, or vulnerary liquor : 3. in The lion is distinguished from his kindred drying up wounds and ulcers, and species by the uniformity of his color, forwarding the formation of a cicatrix : which is pale tawny above, becoming 4. in keeping the lips of wounds at a somewhat lighter beneath, and never, exproper distance, that they may not hastily cept while very young, exhibiting any unite before the bottom is well digested markings; and also by the long and flowand healed : 5. they are highly neces- ing mane of the old male, which, coversary to preserve wounds from the injuries ing the whole head, extends backwards of the air.—Surgeons of former ages used over his shoulders. Notwithstanding the compresses of sponge, wool, feathers, or praises that have, from time immemorial, cotton, linen being less plentiful than in been bestowed on this animal, for grateful later times; but lint is far preferable to all affection, dauntless courage, and merciful these, and is, at present, universally used. forbearance, he is nothing more, in moral
Lintz, capital of Upper Austria, on the and intellectual faculties, than a cat of imDanube, at the influx of the Traun, is mense size and strength, and endowed well built, with a bridge 400 paces long, with all the guileful and treacherous qualand has, exclusive of the garrison, a popu- ities of that treacherous tribe. His dauntlation of 18,700 inhabitants; houses, 1000. less courage is a mere consciousness of Here is the largest woollen manufactory superiority over the animals by which he in Austria, in which fine carpets are made. is surrounded, and wholly disappears in Much gunpowder is also manufactured the neighborhood of man; his merciful here. În 1784, Lintz was made a bishop's forbearance is nothing more than that he see. In 1674, the lyceum was founded by never destroys more than satiates his hunLeopold, and, in 1824, institutions for the ger or revenge, and that, when under the deat' and duinb, and one for the blind, dominion of man, he suffers his keeper to were erected. The Northern Institute is approach him without injury. The lion a college for the Catholics of the north of is only met with in the warmer regions of Germany. Lon. 14° 16' 45'' E.; lat. 48° the old world, and more particularly of 18 54" N.
Africa, in whose vast forests and arid Linus; the name of a celebrated mu- deserts he reigns supreme and unconsician of antiquity, to whom Diodorus trolled. He is met with, but rarely, in Siculus, quoting Dionysius of Mitylene, parts of India, Arabia and Persia, but his attributes the introduction of verse and range in these countries is becoming very music into Greece. He was a native of limited. From Libya, whence the Romans Chalcis, and to him are ascribed a poem obtained so many, he has almost disapon the exploits of Bacchus in India, a peared; and in classic Greece, where, we treatise on mythology, the addition of a are informed by Aristotle, he once occurstring to the lyre then in use, and the in- red, none are to be found. In America, vention of melody and rhythm. Suidas this species never occurred, its place being also joins in giving him credit for the last- supplied by the puma. Naturalists have