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belong to this same year 1559; still they can scarcely be all of the same impression, notwithstanding their agreement in one very peculiar reading. See p. 56, note 2. This second series has been usually considered hitherto to constitute the first and only edition of Elizabeth's revised Book ; which opinion, moreover, appeared to derive confirmation from a list of differences between Edward's of 1552 and her own, drawn up by no less a personage than an archbishop of Canterbury, and given at length in Strype's Annals, Vol. 1. p. 84. It is true, one error exists in the historian's account of this document, since he assigns to Whitgift, what the original (Bibl. Lans. 120. art. 4), which from his reference he surely had before him, assigns distinctly to Parker. Nevertheless, the weight of his name, whichever dignitary it was, cannot rightly be adduced in support of the common notion, inasmuch as he meant merely to point out the then state of the Prayer Book, without at all going into the question respecting the gradations whereby it arrived at that state, even did they at the time occur to him.
All the books now under consideration go yet farther from the act, than Mr Maskell's first-mentioned Jugge and Cawode; and, as in the case of the rubric about vestments, with that enjoining kneeling at the reception of the elements (see Strype's Annals, Vol. 1. Appendix, pp. 37, 39), as also, in 1552, in the case of the protestation before alluded to, on the sole authority, no doubt, of the crown, or its advisers. The collects at the end of the Litany, wherein lie the chief variations, will be found in due course, printed as a note (see pp. 76, 77.) from the Cambridge Grafton, so that a comparison can be easily instituted. The collects belonging to the Litany used in the queen's chapel must similarly be examined, they being exactly the same, and placed in the same order, as the collects given in this second edition of Elizabeth's Prayer Book, in spite of their having been so arranged, and printed, before her act of uniformity was introduced into parliament, or, it may be, drawn up. The copies of the later series accurately correspond with one another in every
* In 1844 Mr Pickering reprinted Grafton's Book of 1559, and described it as 'Commonly called the first Book of queen Elizabeth.' The copies by Grafton did, however, most probably, precede the later copies of the same year by Jugge and Cawode.
main feature, but have nevertheless their discrepancies, sufficient to shew that, as Grafton did not follow Jugge and Cawode, nor, on the other hand, Jugge and Cawode follow him, so neither did he rigorously follow even himself. For the four existing copies printed by him, and upon which most attention has been bestowed, can be proved on a slight inspection, particularly, of the Calendar, not all to belong to the same impression : wherefore, had it been esteemed necessary, a list of various readings, which are remarkable neither for number nor importance, might have been exhibited in the notes.
The text of Elizabeth's Prayer Book, however, though at length apparently settled, was not so in reality. First, it again underwent alteration by the authorised (Strype's Whitgift, Appendix, p. 80.) substitution of the New Calendar; then, by a change of lessons (typographical errors perpetuated,) for the evenings on the fifth Sunday after Trinity, St. James's Day, and the 21st of May; also, by a modification of the collect for St Mark's Day; and, lastly, by means of some inconsiderable verbal additions, which, taken from a copy dated 1596, are printed, where requisite, at the foot of each page, yet whose introduction into the Prayer Book was certainly no later than 1572.
Besides the authority of the church and the crown, and of those persons, who may be presumed to have acted under their influence, there was equally exercised upon the Prayer Book?, so far as they could make it go, the authority of the Puritans. The changes also, which they originated, consisting both in what was omitted and in what was substituted, were of serious moment, interfering materially (the doctrine alone being left untouched) with our church's established rites and regulations. The endeavours of this party thus to further their own views commenced somewhere about 1578; at least, that is the earliest year in which we find their innovations, in relation to the public services, duly matured and formally promulgated. Their Prayer Book of the above date varies from the authorised one in the following particulars. It commences with the Table of Proper Lessons, For morning, For euening, being put in the place of Mattens,
? That huge volume off ceremonies. Troubles at Frankfort, p. XLI, Filled with many absurdities and silly superfluities. Zurich Letters, p. 270.
Euensong : Minister (of the word and sacraments) is printed throughout for Priest, which designation the Puritans banished, as Aaronic, and connected with rites suggesting the idea of a Saviour yet to come; possibly, also, on the contrary, that they might not seem in any way to countenance the Romish doctrine of the sacrament of the Lord's supper being a propitiatory sacrifice :—from the Communion service the first four rubrics are left out; but then this may have arisen from a different cause than a wish to suppress them, inasmuch as the reader is expressly referred to the great booke of Common prayer. The private celebration of the sacraments was an object of intense dislike to the Puritans, who thought, indeed, that a sermon ought in either case to precede, accord.. ing to the direction in Knox's Book of Common Order. Hence came, therefore, the phrase great number, instead of good number, in the second rubric at the end of the Communion service ;—the omission, in the service for Public Baptism, of the introductory rubric, which concludes with allowing children, “if necessity so require,' being at all times baptized at home; and of Public in the heading of each page :hence came, too, the omission of the whole service for Private Baptism', with the retention of only one rubric, the third, in the Communion of the Sick. No notice is taken of the service for Confirmation (sce Troubles at Frankfort, p. xxxii.), nor, consequently, of the rubrics pertaining to it, namely, that after Public Baptism; the Address preceding, as the rubrics following, the Catechism; and the latter portion of those subjoined to Confirmation, the former portion, which is allowed to remain, being transferred to the end of the Catechism :—the explanatory rubric, introducing the Catechism, is enlarged, by adding a part of the rubric, which with us terminates the service; still, though Confirmation is there alluded to, it is not said to whom the child must be brought for that purpose. The service for the Churching of Women will likewise be sought for in vain?, since (ibid. p. xxxiiii.) it
1. The sacraments are not ordained of God to be used in private corners, as charms or sorceries, but left to the congregation, and necessarily annexed to God's word as seals of the same. Knox's Book of Common Order. Original Letters, p. 123.
2 Nor is it, any more than the Commination service, in Herman's Simplex ac Pia Deliberatio.
is not only in all things almoste common withe the Papistes, but also with the Jewes, bycause they are commaunded in stede off a lambe or doue to offre monie.' See Zurich Letters, pp. 272, 417, 448. In addition to the above alterations, the Puritans compiled a Calendar of their own: this, however, they intended rather as an accessory to that of the church, than as a substitute for it, placing the section applicable to each month at the bottom of its appropriate page. This Calendar, which had been printed in 1576, and occurs again in 1583, (Lewis's History of Translations of the Bible, pp. 265, 272,) is very curious, and on many accounts worthy of attention.
The Prayer Book, thus abridged and modified by the Puritans, did not long continue as just described, in consequence, probably, of no uniform practice prevailing among the party. At length, after several changes, it was brought into a form much more nearly resembling the standard copy. For in 1589 we find the rubric at the end of Public Baptism, the service for Private Baptism, the service for the Churching of Women, and the Address before the Catechism, restored to their due places. In both the services thus restored the word Priest remained unchanged, which may perhaps be regarded as a silent, but intelligible, sign, that the use of the services themselves was meant to be discouraged.
Besides the two descriptions of Prayer Books above mentioned, there was also a later one sent out on the part of the Puritans. This edition is connected, as it appears, with the reign of Elizabeth's successor3, rather than with the reign of Elizabeth herself, and differs from the authorised Book merely in the putting of For Morning, For Euening, and Minister, where previously were Mattens, Euensong, and Priest, the last word still being unaltered in the services for Private Baptism and the Churching of Women. Besides, in this shape we may suppose, that this Prayer Book continued to be printed until the year 1616, that is, as long as the Geneva version of the Bible itself, to which every scriptural quotation and reference had from the first been uniformly
* The others seem scarcely to have been known to L'Estrange, who, commenting on the rubric before the Absolution in the Morning service, mentions (Alliance of Divine Offices, p. 75.) 'the word Priest changed into Minister both here, and in divers other places by the Reformers under K. James.'
adjusted. Not that our Prayer Book ceased to be tampered with so early, though no systematic plan was any longer pursued. During the next five and twenty years we find copies of a small size, (and there may be others,) in which Minister very often stands for Priest, and, occasionally, wherein they are alternated in a most extraordinary manner.
What has just been said relative to all these Puritan modifications of the Prayer Book is very remarkable, and only the more so, from the circumstance of their being invariably printed, no doubt, as part of an exclusive privilege, by the same individuals, who possessed the monopoly of printing the authorised Prayer Book. Thus, a copy of the latter, dated 1596, by the Deputies of Christopher Barker, was collated, for the purpose both of proving, that the Service Book established by competent authority did not suffer from such tamperings, and to represent its exact condition towards the close of Elizabeth's reign.
The Prayer Books put forth with the corrections of the Puritans (for we cannot imagine them to have proceeded from the printer) were not ostensibly intended for public and general use in church, where, indeed, they could not be used without severe penalties being incurred; nevertheless, we can scarcely affirm, even from their size, that less than this was aimed at. They were rarely independent publications. Just as some editions of the Bishops' Bible were accompanied by the unadulterated Prayer Book, so did these mostly accompany the Geneva Bible: moreover, as a natural consequence, they then gave only the first few words of the epistles and gospels. It is singular, however, that the folio edition of the Geneva Bible of 1578, like the folio editions of the Bishops' Bible of 1568 (the first edition) and 1572, has two Psalters in parallel columns—The translation according to the Ebrewe ; and — The translation vsed in common prayer.
Now the latter translation being duly divided into Morning prayer, and
* In 1585 Barker printed a small independent Prayer Book, seemingly, for the Puritans, though their Book of 1578 did not form its basis, nor were the epistles and gospels, which are given in full, extracted from the Geneva version. It has Annunciation of Maric (see p. 438): Priest is a few times changed into Minister : many rubrics are entirely omitted, and others curtailed or strangely altered : also, the services for Private Baptism and Confirmation are wanting.