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private virtue and the sacred rights of vious windings to the most splendid
* Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 190.
absolute avowal of corruptiona pub- for the country in so short a space of lished recruiting placard from the party time? They introduced upon sound of the “natural leaders of the people, and enlightened principles a new mito intimate to the world that no high litary system ; they raised the revenue standard of moral principle is recoge to meet the extravagant demands ocnised by the corps, or demanded of its casioned by the unprovident schemes members, who shall be welcomed and of their predecessors, until they could cherished, whatever be their moral retrace their steps, and relieve the stature or constitution-nothing being people, by economy and peace; they required, but that they shall possess began those inquiries into public exand exert in full vigour, the pugnaci- penditure, which have since, in spite ous principle against the existing Ad- of their successors, produced a mateministration. Let the Whigs cease in rial saving to the country, and which, future to talk of purity and independ had they continued in power, would
ere now have effectually relieved its The topics of coalition and of aris- burthens; they laid the foundation for tocratical influence are delicate ones peace with America, and of tranquilfor the party whose cause the Review- lity in Ireland; finally, they abolished er advocates; yet has he ventured to the slave trade, which had grown up discuss them with the aid of his usual to a horrible maturity under Mr Pitt's gratuitous assumptions and palpable eloquent invectives, and which he, in mistakes as to the true nature of the the plenitude of his authority, had question. The point for consideration never ventured even to abridge."* The is not, whether aristocratical influence, last item of this swelling enumeration mingling itself with the other powers is the only one deserving notice ; and in a mixed government, be mischie- with most unfeigned gratitude do we. vous, or include the evils of a pure thank that administration for the aboaristocracy ; but whether this influ- lition of the slave trade, which the long ence, if not mixed in due proportions, predominance of selfish feeling and but absolutely predominant in the worse than barbarian prejudice alone constitution of a party, can be restrain- compells us to call a glorious boon to ed, in the natural arrogance of its humanity. Such was the palpable and career, by any of the barriers which stupendous character of the enormity. the constitution opposes to the actual But as to the military system, by possessors of power, from giving full which they repressed the ardour, and scope to its partial and domineering almost dissolved the splendid volunspirit-from insulting the prince and tary array formed for the defence of oppressing the people from degene- the country as to their financial dorating in substance, if not in name, in- ings under the inventive imbecility of to a detestable oligarchy ? This ques- their stripling Chancellor of the Extion the Reviewer has not well solved. chequer-as to their invisible, and While upon
the subject of coalitions, hitherto unrecorded operations in Irehe has said no more but that they may land and America--their more characby possibility' be honest-a mode of teristic and memorable expeditions reasoning not well adapted to defend their negotiations with Russia, by some coalitions which it was probably which they committed a yet unexpihis aim to justify, but upon which the áted treason to the interests of Europe, public voice has long pronounced an it is needless to say any thing, as there unalterable judgment.
surely was more valour than discretion The Reviewer having thus.“ pre
in the above ostentatious parade of the pared the way (as he says), for the Reviewer, and his absolute challenge few observations which he has to offer of comparison and inquiry. upon the present aspect of politics in How pitiful it is to see him exhaust this country," that is, having, under the artillery of his eloquence against pretence of a general dissertation on the harmless loquacity and stumbling party, attempted to apologise for some latinity of poor Major Cartwright of the memorable errors with which could not his gray hairs and expiring his own party is chargeable, rushes ardour have protected him from the "into the midst of things,” by the rude assault of a fellow-labourer, alfollowing panegyric on the short ad- though upon a lower slope,fof the field ministration of 1806. 5. But where is the Ministry that ever did so much Edinburgh Review, Vol. 59, p. 196,
of liberty? The Whigs indeed com- placed.”* But the present Ministers, plain bitterly of the injury done them who are, in the opinion of the Reby the existing race of "Utopians,” viewer, “ beyond all comparison the who are naturally more impatient un most contemptible, in pretensions, of der the repulse which they have re any that have ever governed a great ceived from an Opposition bound to nation,” would, in the supposed event, them by many ties of kindred, than become the Opposition; and if the under the discountenance of a Ministry character thus given of them be just, to whom they are, and ever must, re- it is impossible that men can be worse main entire strangers. Of this infa- qualified for the undertaking; Nay, tuated party, we pity the wild enthu. they have in fact discovered their utsiasm of some, and detest the malig- ter incapacity, on a former occasion, nant turbulence of others; but in the for this great constitutional trust. excess of their insanity, every one sees
“ The risk,"
says the Keviewer, the promise of an approaching and " would be considerable, of the new speedy dissolution.
Opposition rather encouraging than We engaged to shew, that the un- checking such a dereliction of duty : wary zeal of the Reviewer had prompt- they followed this course during the ed him to state his case in such a year 1806, when the country had not manner, as to lead irresistibly to the the benefit of a constitutional Opposiinference, that the public interests de- tion.”+ But how splendid are the mand the continuance of his friends qualifications of the Whigs for this in Opposition ; and we proceed to ful- great undertaking !-" It is certain," fil our promise by quoting his own we are told, “ that at no period of the words; “ As long as men are ambi- English history was there ever embotious, corrupt, and servile,” says he, died so formidable an association in be
every sovereign will attempt to ex- half of the principles of civil and relitend his power; he will easily find gious liberty, and, in general, of libeinstruments wherewithal to carry on ral, enlightened, and patriotic policy, this bad work; if unresisted, his en as the great body of the Whigs now croachments upon public liberty will are.” The country, it would seem, go on with an accelerated swiftness, has but a choice of evils ; but as there each step affording new facilities for can be no comparison betwixt the danmaking another stride, and furnishing ger of having even a weak and corrupt additional confidence to attempt it.” * Ministry, when overawed by the conSplendid as are the pretensions of his stitutional terrors of a formidable Op friends, the Reviewer does not, we position, and that of having an adpresume, assert their entire exemption ministration resistless in talent, and from the frailties and corruptions of overwhelming in influence, which, inhuman nature; it might be necessary, stead of being retarded in a career of therefore, if they were in power, to guilty ambition, would be more rapidwatch even their operations. He ad- ly impelled by an under-current of mits as much, indeed, and eludes one sympathising corruption ;-as there of the difficulties of the discussion, by can be no comparison betwixt the ocassuming the fact. “ Of the imputa- casional perversion of power and the tions cast upon party men,” says he, utter extinction of liberty, the infer. “for deserting their followers or their ence is irresistible, that things ought principles when they take office, it is to remain as they are, and that the the less necessary to speak at large; Whigs perform tñeir best and noblest because, as soon as they have the go- service to their country in the ranks vernment in their hands, they ought to of Opposition. be closely watched, and are pretty sure to be so by those whom they have dis
Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 195,
+ Ibid. p. 195. * Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 184.
Ibid. p. 197,
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
Platina.--A very singular mass of pla. the horizon, allowiņg for the necessary cor-
Its large diameter is two inches, four lines and these were perpendicular through the
from 56° to 62°; and De Luc's whalebone
if a musket-ball would penetrate the hide
extremely loose, it was constantly by that.
Burhamputa River, at a breadth of two in which the cow-tree yields the greatest miles, that the channel seemed full ; nor was quantity of milk. When this fluid is exthe end of the line perceptible, although posed to the air, perhaps, in consequence of they had been some time passing. A the absorption of the oxygen of the atmosboat, going down the river, was obliged to phere, its surface becomes covered with put about, as it was impossible to get by membranes of a substance that appears to them ; and it was a considerable time be- be of a decided animal nature, yellowish, fore the line had left the jungles of the thready, and of a cheesy consistence. These eastern side, whilst the jungles on the west membranes, when separated from the more ern side prevented their course being traced aqueous part of the fluid, are almost as by the eye.
elastic as caoutchouc ; but at the same time The people of the country say, that the they are as much disposed to become putrid rhinoceros is much an overmatch for the as gelatine. The natives give the name of elephant; as the former being very nimble, cheese to the coagulum, which is separated gets round the elephant, makes his attack by the contact of the air ; in the course of in the same manner as the wild boar, and five or six days it becomes sour. The milk, rips up the belly of his antagonist.
kept for some time in a corked phial, had Gas Lights.-By the list of the Local deposited a little coagulum, and still exhalActs, it appears, that legal powers were ob- ed its balsamic odour. If the recent juice tained, in the last session of Parliament, to be mixed with cold water, the coagulum is light with gas
formed in sınall quantity only ; but the seBath, Liverpool,
paration of the viscid membranes occurs Leeds, Edinburgh,
when it is placed in contact with nitric acid. Nottingham, Worcester,
This remarkable tree seems to be peculiar Oxford,
Kidderminster, to the Cordilliere du Littoral, especially Sheffield,
Brighthelmstone, from Barbula to the lake of Maracaybo. men of the most considerable and most in- There are likewise some traces of it near the telligent cities and towns in the empire. village of San Mateo ; and, according to
Gas Light Apparatus.-Mr Mair, of the account of M. Bredmeyer, in the valley Kelso, has, by a simple process, construct of Caucagua, three days journey to the east ed an apparatus which
produces gas suf. of the Caraccas. This naturalist has likeficient to supply ten different burners, the wise described the vegetable milk of the cor. flame of each far surpassing that of the tree as possessing an agreeable flavour and largest candle, and which completely il an aromatic odour; the natives of Caucagua luminate his shop, work-shop, and dwels, call it the milk-tree. ling-house, with the most pure pellucid New Researches on Heat.-MM. Dulong brightness, the cost of which is only about and Petit have lately given to the world a three pence per night. Wax cloth bags Memoir on Heat, which gained the prize have been invented, which, when inflated medal for 1818, of the Academy of Sciences. with gas, are removed at pleasure from place The title of the paper is, “ On the Measure to place, and when ignited, they answer all of Temperatures, and on the Laws of the the purposes of candles. By this process, Communication of Heat." it would seem that any person, with bags as Law 1. If the cooling of a body placed above prepared, may be furnished with gas in a vacuum terminated by a medium abfrom the coal-pits, and apply the gas so solutely deprived of heat, or of the power of procured to whatever number of tubes for radiating, could be observed, the velocity of lights he has occasion for.
cooling would decrease in a geometrical proCow Tree.-M. Humboldt and his com- gression, whilst the temperature diminished panions, in the course of their travels, heard in an arithmetical progression. an account of a tree which grows in the 2. For the same temperature of the bounvalleys of Aragua, the juice of which is a dary of the vacuum in which a body is hourishing milk, and which, from that cir- placed, the velocity of cooling for the excess cunstance, has received the name of the of temperature, in arithmetical progression, low-tree. The tree in its general aspect re will decrease, as the terms of geometrical sembles the chrysophyllum cainito; its leaves progression diminished by a constant num. are oblong, pointed, leathery, and alternate, ber. The ratio of this geometrical progresmarked with lateral veins, projecting down“ sion is the same for all bodies, and equal to wards ; they are parallel, and are ten inches 1.0077. long. When incisions are made into the 3. The velocity of cooling in a vacuum trunk, it discharges abundantly a gluti. for the same excess of temperature increases nous milk, moderately thick, without any in a geometrical progression, the temperaacridness, and exhaling an agreeable balsa- ture of the surrounding body increasing in mic odour. The travellers drank consider. an arithmetical progression. The ratio of able quantities of it without experiencing the progression is also 1.0077 for all bodies, any injurious effects ; its viscidity only ren 4. The velocity of cooling due to the condering it rather unpleasant. The superin. tact of a gas is entirely independent of the tendent of the plantation assured them that nature of the surface of bodies. the negroes acquire flesh during the season 5. The velocity of cooling due to the con.