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CHAP. I. Elegance in the largest acceptation defined, its more general

forms exhibited, with their different Objects, Ends, and Characters .

CHAP. II. Of Wit, Humour, and Ridicule

SECT. I. Of Wit

Sect. II. Of Humour

Sect. III. Of Ridicule - - - - - -

CHAP. III. The Doctrine of the preceding Chapter defended

Sect. I. Aristotle's account of the ridiculous explained - - -

Sect. II. Hobbes's account of laughter examined - - - -

CHAP. IV. Of the Relation which Eloquence bears to Logic and to

Grammar - - - - - - - -

CHAP. V. Of the different Sources of Evidence, and the different Subjects

to which they are respectively adapted ...

Sect. I. Of Intuitive Evidence

- - - - -

Part I. Mathematical Axioms - - - - - -

Part II. Consciousness - - - - - -

Part III. Common Sense

- - - - -

SECT. II. Of Deductive Evidence

Part I. Division of the subject into Scientific and Moral, with the prin-

cipal distinctions between them

Part II. The nature and origin of Experience

Part III. The subdivisions of Moral Reasoning - - - -

1. Experience - - -

2. Analogy - - -

3. Testimony

: - - - - - - .

4. Calculations of Chances -

Part IV. The superiority of Scientific Evidence re-examined - -

CHAP. VI. Of the Nature and Use of the scholastic Art of Syllogizing ..

CHAP. VII. Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought to have of the

Hearers as Men in general-

Sect. I. As endowed with Understanding - - - -

SECT. II. As endowed with Imagination - - - -

SECT. III. As endowed with Memory .

SECT. IV. As endowed with Passions

Sect. V. The circumstances that are chiefly instrumental in operating on

the Passions -

Part I. Probability ,

Part II. Plausibility .

Part III. Importance - - - - - - -

Part IV. Proximity of Time


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SECT, III. The Impropriety - -

. 190

Part I. Impropriety in single Words

ords . . . . . 191
Part II. Impropriety in Phrases . . . . - 201

CHAP. IV. Some grammatical doubts in regard to English Construction

stated and examined

- - - 204

CHAP. V. Of the qualities of Style strictly Rhetorical -

CHAP. VI. Of Perspicuity - - - - - - - 216

SECT. I. The Obscure .


Part I. From Defect


Part II. From bad Arrangement


Part III. From using the same word in different senses .


Part IV. From an uncertain reference in Pronouns and Relatives


Part V. From too artificial a structure of the Sentence .


Part VI. From technical Terms - - -


Part VII. From long Sentences -

SECT. II. The Double Meaning ..


Part I. Equivocation -

Part II. Ambiguity -.


SECT. III. The Unintelligible .


Part I. From Confusion of Thought .


Part II. From Affectation of Excellence .


Part III. From Want of Meaning -


Under this the various kinds of Nonsense,

1. The Puerile
- -


2. The Learned - - -

- 249

3. The Profound

. - 253

4. The Marvellous - - - - - - - ib.

CHAP. VII. What is the Cause that Nonsense so often escapes being

detected, both by the Writer and by the Reader -

• 256

Sect. I. The nature and power of Signs, both in Speaking and in Thinking

SECT. II. The application of the preceding Principles - - - 265

CHAP. VIII. The extensive Usefulness of Perspicuity


SECT. I. When is Obscurity apposite, if ever it be apposite, and what kind ? ib.

Sect. II. Objections answered - - - -


CHAP. IX. May there not be an Excess of Perspicuity? - . . 283

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All art is founded in science, and the science is of little value which does not serve as a foundation to some beneficial art. On the most sublime of all sciences, theology and ethics, is built the most important of all arts, the art of living. The abstract mathematical sciences serve as a ground-work to the arts of the land-measurer and the accountant; and in conjunction with natural philosophy, including geography and astronomy, to those of the architect, the navigator, the dialist, and many others. Of what consequence anatomy is to surgery, and that part of physiology which teaches the laws of gravitation and of motion is to the artificer, is a matter too obvious to need illustration. The general remark might, if necessary, be exemplified throughout the whole circle of arts, both useful and elegant. Valuable knowledge, therefore, always leads to some practical skill, and is perfected in it. On the other hand, the practical skill loses much of its beauty and extensive utility, which does not originate in knowledge. There is by consequence a natural relation between the sciences and the arts, like that which subsists between the parent and the offspring.

I acknowledge indeed that these are sometimes unnaturally separated ; and that by the mere influence of example on the one hand, and imitation on the other, some progress may be made in an art, without the knowledge of the principles from which it sprung. By the help of a few rules, which men are taught to use mechanically, a good practical arithmetician may be formed, who neither knows the reasons on which the rules he works by were first established, nor ever thinks it of any moment to inquire into them. In like manner, we frequently meet with expert artisans, who are ignorant of the six mechanical powers, which, though in the exercise of their profession they daily employ, they do not understand the principles whereby, in any instance, the result of their application is ascertained. The propagation of the arts may therefore be compared more justly to that variety which takes place in the vegetable kingdom, than to the uniformity which obtains universally in the animal world; for, as to the anomalous race of zoophytes, I do not comprehend them in the number. It is

which it spremechanically the reader

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