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same Place, but of the whole Body of Catholick Christians wheresoever dispersed in all Parts of the World. And indeed I am persuaded that in the English Bible then used in the Churches of this Realm the Greek Word énxanoid, which is now translated Church, was there always translated Congregation. It is certainly lo rendred in the Places I have cited, and many more. A certain Evidence that in those Days when these Articles were compiled (that is, in the Year 1562) the Word Congregation taken in an Ecclesiastical Sense had the very fame Signification with the Word Church, and was used with the same Latitude. And even in the Bishops Bible, which was not published till near Six Years after these Articles, that is, about (g) the Year 1568, tho' the Word čkxandia is there generally translated Church, yet it is sometimes translated Congregation, even where it cannot be confined to an Affembly met in one Place, as in those Words of our Saviour to St. Peter, it is not rendred as in our present Bibles, on this Rock I will build my CHURCH, but on this Rock I will build my CONGREGATION. Also above Forty Years after, in the Year 1603, (h) we find the Word Congregation used in this Sense in the Canonical Prayer appointed to be used before all Sermons, Lectures, and Homilies, where we are ordered to pray for the whole CONGREGATION of Christian People dispersed throughout the whole World.

S II. I thought it necessary to be thus particular in the Explanation of the Word Congregation, and to fnew what was the sense of the Word at the Time when these Articles were drawn up, that I might thereby obviate the Exposition I have

(2) Strype's Life of A, B, Parker, p. 272. (b) Can. 55.


heard that some have made of this Article, as if the Compilers of it had supposed that there was a Power of Ordination, or a Power of calling and sending Ministers in every Parish, Chapelry, or the like, where a Congregation of Christians was regularly assembled for Divine Worship, confequently that in every such Congregation there are Persons who have Authority to call and send Minifters, and therefore he that is called and sent by any single Congregation, or by Persons appointed in any Congregation, that is, in any Parish or Chapelry for that Purpose, is lawfully called and sent to be a Minister according to the Do&rine of the Church of England. But this Objection is of no Weight, because, as I have fewed, the Word Congregation at that time had the very fame Signification with the Word Church, it being generally, if not always, so used in the English Bible then read to the People in all Parish Churches, and therefore when it is said who have publick Authority given unto them in the CONGREGATION TO call and send Ministers, it is just the same as if it had been said who have publick Authority given unto them in the CHURCH. It is also certain in Fact, that from the beginning of the Reformation to this Day the Church of England never authorized or acknowledged any Minister or others in any particular Congregation to have any such Authority, but only in the Church diffufive. The Meaning of the Article therefore is plainly this, It is not lawful by the Law of God for any Man to take upon him the Office of publick freaching or ministring the Sacraments in the CONGREGATION or Church of Christ before he be lawfully called according to the Law of God, and sent to execute the same. And those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent according to the Law of God, which be chosen and called to this work by. Men, who by


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the Law of God have publick Authority given unta them in the CONGREGATION or Church of Christ, to call and send Ministers into the Lord's Vineyard. I have put in the Words according to the Law of God, because it is certain that is meant by the Word lawful in this place. For these Articles were not drawn up by the Judges, or by the Parliament, or any Civil Magistrate, who alone have Authority to declare what is lawful by the Laws of the Land, but by the Bishops and Clergy assembled in Convocation or Synod, who were ever esteemed to be Interpreters or Expositors of the Law of God, and to have Authority to declare what was agreeable to his Laws, and what not, but never had Authority to declare what is agreeable to the Temporal Laws, and therefore when such an Assembly declares a Matter to be lawful or not lawful, we can understand it to be meant according to the Law of God only. Consequently when they say, It is not lawful for any Man to take upon him the Office of publick preaching or ministring the Sacraments in the Church, they could not mean that it was not lawful in this Realm only by Virtue of the Temporal Laws here in Force, because they had no Authority to declare or expound those Laws, but that it was not lawful according to the Law of God, and therefore could not be allowed in any Realm, in any Country, in any Church or Society of Christiais. And without Dispute it is and must be the Divine Law by which all Articles of Religion, as these are, must be tried.

III. Indeed it must be confessed that this Article does not tell us how many Orders of Men are appointed to minifter the Word and Sacraments, or whether more than one Order of Men may minifter these Offices, neither does it inform us

who who are those that have publick Authority given unto them in the Church to send Ministers into i he Lord's Vineyard. However this Article sufficiently teaches that a Commission is necessary on this Occasion, and that there are some Men who have Authority in the Church to give such a Commission. And this the Compilers of these Articles might very well judge to be sufficient, because the Church in her Ordinal had before declared this Matter more particularly. For in the Preface to the Forms of Ordination, it is said, that it is evident to all Men diligently reading Holy Scriptures and Ancient Authors, that from the Apostles time, there have been these Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church, Bishops, Priests and Deacons, which Offices were 'evermore had in such reverend Estimation, that no Man by his own private Authority, might presume to execute any of them, cxcept he were first called, tried, examined and known to have such Qualities as were requisite for the same, and hlso by publick Prayer, with Impofition of Hands approved and admitted thereunto. And in the Form for the ordering of Deacons, we are taught, that it appertaineth to the Office of a Deacon in the Church, where he shall be appointed, to affist the Priest in Divine Service, and specially when he ministreth the Holy Communion, and to help him in the Distribution thereof, and to read Holy Scriptures and Homilies in the Congregation, and to instru&t the Youth in the Catechism, to baptize, and to preach if he be thereto admitted by the Bishop. And in the Form of ordering Priests, we learn that it appertaineth to his Office to preach the Word of God, and to minister the Holy Sacraments, And in the Form for consecrating a Bihop we are taught that over and above what is common to him with Priests and Deacons he is admitted to the Government of the Church of Christ, and is thereby vested with a Power to ordain and send others. And accordingly when a Deacon is to be ordained,

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it is said that when the Day appointed by the Bishop is come, the Arch-deacon or his Deputy shall present unto the Bijbop such as desire to be ordained, and after the Bishop has prayed with the Congregation for them, put proper Questions to them, and received proper Answers from them concerning the Nature of the Office whereunto they are at that time to be called, and concerning their Purpose faithfully to discharge the same, he then lays his Hands upon them and ordains them. The like is also done in the ordering of Priests, only here, the Priests that are present lay on their Hands together with the Bishop: And so in the Consecration of an Arch-bishop or Bishop, the Prayers are offered and the Questions put by the Arch-bishop or Bishop who performs the Confecration, and then he with the other BiMops present lay on their Hands and consecrate him. Here then is no Ordination, no Consecration of a Minister can be made according to the Do&rine of the Church of England but by a Bishop: every Person to whatever Order he is to be ordained muft be presented to the Bishop, he must try, examine and approve him, he must lay his Hand upon him, or ordain him before he can be a Minister of any Order in the Church. And tho in the Ordination of a Priest, the Priests that are present lay on Hands together with the Bishop, they may not do it without him: The Person to be ordained must be presented to him, he must try and approve him, he must lay his Hands upon him, he must say the Words of Ordination and cominit the Charge to him. The Priests are subordinate Aslistants or Affeffors to him, but can do nothing in this Case when he is away.

Since then the Church had been so particular as to this Matter in her Ordinal, and had there so fully declared who were the proper Ministers of the Word and Sacraments, and who were autho


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