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by the Turks with a formidable fleet and army. They came in sight of the island on the 18th of May, resolved to destroy 'the Lord Great Master' and his knights. Strype's Grindal, p. 103.-A copy of this same Form, and by the same printer, for the diocese of Norwich, exists at Lambeth. Dr Williams's manuscript also furnishes us with the title of another for the London diocese, adding 'Printed by authority.' It was from this last, that Strype made his quotation. See his Annals, Vol. i. p. 465. They had all a common original: moreover, the public nature of the present Form is shewn by its being incorporated entire into the next but one; from the commencement of the preface to which we also learn, that prayers for the Maltese were, in 1565, commonly put up throughout the kingdom.
1565. A SHORT FORME OF THANKESGEUING TO GOD IX. for the delyuerie of the Isle of Malta from the inuasion and long siege therof by the great armie of the Turkes both by sea and lande, and for sundry other victories lately obteined by the christians against the saide Turkes, to be vsed in the common prayer within the prouince of Canturburie, on Sondayes, Wednesdaies, and Fridaies, for the space of syx weekes next ensuinge the receipt hereof. Set forthe by the most Reuerend father in God, Matthew, by Goddes prouidence Archebyshop of Canturburie, Primate of all Englande and Metropolitane. London. Wyllyam Seres. 1565. Quarto. Collates A in four, last page blank. [The Cathedral Library, Salisbury.]
Dr Williams's manuscript mentions this Form. The collect has been quoted by Strype (Annals, Vol. i. p. 466), and Collier (Vol. ii. p. 505). It was published about the middle of October, after news had arrived of the Turks having been compelled to abandon their enterprise against Malta, with the loss of about thirty thousand men. Grindal (Remains, p. 287) clearly compiled the Form, and to him Strype (Grindal, p. 103) assigns its authorship, though in his Annals he gives it to Parker. Herbert's Ames, p. 726.
1566. A FOURME to be vsed in Common prayer, euery x. Sunday, Wednesday, and Fryday, through the whole Realme: To excite and stirre all godly people to pray vnto God for the preseruation of those Christians and their Countreys, that are nowe inuaded by the Turke in Hungary or elswhere. Set foorth by the most Reuerende father in God, Mathewe Archbyshop of Canterbury, by the aucthoritie of the Queenes Maiestie. Jugge and Cawood. n. d. Quarto. Collates A, A ii., and B, in fours, last page blank. [Lambeth.]
Hungary had 'of long tyme ben as a moste stronge wall and defence to all Christendome.' Strype (Parker, pp. 232, 233) has printed a portion of the preface, and the prayer commencing O Lorde God of hostes,' &c. Herbert (Ames, p. 721) assigns to this Form the date 1565, and adds, 'Again next year;' but he may have been misled by the copy in archbishop Sancroft's collection, which was certainly seen by him, and has 1565 written on the title-page. The very first sentence of the preface will prove the earlier date to be wrong. There are copies of the Form at Colchester, in the Bodleian, and at Salisbury.
[The King's Library, British
1569. THE PRAYER.
The rising of the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland in the north, November the 14th, 1569, caused 'An Homilie against disobedience and wylfull rebellion' to be put forth, at the end of the first part of which we find this Prayer. Afterwards we have it, as at present, subjoined to all the six parts of the Homily. Camden, pp. 421-423. See Zurich Letters, second edit. pp. 329, 331, 341.
1570. A THANKES GEUYING for the suppression of the last rebellion. [The King's Library, British Museum.]
As the rebellion terminated with the flight of the two earls, and "sundrie of their principall gentlemen," into Scotland on the 20th of December, 1569, there could have been no time to publish this Thanksgiving before the early part of the next year. Stow, p. 1125. Strype fancies Parker to have written it. Annals, Vol. i. p. 552. It, doubtless, came out originally by itself on a broadside, though now to be found, like the Prayer, only in a copy by Jugge and Cawood of the Homily above mentioned. Herbert's Ames, p. 726.
1572. ¶ A FOURME OF COMMON PRAYER to be vsed, and so commaunded by aucthoritie of the Queenes Maiestie, and necessarie for the present tyme and state. 1572. 27. Octob. Richarde Jugge. Quarto. Collates C ii. in fours, last leaf blank. [Archbishop Harsnet's Library, Colchester.]
The horrible massacre of the French hugonots on St Bartholomew's day by order of Charles the ninth, and the terrors consequent thereupon, which oppressed all true protestants, occasioned this Form, whence Strype (Parker, pp. 358, 359) has given us two prayers. Wright's Elizabeth, Vol. i. p. 438. In Wilkins' Concilia (Vol. iv. p. 272) is Parker's letter to Sandys, bishop of London, on transmitting it to him for publication through the province of Canterbury. Herbert's Ames, p. 723. Many copies of the Form still exist.
1576. A FOURME OF PRAYER WITH THANKES GEUYING to be vsed euery yeere, the 17. of Nouember, beyng the day
of the Queenes Maiesties entrie to her raigne. Jugge. n.d. Quarto. Collates Bi. in eights, last page blank. [The Library at Westminster Abbey.]
1578. A FOURME OF PRAYER WITH THANKES GIUING, to be vsed of all the Queenes Maiesties louing subiects euery yeere, the 17. of Nouember, being the day of her Highnesse entry to her kingdome. Set forth by authoritie. Christopher Barker. 1578. Quarto. Collates C in eights, last page blank.
The second of the Canons of 1640 (Cardwell's Synodalia, p. 392) informs us, that 'our own most religious princes since the Reformation have caused the days of their inaugurations to be publicly celebrated by all their subjects with prayers and thanksgivings to Almighty God.' And the same language was afterwards held by James II., when sanctioning, in 1685, the Form of prayer and thanksgiving for his own accession, which he had caused the bishops to compose. Cardwell's History of Conferences, p. 384. On the contrary, Dr Thomas Holland, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, when preaching at Paul's Cross on November the 17th, 1599, declared the first public celebrity' of the day, with respect to Elizabeth, (and, as it would seem by implication, the first public celebrity of the day, with respect to any of our sovereigns,) to have been 'instituted in Oxford about the twelfth year of her reign by Dr Cooper, being then there Vice-Chancellor, after Bishop of Lincoln, and by remove from thence Bishop of Winchester; from whence this institution flowed by a voluntary current over all this realme.' Ellis's Letters, Second Series, Vol. iii. p. 160. A quotation from Edmund Bunny, which evidently supports this view, will appear hereafter, as a note to the very commencement of the Form for 1576. Bohun, too, in his character of Elizabeth (p. 310) makes a similar assertion about its popular origin. However, though the observance of the festival, according to Dr Holland, had been thus commenced as early as 1570, the regular religious part of it dates only from 1576, when Elizabeth had reigned 'now by the space of these eighteen yeeres;' and not until 1578 have the copies 'Set forth by authoritie' on the title-page. The latter circumstance may be of little moment, especially as they all came equally from the royal printer: still, archbishop Sancroft, in his endeavours to prove the contemporary writer, Bohun, to be wrong, undesignedly draws from its occurrence at all an inference favourable to the correctness of the Canon, and, therefore, of James's Order, which latter, indeed, he may have drawn up himself. Without all Doubt,' he says, 'there was a Letter from ye Q to ye ABp to compose, & to her printer to publish this Office.' See a manuscript note in the volume marked 1, 4, 35, belonging to his collection.
A second copy for 1576 is in bishop Cosin's library, Durham; whilst another, printed by Christopher Barker for the following year, is at
Lambeth: copies of the Service, as definitely arranged in 1578, are not of extreme rarity. Strype has twice given us the prayer 'O Lord God, most merciful Father,' &c. (Annals, Vol. ii. p. 452, and Vol. iii. p. 355); and the second time, (in the Appendix, p. 135,) we have also a large portion of the metrical Anthems first appended in 1578, though all of them do not belong to every copy of that date. Herbert's Ames, p. 1079.
1580. THE ORDER OF PRAYER upon Wednesdayes and Frydayes, to auert and turne Gods wrath from vs, threatned by the late terrible earthquake, to be vsed in all parish churches. Whereof the last prayer is to be vsed of all housholders with their whole families. Set foorth by authoritie. Christopher Barker. 1580. Quarto. Collates F in fours, last three pages blank. [The University Library, Cambridge.] THE ORDER OF PRAYER, and other exercises, vpon Wednesdayes and Frydayes, to auert and turne Gods wrath from vs, threatned by the late terrible earthquake: to be vsed in all Parish Churches and housholdes throughout the Realme, by order giuen from the Queenes Maiesties most honorable priuie Counsell. Christopher Barker. 1580. Quarto. Collates F in fours, last leaf blank.
The history of these Forms requires a few words of explanation. From the Minutes of the privy council we learn, that on the 22nd of April a letter was directed to be sent to ye B. off London touchinge the fast & prayers apointed for the earthquake.' The answer to this letter seems to be one dated also on the 22nd, which will be given at the beginning of the Form now reprinted. In his reply Aylmer presses the general adoption of that alredie presented' by him to lord Burleigh, as
the compyling of a new forme of prayer would aske a long tyme.' On the following day the privy council wrote to the archbishop Grindal, (see his Remains, p. 416,) requiring the existing 'good and convenient order of prayer' to be used in all other dioceses of this realm.' Accordingly, on the 30th of April (ibid. p. 415), he gave directions for carrying the wishes of the privy council into effect 'throughout the whole diocese of Canterbury.'
Thus Strype erred, both in affirming the present Order to have proceeded at all from Grindal (see his Life, p. 248), and in supposing the diocese of London to have had a Form of its own. Annals, Vol. ii. p. 669. Aylmer's life (Oxford edition), p. 51. Herbert, also, erred, who (Ames, p. 1089), quoting the first words of the title, expressly declares the latter Form to have been intended for the province of York, whereas it was only a more authoritative publication of the other, of that which Aylmer had originally printed for the use of his own diocese. That Grindal was not necessarily the compiler of the Form alluded to by the privy council, notwithstanding the tenor of their language, may even be inferred from
Elizabeth using similar language in 1563 to the archbishop of York, as well as of Canterbury, in relation to the first Service for the plague, (see her letters prefixed,) which Grindal himself, then bishop of London, had composed. Strype (Grindal, p. 248.) reprints Camden's description of the earthquake, of which, as was to be expected, there is also a minute account in the Form subsequently issued for general use. Of this latter copies exist in archbishop Sancroft's collection, and in bishop Cosin's library. Strype (Annals, Vol. ii. p. 668.) notices the 'godlie Admonition,' which is annexed, but which was likewise put out separately. Herbert's Ames, pp. 613, 1080.
1580. A PRAYER for the estate of Christes Church: to XVI. be vsed on Sundayes. Quarto. [Bishop Cosin's Library, Durham.]
The writer of Dr Williams's manuscript affirms, that this Prayer was put out in 1580 for the earthquake. It was, however, an independent publication, beginning on A iii, the fly-leaf and title-page being gone; or, if we suppose the first signature to be wrong, collating A in four, last page blank. None of the copies compared has a colophon, and they are uniformly imperfect. Strype's Annals, Vol. ii. p. 668.
1585. ¶ A PRAYER for all Kings, Princes, Countreyes, XVII. and people, which doe professe the Gospel: And especially for our soueraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth, vsed in her Maiesties Chappell, and meete to bee vsed of all persons within her Maiesties Dominions.
¶ A PRAYER AND THANKESGIUING for the Queene, vsed of all the Knights and Burgesses in the High Court of Parliament, and very requisite to bee vsed and continued of all her Maiesties louing subiectes.
f✔ A PRAYER vsed in the Parliament onely. C[hristopher] B[arker.] n. d. Quarto. Contains pp. 7. [Archbishop Sancroft's Collection, Cambridge.]
These three Prayers were occasioned by the treason of a Welchman, Dr Parry, who had engaged to shoot Elizabeth whilst out riding, 'animated thereunto by the Pope and his Cardinals. He was betrayed by his accomplice, Nevil, and, being a member of parliament, hanged, drawn, and quartered, in the presence of the two houses, in Palace-yard, the 2nd of March, 1585. Foulis's History of Romish Treasons and Usurpations, pp. 437-444. Strype (Annals, Vol. iii. p. 260.) notices all the Forms, which in the Appendix (pp. 99, 100.) he has quoted entire. Herbert's Ames, p. 1090. They always begin upon Hi, without any title-page, as if part of a larger publication. The copy of them in the Bodleian, indeed, actually occurs at the end of 'A true and plaine declaration of the horrible Treasons, practised by William Parry,' &c.,
[LITURG. QU. ELIZ.]