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private virtue and the sacred rights of vious windings to the most splendid
conscience ? Must a man who forms a pinnacle of worldy grandeur.
party attachment give his morality in Who can be surprised, after such an
to the keeping of an unscrupulous and avowal of principle, at the practices
daring leader, or consign it to the which are afterwards inculcated or de-
perilous guardianship of an obedient fended ? A party need not be asham-
and uninquiring majority? Will even ed, says this enlightened champion, of
neutrality, after all but a poor and dis- its most selfish and interested adher-
reputable compromise betwixt profli- ents.—The Ministers are surrounded
gacy and fear, not satisfy the cravings and sustained by their hirelings; and
of party spirit; but must its votary would you range all the corruption on
speak, decide, vote, and act, in con- their side, and deny to their opponents
tradiction to the clearest dictates of his the benefit of a share in the ample
understanding, and sacrifice the pre- stock of available depravity ? “When
sent good of his country to the future we see by what means, and by what
triumph of his party? It is vain to persons, the worst of Ministers is al-
compare this profligate conformity to ways sure to be loaded (says the Re-
the laws of a voluntary association, viewer), can there be a more deplor-
with that inevitable obedience due to able infatuation than theirs, who would
the laws of society, into which we are see him displaced for the salvation of
cast by fortune, and from which we the state, and yet scruple to obtain as-
cannot be severed without ruin. Men sistance in the just warfare waged av
of integrity seek party connexions for gainst him, from every feeling, and mo-
the general good" alone ; but how is tive, and principle, that can induce any
that to be promoted by the means of one to join in the struggle?"*_It is
particular crime? Is that systematic known to all the world, that there are
hypocrisy which has become so fatally many base and selfish party attach-
prevalent among factions, as to have mentsy and it has long been suspect-
made the very name of party a bye- ed, that they are not the least nume-
word and a reproach, favourable to pri- rous in quarters where the reputation
vate honour, to public virtue, to that of purity and independence is most
lofty independence so proudly arrogat- fiercely vindicated; but it never bem
ed by the very men in whose name fore occurred to any person to defend
this profligate avowal has been made, them on principle--to embody them
and of whose public principles it must in the shape of a political theorem-to
be considered as a solemn declaration admit them as a part of his serious and
put upon their most authentic and en solemn profession of political faith.
during record ? The danger of “the Why, this is the very unblushing nak-
establishment forever" (to use the edness of political profligacy-the cal-
words of the Reviewer), « of the bad lous unthinking prostitution of party
system which all agree ought to be the open, avowed, vaunted, conse
changed,” will not justify--will not crated, triumph of vice, without one
even palliate for a moment, this mon- particle left of redeeming shame.the
strous compromise, for that system is unveiled, unretiring, hideous display
not so bad which may not be put down of unstinted corruption.
by other and more legitimate weapons, base retainers of party were kept in
---and no system of public policy, how the shadewhile they were left to
inexpedient soever, can be compared burrow under ground in its shameful
in magnitude of mischief to the fatal and midnight work-while their very
corruption of private honour. In vain existence was considered a scandal to
will the Reviewer claim the sanction the confederacy, and all visible con-
of Burke for this detestable sophism— nexion with them was studiously a
in vain does he discharge his pointless voided as a disgrace-there was still :
sarcasm against the unsullied bosoms semblance of virtue left to contract and
of those who shudder at the remorse overawe, if it could not extirpate the
less latitude of his party faith-who evil and to secure the more distin-
love to hold fast that integrity which guished and disinterested leaders from
is the living source of all public and the infamy, if it could not wholly save
private good and would scorn to be them from the guilt of so foul á con
seduced into the crooked passages of tamination. But here is an open
an unprincipled ambition, although
they should conduct through their de

* Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 190.

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absolute avowal of corruptiona pub- for the country in so short a space of lished recruiting placard from the party time? They introduced upon sound of the “natural leaders of the people, and enlightened principles a new mito intimate to the world that no high litary system ; they raised the revenue standard of moral principle is recoge to meet the extravagant demands ocnised by the corps, or demanded of its casioned by the unprovident schemes members, who shall be welcomed and of their predecessors, until they could cherished, whatever be their moral retrace their steps, and relieve the stature or constitution-nothing being people, by economy and peace; they required, but that they shall possess began those inquiries into public exand exert in full vigour, the pugnaci- penditure, which have since, in spite ous principle against the existing Ad- of their successors, produced a mateministration. Let the Whigs cease in rial saving to the country, and which, future to talk of purity and independ had they continued in power, would

ere now have effectually relieved its The topics of coalition and of aris- burthens; they laid the foundation for tocratical influence are delicate ones peace with America, and of tranquilfor the party whose cause the Review- lity in Ireland; finally, they abolished er advocates; yet has he ventured to the slave trade, which had grown up discuss them with the aid of his usual to a horrible maturity under Mr Pitt's gratuitous assumptions and palpable eloquent invectives, and which he, in mistakes as to the true nature of the the plenitude of his authority, had question. The point for consideration never ventured even to abridge."* The is not, whether aristocratical influence, last item of this swelling enumeration mingling itself with the other powers is the only one deserving notice ; and in a mixed government, be mischie- with most unfeigned gratitude do we. vous, or include the evils of a pure thank that administration for the aboaristocracy ; but whether this influ- lition of the slave trade, which the long ence, if not mixed in due proportions, predominance of selfish feeling and but absolutely predominant in the worse than barbarian prejudice alone constitution of a party, can be restrain- compells us to call a glorious boon to ed, in the natural arrogance of its humanity. Such was the palpable and career, by any of the barriers which stupendous character of the enormity. the constitution opposes to the actual But as to the military system, by possessors of power, from giving full which they repressed the ardour, and scope to its partial and domineering almost dissolved the splendid volunspirit-from insulting the prince and tary array formed for the defence of oppressing the people from degene- the country as to their financial dorating in substance, if not in name, in- ings under the inventive imbecility of to a detestable oligarchy ? This ques- their stripling Chancellor of the Extion the Reviewer has not well solved. chequer-as to their invisible, and While upon

the subject of coalitions, hitherto unrecorded operations in Irehe has said no more but that they may land and America--their more characby possibility' be honest-a mode of teristic and memorable expeditions reasoning not well adapted to defend their negotiations with Russia, by some coalitions which it was probably which they committed a yet unexpihis aim to justify, but upon which the áted treason to the interests of Europe, public voice has long pronounced an it is needless to say any thing, as there unalterable judgment.

surely was more valour than discretion The Reviewer having thus.“ pre

in the above ostentatious parade of the pared the way (as he says), for the Reviewer, and his absolute challenge few observations which he has to offer of comparison and inquiry. upon the present aspect of politics in How pitiful it is to see him exhaust this country," that is, having, under the artillery of his eloquence against pretence of a general dissertation on the harmless loquacity and stumbling party, attempted to apologise for some latinity of poor Major Cartwright of the memorable errors with which could not his gray hairs and expiring his own party is chargeable, rushes ardour have protected him from the "into the midst of things,” by the rude assault of a fellow-labourer, alfollowing panegyric on the short ad- though upon a lower slope,fof the field ministration of 1806. 5. But where is the Ministry that ever did so much Edinburgh Review, Vol. 59, p. 196,

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of liberty? The Whigs indeed com- placed.”* But the present Ministers, plain bitterly of the injury done them who are, in the opinion of the Reby the existing race of "Utopians,” viewer, “ beyond all comparison the who are naturally more impatient un most contemptible, in pretensions, of der the repulse which they have re any that have ever governed a great ceived from an Opposition bound to nation,” would, in the supposed event, them by many ties of kindred, than become the Opposition; and if the under the discountenance of a Ministry character thus given of them be just, to whom they are, and ever must, re- it is impossible that men can be worse main entire strangers. Of this infa- qualified for the undertaking; Nay, tuated party, we pity the wild enthu. they have in fact discovered their utsiasm of some, and detest the malig- ter incapacity, on a former occasion, nant turbulence of others; but in the for this great constitutional trust. excess of their insanity, every one sees

“ The risk,"

says the Keviewer, the promise of an approaching and " would be considerable, of the new speedy dissolution.

Opposition rather encouraging than We engaged to shew, that the un- checking such a dereliction of duty : wary zeal of the Reviewer had prompt- they followed this course during the ed him to state his case in such a year 1806, when the country had not manner, as to lead irresistibly to the the benefit of a constitutional Opposiinference, that the public interests de- tion.”+ But how splendid are the mand the continuance of his friends qualifications of the Whigs for this in Opposition ; and we proceed to ful- great undertaking !-" It is certain," fil our promise by quoting his own we are told, “ that at no period of the words; As long as men are ambi- English history was there ever embotious, corrupt, and servile,” says he, died so formidable an association in be

every sovereign will attempt to ex- half of the principles of civil and relitend his power; he will easily find gious liberty, and, in general, of libeinstruments wherewithal to carry on ral, enlightened, and patriotic policy, this bad work; if unresisted, his en as the great body of the Whigs now croachments upon public liberty will are.” The country, it would seem, go on with an accelerated swiftness, has but a choice of evils ; but as there each step affording new facilities for can be no comparison betwixt the danmaking another stride, and furnishing ger of having even a weak and corrupt additional confidence to attempt it.” * Ministry, when overawed by the conSplendid as are the pretensions of his stitutional terrors of a formidable Op friends, the Reviewer does not, we position, and that of having an adpresume, assert their entire exemption ministration resistless in talent, and from the frailties and corruptions of overwhelming in influence, which, inhuman nature; it might be necessary, stead of being retarded in a career of therefore, if they were in power, to guilty ambition, would be more rapidwatch even their operations. He ad- ly impelled by an under-current of mits as much, indeed, and eludes one sympathising corruption ;-as there of the difficulties of the discussion, by can be no comparison betwixt the ocassuming the fact. “ Of the imputa- casional perversion of power and the tions cast upon party men,” says he, utter extinction of liberty, the infer. “for deserting their followers or their ence is irresistible, that things ought principles when they take office, it is to remain as they are, and that the the less necessary to speak at large; Whigs perform tñeir best and noblest because, as soon as they have the go- service to their country in the ranks vernment in their hands, they ought to of Opposition. be closely watched, and are pretty sure to be so by those whom they have dis

Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 195,

+ Ibid. p. 195. * Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 184.

Ibid. p. 197,

2

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

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would's

Platina.--A very singular mass of pla. the horizon, allowiņg for the necessary cor-
tinum has lately been foand in South Ame rections, was 15°; its distance from the true
rica, and is now deposited in the Royal Mu- sun, which bore E. by S. by the compass,
seum at Madrid. Dn. Ignacio Hurtado is · was 22° 30', and its continuance upwards of
the proprietor of certain lands in the Que- half an hour. No halo round the sun
brada de Apotó, in the province of Notiya, was perceptible at the time.
in the government of Chocó. In this Que At half-past seven, a beautifully coloured
brada is situated his gold mine, called Con- parhelia appeared on an attenuated Cirrosa
doto. One of his negro slaves, named Jus- tratus, namely, one on each side of, and
to, found this mass of platina in the year both horizontal with, and equidistant from,
1814, near the gold mine. Dn. Ignacio, the real sun, which was then 22° in altitude.
most generously, and full of ardour for the These two mock-suns sometimes appeared
sciences, presented this unequalled specimen at the same time for two or three minutes,
to His Most Catholic Majesty, through his and at other times alternately, when their
Excellency Sor. Dn. Pablo Morillo, com colours were brightest: they disappeared
mander-in-chief of the Royal Spanish ar twice from the intervention of clouds; and,
mies in the province of Venezuela, who at the place of their re-appearance, a bright
transmitted the same, together with other light was first perceived in the cloud, gra-
objects of natural history, belonging to the dually forming into the shape of a cone ly-
botanical department, under the Spanish ing horizontally, with its apex turned from
naturalist, Dn. José Mutis, to Europe, the sun; and at the base of this cone,
through General Pascual Enrile, who brought nearest the sun, there was a light red, a de-
it safely to Spain, and forwarded it to the licate yellow, and lastly, a pale blue, which
hands of the king himself by Captain Anto- altogether formed the mock-sun : when the
nio Van Halen. Being an unique speci- parhelia appeared most perfect, they were
men, his majesty gave it to the museum. circular, of an orange colour, and nearly as
Its figure is oval, and inclining to convex. large again as the apparent size of the sun's
The Spaniards term it “ Pepita," which disc: only two parts of the solar halo, in
signifies water worn, and not in sitú. which they were situated, could be traced ;

Its large diameter is two inches, four lines and these were perpendicular through the
and a half, and its small diameter two phenomena, which did not disappear till af-
inches. Its height is four inches and four ter eight o'clock.
lines. Its weight is one pound, nine ounces, The State of the Clouds and Instruments.
and one drachm. Its colour is that of na During this rare and pleasing sight, there
tive silver. Its surface is rough, and here were, in the vicinity of the sun, Cirrocu
and there spotted with yellow iron ochre. muli and plumose Cirri descending to Cir.
The negro who found it suspected that it rostrati, and Cumulus clouds rising in the
contained gold : he tried to fracture it, but W. from whence a fresh breeze and vapour
he was only able to make a dent in the me sprang up. The barometer at 30 inches,
tal, which is, however, sufficient to show its but sinking slowly; the thermometer rose
character.

from 56° to 62°; and De Luc's whalebone
To avoid every possible doubt about the hygrometer receded from 650 to 60°. Be-
mass of platina, it should perhaps have been fore ten o'clock, the azure sky was com-
mentioned, that the Spanish Secretary of pletely veiled with compound modifications
State, his Excellency Dn. José García de of clouds, followed by large passing Nimbi
Leon and Pizarro, had taken all the mea and a few drops of rain.
sures to ascertain the fact of its being ge The Rhinoceros. It has been questioned
nuine native platina.

if a musket-ball would penetrate the hide
Precious Opal. Two mines of precious of a rhinoceros. An opportunity lately oc-
opal have lately been discovered in the king curred of making the experiment on the
dom of Mexico, in the district of Gracias de carcass of an old animal of uncommon size,
Dios, sixty Spanish miles in the interior of which had been killed near Givalpara, on
Honduras. The opals are imbedded in the border of the wild country of Asam, a
Perulam earth, and are accompanied by all spot where rhinceroses abound. After re-
the other varieties of opal, but particularly peated trials the bullet was found always to
with the sky blue Girasol, and the sun opal Ay off, for the skin being very thick and
of Sonnenschmidt.

extremely loose, it was constantly by that.
Parhelia at Gosport.---At half-past six, means put out of its course.
A.M. a fine parhelion appeared on a thin In that part of the country there are many
vapour passing to a Cirrostratus cloud ; it rhinoceroses, and elephants in vast numbers.
was situated E. by N., and its altitude from So numerous a flock was seen crossing the

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Burhamputa River, at a breadth of two in which the cow-tree yields the greatest miles, that the channel seemed full ; nor was quantity of milk. When this fluid is exthe end of the line perceptible, although posed to the air, perhaps, in consequence of they had been some time passing. A the absorption of the oxygen of the atmosboat, going down the river, was obliged to phere, its surface becomes covered with put about, as it was impossible to get by membranes of a substance that appears to them ; and it was a considerable time be- be of a decided animal nature, yellowish, fore the line had left the jungles of the thready, and of a cheesy consistence. These eastern side, whilst the jungles on the west membranes, when separated from the more ern side prevented their course being traced aqueous part of the fluid, are almost as by the eye.

elastic as caoutchouc ; but at the same time The people of the country say, that the they are as much disposed to become putrid rhinoceros is much an overmatch for the as gelatine. The natives give the name of elephant; as the former being very nimble, cheese to the coagulum, which is separated gets round the elephant, makes his attack by the contact of the air ; in the course of in the same manner as the wild boar, and five or six days it becomes sour. The milk, rips up the belly of his antagonist.

kept for some time in a corked phial, had Gas Lights.-By the list of the Local deposited a little coagulum, and still exhalActs, it appears, that legal powers were ob- ed its balsamic odour. If the recent juice tained, in the last session of Parliament, to be mixed with cold water, the coagulum is light with gas

formed in sınall quantity only ; but the seBath, Liverpool,

paration of the viscid membranes occurs Leeds, Edinburgh,

when it is placed in contact with nitric acid. Nottingham, Worcester,

This remarkable tree seems to be peculiar Oxford,

Kidderminster, to the Cordilliere du Littoral, especially Sheffield,

Brighthelmstone, from Barbula to the lake of Maracaybo. men of the most considerable and most in- There are likewise some traces of it near the telligent cities and towns in the empire. village of San Mateo ; and, according to

Gas Light Apparatus.-Mr Mair, of the account of M. Bredmeyer, in the valley Kelso, has, by a simple process, construct of Caucagua, three days journey to the east ed an apparatus which

produces gas suf. of the Caraccas. This naturalist has likeficient to supply ten different burners, the wise described the vegetable milk of the cor. flame of each far surpassing that of the tree as possessing an agreeable flavour and largest candle, and which completely il an aromatic odour; the natives of Caucagua luminate his shop, work-shop, and dwels, call it the milk-tree. ling-house, with the most pure pellucid New Researches on Heat.-MM. Dulong brightness, the cost of which is only about and Petit have lately given to the world a three pence per night. Wax cloth bags Memoir on Heat, which gained the prize have been invented, which, when inflated medal for 1818, of the Academy of Sciences. with gas, are removed at pleasure from place The title of the paper is, “ On the Measure to place, and when ignited, they answer all of Temperatures, and on the Laws of the the purposes of candles. By this process, Communication of Heat." it would seem that any person, with bags as Law 1. If the cooling of a body placed above prepared, may be furnished with gas in a vacuum terminated by a medium abfrom the coal-pits, and apply the gas so solutely deprived of heat, or of the power of procured to whatever number of tubes for radiating, could be observed, the velocity of lights he has occasion for.

cooling would decrease in a geometrical proCow Tree.-M. Humboldt and his com- gression, whilst the temperature diminished panions, in the course of their travels, heard in an arithmetical progression. an account of a tree which grows in the 2. For the same temperature of the bounvalleys of Aragua, the juice of which is a dary of the vacuum in which a body is hourishing milk, and which, from that cir- placed, the velocity of cooling for the excess cunstance, has received the name of the of temperature, in arithmetical progression, low-tree. The tree in its general aspect re will decrease, as the terms of geometrical sembles the chrysophyllum cainito; its leaves progression diminished by a constant num. are oblong, pointed, leathery, and alternate, ber. The ratio of this geometrical progresmarked with lateral veins, projecting down“ sion is the same for all bodies, and equal to wards ; they are parallel, and are ten inches 1.0077. long. When incisions are made into the 3. The velocity of cooling in a vacuum trunk, it discharges abundantly a gluti. for the same excess of temperature increases nous milk, moderately thick, without any in a geometrical progression, the temperaacridness, and exhaling an agreeable balsa- ture of the surrounding body increasing in mic odour. The travellers drank consider. an arithmetical progression. The ratio of able quantities of it without experiencing the progression is also 1.0077 for all bodies, any injurious effects ; its viscidity only ren 4. The velocity of cooling due to the condering it rather unpleasant. The superin. tact of a gas is entirely independent of the tendent of the plantation assured them that nature of the surface of bodies. the negroes acquire flesh during the season 5. The velocity of cooling due to the con.

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