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printed at London by C. B., referred to by Strype (ibid. p. 282), and given in the continuation of Holinshed, p. 1382, et seq. Herbert's Ames, p. 1082.

1585. AN ORDER OF PRAIER AND THANKES-GIUING, for the preseruation of the Queenes Maiesties life and salfetie: to be vsed of the Preachers and Ministers of the Dioces of Winchester. With a short extract of William Parries voluntarie confession, written with his owne hand. London. Ralfe Newberie. n. d. Quarto. Collates A in four. [The British


Cooper, bishop of Winchester, drew up this Form. The 'Praier for the Queene' is printed by Strype (Annals, Vol. iii. p. 261), because it has 'several historical Remarks, as well as a devout Spirit in it.'

1585. A PRAYER OF THANKSGEUINGE for the deliuerance of hir matie from ye murderous intention of D. Parry. [The British Museum, Bibl. Lans. 116. art. 29.]

In Strype (Annals, Vol. iii. Appendix, p. 101) we have this Prayer, which was 'to be used, as it seems, in the Churches.' The manuscript was sent to the lord treasurer Burghley, who corrected it in a few places. No original printed copy of the Prayer has been found.

1585. SUPPLEX AD DIVINAM MAIESTATEM ORATIO, pro defensione nostri aduersus Satanæ carnificumque suorum diritatem & malitiam, adeo truciter in populum DEI desœuientium. n. d. Broadside. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]

This Prayer bears neither printer's name, nor date: a date, however, has been written upon it by Sancroft. It possibly did not possess any public authority; but, being too curious to be entirely omitted, will occur as a note to the Form, which Babington's conspiracy occasioned.

1585. A NECESSARY AND GODLY PRAYER, appointed by the right Reverend father in God, John [Aylmer], lord bishop of London, to be used throughout that dioces on Wednesdayes and Fridayes, for the turning away of God's wrath, as well concerning this untemperate weather by rain lately fallen upon the earth, and scarcity of victualls, as also all other plagues and punishments: most needfull to be used in every houshold throughout the Realme, 1585.

Besides other evils, 'fears arising from foreign enemies, the Queen of Scots, and the plots laid for Queen Elizabeth's life,' were then causing the nation much disquietude. Strype (Aylmer, p. 81.) has the first sentence of the Prayer; and it occupies, he says, seven pages. Did he

see it in Aylmer's Register, which he enumerates in his list of books consulted (Bibl. Lans. 1195), but which is no longer forthcoming; or rather in Dr Williams's library, from whose manuscript the title has been here copied? See likewise Strype's Annals, Vol. iii. p. 293.

1585. CERTAINE PRAYERS AND OTHER GODLY EXERCISES, XXII. for the seventeenth of Nouember: Wherein we solemnize the blessed reigne of our gracious Soueraigne Lady Elizabeth, by the prouidence and grace of God, of England, Fraunce & Ireland Queene. &c. Christopher Barker. 1585. Quarto. Collates E in fours.

The present Order of prayer, compiled by Edmund Bunny, subdeacon of York, is somewhat similar to that mentioned under the year 1576, but must by no means be confounded with it. It was designed to promote the religious observance of the accession day, 'especially,' as he remarks, 'in these partes where I am resident.' Though dedicated to archbishop Whitgift, it was entirely a private publication. Strype's Annals, Vol. iii. p. 355. Herbert's Ames, p. 1083. Copies are not uncommon. One peculiarity distinguishes this Form: its Psalms are set down much more according to the express words of Scripture, than in the other Forms of the period.

1586. A MOST NECESSARY AND GODLY PRAYER, for the XXIII. preseruation of the right honourable the Earle of Leicester, Lieuetenant Generall of her Maiesties Armie in the Lowe Countries, and all his faythfull well-wyllers and followers in these affayres, that God of hys mercy may prosper them in these hys good begunne exployts. Very necessarye to be vsed in thys perrilous tyme, of all her maiesties louing subiects and well-willers. Walter Mantell. 1585. Quarto. Collates A in four. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]

The earl of Leicester embarked at Harwich on the 8th of December, 1585; wherefore we seem obliged to assign the publication of the Prayer to the first part of the next year. Camden, p. 510. The warlike expedition now undertaken was thought to require some justification: accordingly, a Declaration of the causes moouing the Queene of Enggland to giue aide to the Defence of the People afflicted and oppressed in the lowe Countries,' dated the first of October,' had been previously published by Christopher Barker. Ibid. pp. 654–659. Strype's Whitgift, pp. 228–231. This Prayer, set forth, probably, by the Puritans, whose party Leicester greatly favoured, will be printed with the Form for



Wednesdayes and Frydayes in euery Parish Church within

AN ORDER FOR PUBLIKE PRAYERS to be vsed on xxiv.


the Prouince of Canterburie, conuenient for this present time: Set forth by authoritie. Christopher Barker. n. d. Quarto. Collates F in fours. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]

A very common Form. Strype quotes a portion of the preface, and refers the Service itself to the year 1590. Whitgift, p. 359. But, since the business was transferred to Barker's Deputies about 1588 (Herbert's Ames, p. 1076), and thus the Form could not have come in 1590 from Barker's own office, the historian has manifestly erred; as he did by putting Charles, instead of Christopher, for the christian name of the printer. The true date is, doubtless, four years earlier; and the Lambeth copy really has 1586 written, in what seems a contemporary hand, on the title-page. As additional arguments, the preface to the next Form contains at the end a reference to 'prayers alreadie of late set foorth,' which can be none other than the present; whilst the Prayer issued in 1587 mentions 'the Homilies of repentance, fasting, and almes deedes, lately published.' From Strype's Annals, too (Vol. iii. p. 391), we actually find the nation to have been at the same time apprehensive of a Spanish invasion, and afflicted with a dearth, in the summer of 1586. See also Stow, p. 1241, and Herbert's Ames, pp. 1083, 1087.

XXV. 1586. AN ORDER OF PRAYER AND THANKESGIVING, for the preseruation of her Maiestie and the Realme, from the traiterous and bloodie practises of the Pope, and his adherents: to be vsed at times appointed in the Preface. Published by authoritie. Christopher Barker. 1586. Quarto. Collates B in fours. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]

Wilkins (Concilia, Vol. iv. p. 319.) gives us Whitgift's letter to Aylmer, bishop of London, dated the 24th of August, concerning the publication of this Form among the bishops of his province. It was caused by the apprehension, in the beginning of the month, of Ballard and Babington, with the other conspirators in that plot, which cost the queen of Scots her life, 'she being tryed as one of them that had an hand in ́it, as without doubt she had.' Bohun, p. 155. Sandys's twenty-first sermon (Parker Society edition, p. 403) was preached on the same occasion. Strype's Annals, Vol. iii. p. 417. Fourteen of the traitors, including the two above named, were hanged in St Giles's fields, their accustomed place of meeting, on the 20th and 21st of September. Camden, pp. 515-518. Stow, pp. 1217-1220. Herbert's Ames, p. 1083. There is another copy of the Form in the library of Westminster Abbey, and a third at Salisbury.

1587. A PRAYER AND THANKSGIVING fit for this present: and to be vsed in the time of Common prayer. Christopher Barker. 1587. Quarto. Collates A in four, last leaf blank. [Archbishop Harsnet's Library, Colchester.]

Drake's brilliant successes at Cadiz and elsewhere in April and May 1587, and the fortunate check which those successes gave to the Spanish preparations against England, are related by Camden, p. 540, and by Stow, p. 1242. The Armada was in consequence delayed for a year.

Herbert (Ames, p. 1186.) refers to 'A praier dayly vsed in Stepney parishe,' as printed by John Wolf this year.

1588. A PRAYER meete to be sayd of all true Subiectes xxvII for our Queene Elizabeth, and for the present state. London. Richard Iones. n.d. Broadside.

No public authority, we presume, can be assigned to this Prayer, which is printed both in French and English: still, the petitions and suffrages, whereby it is preceded, shew clearly, that its composer intended it for common use. Sancroft, in whose collection it exists, has arranged it between the Services for 1587 and 1588: most probably, it belongs to the latter year.

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1588. A FOURme of Prayer, NECESSARY for the present xxvIII.

time and state. The Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1588. Quarto. Collates C in fours, last page blank. [The British Museum.]

A republication, with some additions, of the Form for 1572. The archbishop's circular letter to his suffragans, announcing the printing of it by reason of the daungerousnes of the tyme,' is dated July the 10th. Whitgift's Register, Lambeth, part 1. fol. 148, b. The 19th of July the Spanish fleet was first 'discouered neare vnto ye Lizard' (Stow, p. 1249); and on the 23rd a letter was sent by the privy council (see their Minutes) to Whitgift, praying him to direct every bishop and pastor within his province to move their auditories and parishioners to join in Publyke Prayer to Almightie God the giver of victoryes to assist us against the malice of our enemies.' Strype (Annals, Vol. iii. p. 518.) quotes one of the prayers. Herbert's Ames, p. 1084. This was also in Scotland 'a time of publick Humiliation,' and of religious observances. Spotiswoode's History of Scotland, part i. p. 370.

1588. A PSALME AND COLLECT OF THANKESGIUING, not xxix. vnmeet for this present time: to be said or sung in Churches. The Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1588. Quarto. Collates A in four. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]

The first public expression of joy on account of the dispersion and flight of the Armada took place at Paul's Cross on the 20th of August; and on September the 8th several banners were displayed there during the sermon. The 30th of September the privy council (see their Minutes) by her majesty's command summoned the bishops of Sarum and Lincoln (Piers and Wickham) to court, to preach thanksgiving sermons. Moreover, on November the 3rd, they sent a letter to the archbishop of




Canterbury, and to the Deane and Chapter of the Byshoprick of Yorke,' requiring them to appoint some speciall daye for giuinge publike and general thankes unto God for his gratyous fauor extended towarde vs.' Not, therefore, before tuesday, November the 19th, was kept holy day throughout the Realme,' to celebrate the complete overthrow of the Armada; and only on the following sunday Elizabeth herself went in state to St Paul's for the same purpose. Stow, pp. 1259, 1260. We have a large portion of the collect in Strype (Annals, Vol. iii. p. 526). The Rev. W. Maskell has another copy of this Form. The [Scottish] King caused solemn Thanksgiving for this deliverance to be given to God in all Churches of the Kingdom, beginning in his own Court for an ensample to others.' Spotiswoode, part i. p. 272.


1588. A GODLY PRAYER for the preseruation of the Queenes Maiestie, and for her Armies both by sea and land, against the enimies of the Church and this Realme of England. London. John Wolfe for Thomas Woodcocke. 1588. Broadside. [Archbishop Harsnet's Library, Colchester.]

Anthony Marten, one of the Sewers of her majesty's most honourable Chamber, wrote this Prayer, which Strype (Annals, Vol. iii. Appendix, p. 229.) has printed. It was read, he says (ibid. p. 528), 'at the Queen's Chapel, and elsewhere,' being published soon after the defeat of the Armada, whilst the kingdom apprehended a similar danger for the ensuing year. Mr Lathbury (Spanish Armada, p. 66), on the contrary, assigns this Prayer to 'the time when the invasion was [first] expected.'

1589. A FORME OF PRAYER, thought fitte to be dayly vsed in the English Armie in France. The Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1589. Quarto. Collates B in fours, last page blank. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]

In September 1589, Elizabeth both assisted Henry the fourth against the popish League with a greater sum than, as he declared, he had ever seen before,' and sent him a reinforcement of four thousand men commanded by Peregrine lord Willoughby. Camden, p. 556. Herbert's Ames, p. 1085.

1590. A FOURME OF PRAYER, necessarie for the present time and state. The Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1590. Quarto. Collates D in fours. [Lambeth.]

As another Spanish invasion was expected this year, on the 6th of March, 1589 [1590], Whitgift wrote to the bishops of his province (Strype's Life, p. 317), requiring them, not only to have in readiness the arms, which in 1588, in consequence of a circular letter from himself, dated May the 29th, themselves and their clergy had prepared, but to cause public prayers to be used throughout their dioceses thrice a week at least, according to such order as was taken at the last intended in

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