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made additions at the end, sufficient to mark deliberation and design. The history of the Latin form of absolution is curious. It was taken, as just stated, out of that version upon which Haddon so much relied : nevertheless, Aless, by inserting it therein, went further than he was justified in doing, inasmuch as the Prayer Book of 1549, which he proposed to render, is, in this respect, like our own at the present day. Aless, if not to be styled dishonest, which some persons are ready to affirm, was not, it need scarcely be repeated, very remarkable for faithfulness?. He had before turned into Latin the Order of the Communion (Maskell's Ancient Liturgy, p. xcvii." note), and, having this ready at hand, incorporated the whole of it into his work, (as he did the proper preface for Easter from the Salisbury Missal) without caring at all, or very slightly, whether it properly coincided with the English. Now the form of absolution belonging to the Order of the Communion, derived, like so much of our Occasional services, where they do not follow those previously existing (Laurence's ' Bampton Lectures, PP. 443, 444. Original Letters, pp. 19, 266, 344), from a work3, in the nature of an Interim, then recently drawn up by Melancthon and Bucer for the use of the archbishoprick of Cologne (fol. xcii), is almost verbally as Aless has trans
See p. 421, note 1. By putting 'peruenient in Chorum' as the Latin of 'shall tarye still in the quire,” he may have wished, in the character of an interpreter, to affix his own meaning to a somewhat obscure rubric. Maskell's Ancient Liturgy, p. lxxvii.
Coverdale (Vol. 11. p. 525.) also translated the same Order into Latin, for the use of Calvin, but does not seem to have printed it. This, we may presume, was a verbal translation, and not such a platt,' as Knox and others a few years later sent to him, ' off the whole booke off England.' Troubles at Frankfort, p. xxviii.
Nostra Hermanni ex gratia Dei Archiepiscopi Coloniensis, et Principis Electoris, &c. Simplex ac Pia Deliberatio, qua ratione Christiana & in uerbo Dei fundata Reformatio Doctrinæ, Administrationis diuinorum Sacramentorum, Cæremoniarum, totiusque curæ animarum, et aliorum Ministeriorum Ecclesiasticorum, apud eos qui nostræ Pastorali curæ commendati sunt, tantisper instituenda sit, donec Dominus dederit constitui meliorem, uel per liberam & Christianam Synodum, siue Generalem siue Nationalem, uel per Ordines Imperii Nationis Germanicæ in Spiritu Sancto congregatos. Bonnæ. Anno. M.D.XXXXV. Fol.
John Daye published an English translation of this book “in the yere of our Lorde .1547. The xxi. of October; and again, in 1548.
lated it, except that he both left out blessed,' and inserted on his own authority not only "Jesus Christus,' but that very important word 'suam,' for which the Simplex ac pia Deliberatio has hanc.' So far, therefore, he was in some degree right: still what, with these limitations, suited well the Order of the Communion, did not necessarily suit a later and different publication.
Among the things, which the reader of the Latin Prayer Book will not find, is the addition of 1552 giving permission to men to say their private prayers ‘in any language that they themselves do understand ;'—the rubrics pertaining to the vestments, to the choice of position for the table at the communion time, and to the sacramental bread; also, some of those at the end of the Communion service, and of the Communion of the Sick. But the first omission arose from the closing sentence of Elizabeth's letters patent (p. 302), recommending to the clergy for that purpose this very Book : after the issuing of Elizabeth's Injunctions in July 1559, the second was rendered absolutely necessary (Sparrow's Collections, pp. 77, 83. Zurich Letters, pp. 228, 272); and the third became a thing of course, in consequence of the Latin Prayer Book not having any connexion with parochial ministrations. If, however, there are things, which the reader will not find in Haddon's publication, so are there in it some things, besides those already mentioned, which he would not expect to find. For instance, the notation of the Psalms is declared to be after the Vulgate, instead of after the great Englyshe Bible;' whilst in leap year the intercalary day, the second time of its being mentioned (see p. 323), is changed from the twenty-fifth to the twenty-fourth of February. Haddon similarly takes upon himself the office of interpreter. The last sentence of the second rubric on p. 327 distinctly informs us, that the Evening service ought to begin like the Morning service, a point about which some persons, we may suppose, even then unnecessarily entertained doubts : in the first rubric at the Communion (p. 383), “immediately after' is rendered, immediate post principium matutinarum precum : the phrase, stantem ad sacram Mensam, on p. 385, seems also intended to determine the priest's position at that time with reference to the communion-table, as turned to it, not from it : offerings' in the first rubric on p. 388 is, explained to signify oblationes et decimas' (L'Estrange, p. 180); as, in the last rubric on p. 399, Ecclesiastical duties' are made to mean.decimas, oblationes, ceteraque debita;' and the phrase ó when there is no Communion,' which occurs on p. 196, is left as Aless translated it,quando non adsunt communicantes. See also pp. 399, 426.
The Latin Prayer Book was not received every where with equal favour and respect. Strype, under the year 1568 (Parker, p. 269), tells us, that ‘most of the Colleges' in Cambridge would not tolerate it, as being 'the Popes Dregg8;' and even, that some of the Fellowship of Benet College went contemptuously from the Latin Prayers, the Master being the Minister then that read the same.'
Elizabeth's Latin Prayer Book was never before reprinted' Herbert (Ames, p. 607), doubtless, refers to copies in quarto and octavo put forth in 1562; these, however, Dibdin (Typ. Antiq. Vol. iv. pp. 19, 27) declares to have been no more than a reissue of a different work, one printed in 1553 with the same title that Whitaker adopted in 1569. Nevertheless, since Prayer Books in Latin published during her reign have been often confounded with her own, a short account of them appears indispensable. They bear the names of Wolf, Vautrollier, and Jackson, as the printers; and, in the case of the last two, “per assignationem Francisci Floræ. Wolf, in 1571, (or rather in 1572, for the Psalter has both dates,) sent out what we may rightly deem the earliesta version into Latin of the whole Prayer Book. Herbert's Ames, p. 611. This the other printers carefully followed, and the copies (octavo) more commonly met with, though still very rare, are one in 1574 by Vautrollier, and another in 1594 by Jackson. Wolf's edition and likewise the others) came out. Cum priuilegio regiæ maiestatis;' the act of uniformity is prefixed; the Occasional services are each
1 With respect to the names in the Calendar of this reprint, no attempt at correction has been made beyond such typographical errors, as seemed peculiar to the original. See particularly those put against Sept. the 11th, and Oct. the 26th and 30th.
* This remark pertains only to the times of Elizabeth ; for two translations, of which Aless's was one, were made in Edward's reign, and a third undertaken, but left imperfect. Cardwell's Two Liturgies of Edward VI. compared, p. xvi. Original Letters, p. 535.
duly incorporated; and to the end is annexed Munster's translation of the Psalms: moreover, all the really important peculiarities, which distinguish the Book of 1560, are omitted. It was intentionally, therefore, made to exhibit a close resemblance to the English Prayer Book of 1559, or (to speak more correctly) of 1561, being designed, in conformity with the act of 1549 before quoted, for the private use of any one, who wished to perfect, or keep up, his knowledge of Latin.
But the fault of taking previously existing materials without due care was still evidenced in two remarkable ways. Aless had inadvertently rendered 'ouer night in the second rubric preceding the Communion of the Sick by 'postridie' (see p. 404); and consequently, we have this error, adopted by Haddon, perpetuated through the whole reign of Elizabeth. So, also, have we invariably the collect for St Andrew's day as the English Prayer Book of 1549 represented it, instead of that introduced in 1552, and never afterwards altered : of course, however, Haddon having thoughtlessly copied Aless, who in this particular was right, was himself as thoughtlessly followed. It is strange, that early in the next century we perceive these same blunders again repeated in the Latin version of the Prayer Book incorporated into the Doctrina et Politial of Dr Mocket, Warden of All Souls', Oxford, and chaplain to archbishop Abbot; a work of considerable importance, and now of no ordinary rarity.
As has just been asserted, no second edition of Elizabeth's Latin Prayer Book was ever published, at least in subsequent years : nevertheless, in the year 1615, if not before, an abridgment of it appeared, entitled, Liber Precum Publicarum in usum Ecclesiæ Cathedralis Christi, Oxon. It contains merely the Morning service, the Athanasian creed, the Evening service, the Litany and its Collects, followed by the Psalter : then come four prayers, (Pro officio totius Ecclesiæ in.communi, Pro Rege, Tempore pestilentiæ, Pro docilitate,) of which the last two were taken from the Preces Privatæ, two graces, a prayer for the sovereign and people, with one for their founder Henry. This, enlarged by the additional Col
1 Doctrina et Politia Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, a beatissimæ memoriæ principibus Edouardo sexto, Regina Elizabetha stabilitæ, et a religiosissimo et potentissimo monarcha Jacobo Magnæ Britan. &c. rege continuatæ. Londini, 1617. 4to.
lects after the Litany, introduced in 1604 and 1662, is still daily used for short Latin prayers during term time.
7. The New Calendar was the result of a prescript dated at Westminster, the 22nd of January, the thirde yere of of Raigne' . By this document Matthue Archebishop of Canterburye, Edmonde Byshopp of London, Will. Byll our Almoner, and Walter Haddon one of the Masters of of Requests' were required to peruse the order of the Lessons thoroughe out the whole yere, and to substitute in the place of certen chapters for lessons.... other chapters or parcels of scripture, tendinge in the hering of the ynlearned, or laye people, more to their edificacion?. Parker MSS. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Strype's Parker, pp. 82-84.
Grindal's Remains, p. 157. It entered, likewise, into the province of these royal commissioners to revise the Calendar in other respects. Hence the occurrence therein of many names of saints, which we may presume to have been now re-introduced for the reason subsequently assigned to the reader by a notice in the Preces Privatæ :-ut certarum quarundam rerum, quarum stata tempora nosse plurimum refert, quarumque ignoratio nostris hominibus obesse possit, quasi notæ quædam sint atque indicia. See also Cardwell, pp. 306, 341.
The same prescript also required the commissioners to make some regulations respecting the Collegiate churches, in which the Latin Prayer Book had been allowed to be used, so that our good purpos in the saide translacion be not frustrated, nor be corruptlye abused, contrarye to theffect of our meanynge.' What that meaning was, may be gathered from Elizabeth's letters patent, p. 301.
8. Nothing need here be said in relation to the Occasional services and Prayers?, since in the volume itself an
It was not uncommon to take the old Calendar out of the early Elizabethan Prayer Books, and insert this new one.
* The practice of publishing such Forms is coeval with the reformation. Occasional Prayers and Suffrages to be used throughout all Churches began now to be more usual than formerly. For these common Devotions were twice this year (1544) appointed by Authority, as they had been once the last; which I look upon the Archbishop to be the great instrument in procuring: that he might by this means, by little and little, bring into use Prayers in the English Tongue, which he so much desired ; and that the People, by understanding part of