Obrazy na stronie

SHOT. See LEAD, vol. x., p. 262.

lower and much curved in the upper; canines SHOVELLER. See Duck, vol. vi., p. 289. absent; premolars :=1 to 3-1, molars =*; the

SHREVEPORT, a city and the capital of Cad- posterior molars are many-pointed, and the do parish, Louisiana, in the N. W. corner of anterior ones conical; the precise homologies the state, on the W. bank of Red river, at the the cheek teeth have been the subject of head of low-water navigation, 330 m. above its much controversy. The snout ends in a naked mouth according to Humphreys and Abbot, muffle with the nostrils pierced on the sides; or 500 m. by local authorities; pop. in 1870, eyes very small, ears distinct, and feet nearly 4,607, of whom 2,168 were colored. It has plantigrade and usually naked beneath; mamsince been enlarged, and the population in mæ six to ten; feet five-toed, each with a claw. 1875 was locally estimated at 12,000. It con- Their food consists of insects, worms, and moltains many handsome residences and substan- lusks, though they sometimes destroy small tial business structures, is lighted with gas, and vertebrates and devour each other; they are has a good fire department and several miles nocturnal, more or less aquatic, do not hiberof street railroad. The principal public build- nate, and the young are born blind and naked; ings are the new market, costing $50,000; most of the species live on the surface of the the Presbyterian church, costing $35,000; and ground, and a few in burrows. They are the synagogue, a fine specimen of architecture. spread over the northern hemisphere, someThe surrounding country is very productive, times going very far north, and the smaller and the climate is mild and generally healthful. species enduring severe cold. The subfamily Shreveport is the E. terminus of the Texas and soricinæ is the only one represented in North Pacific railroad, which affords an all-rail route America; other subfamilies are found in south to St. Louis via Marshall

, Tex. Steamers run and central Africa, Asia, the East Indies, and regularly to New Orleans and intermediate Europe; none as yet have been detected in points on the Red and Mississippi rivers. The South America.–Of the American genera, trade is extensive and increasing, the value of neosorex (Baird) has rather short ears, partly shipments amounting to about $7,500,000 a furred on both surfaces; teeth 32; tail longer year, and the sales of merchandise to about than body and head, and hairs of equal length $7,000,000. The shipments of cotton average except a tuft at the tip; feet very large, with 100,000 bales annually, including about 20,000 a fringe of ciliated hairs; muzzle very slender. bales from the upper Red river reshipped at In the genus sorex (Linn.), which contains a this point. The transactions in hides, wool, great part of the species of the new and old and tallow are also considerable. The prin- worlds, the ears are large and valvular, the cipal manufactories are two of carriages, one tail about as long as the body, and the feet each of cotton gins, cotton-seed oil, sash and moderate and not fringed; it is divided into blinds, and spokes and hubs, three founderies two sections, one with 32 and the other with 30 and machine shops, a planing mill, two saw teeth, most of the American species belonging mills, and three breweries. There are three in the former. Prof. Baird describes 12 species private banks, two public schools (one for in vol. viii. of the Pacific railroad reports, vawhite and one for colored children), nine pri- rying in length from 3 to 4 in., of which the vate and denominational schools and acade- tail is about one half, ranging from blackish mies, two daily and weekly newspapers, and and brownish to grayish above and lighter to eleven churches (Baptist, Episcopal, Jewish, whitish below. The S. personatus (Geoffr.) is Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic), the least of the American shrews, and among of which five are for colored people. Shreveport was incorporated in 1839.

SHREW, or Shrew Mouse, the common name of the insectivorous mammals of the family 80ricidæ, characterized by a general rat-like or mouse-like appearance, elongated and pointed muzzle, and soft fur. The distinct auricle of the ears, and the normal size of the anterior feet, not usually employed in digging, distinguish them from the moles. The skull is long and narrow, compressed at the orbits, malar bone and zygomatic arch wanting; the ribs are 12 to 14 pairs, 6 to 8 vertebræ without ribs, 3 to 5 sacral, 14 to 28 caudal; tibia and fibula united, clavicles thin, and pubic arch closed; stomach simple; cæcum in some ab

uns sent, in others very large; on the sides of the

Mole Shrew (Blarina talpoides). body, nearest the anterior limbs, and in some at the base of the tail, is a series of glands the smallest of the quadrupeds of this country, which secrete a strong musky fluid. The teeth being not quite 3 in. long; it belongs in the vary from 28 to 32; there are two very large S. Atlantic states. Most of the species belong incisors in each jaw, nearly horizontal in the on the Pacific coast or in the N. W. territories.

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In the genus blarina (Gray) the body is stout; I was changed by the Saxons to Scrobbesbyrig the tail shorter than the head, with short bristly (Scrubsborough), of which Shrewsbury is a hairs and small brush at tip; the hands large corruption. Parliaments were held here in in proportion to the feet, and the soles usually 1283 and 1398; and a battle was fought here hairy at the heels; skull short and broad; ears in 1403 between the royalist troops and the very short, with the external surface densely insurgents under Douglas and Hotspur, in furred. This genus, peculiar to America, is which the latter was killed. (See Peroy.) also divided into sections, one with 32, the SHRIKE. See BUTCHER BIRD. other with 30 teeth. The mole shrew (B. tal- SHRIMP, a common decapod or ten-footed poides, Gray), the largest of the American and long-tailed crustacean, of the genus cranshrews, 44 in. long, is found from Nova Scotia gon (Fabr.); with the prawn (palæmon) it is to Lake Superior, and south to Georgia; it is called crevette by the French. The integu

ment is corneous, the carapace considerably flattened, the abdomen very large, and the tail powerful; the rostrum very short; eyes large and free; antennæ inserted about on the same transverse line, the internal pair the shortest and ending in two many-jointed filaments, the outer larger and longer; mandibles slender and without palpi; jaw feet moderate, with a terminal flattened joint and a short palpus on the inside ; sternum very wide behind ; first pair of feet strong, ending in a flattened hand baring a movable hook opposed to an immovable tooth ; second and third pairs of legs very slender, and the fourth and fifth much stronger; branchiæ seven on each side, consisting of horizontal lamellæ; false swimming feet on under side of abdomen large, and caudal plates wide. The common shrimp (C. vulgaris, Fabr.) is

13 to 24 in. long, greenish gray spotted with Common European Shrew (Sorex araneus). brown; the carapace is smooth, except a spine

behind the rostrum, one on the sternum, and dark ashy gray above and paler below, with seven on each side of the thorax; abdomen whitish feet. Several other species are de. without ridges or spines, and middle caudal scribed by Baird, of which two are in Mexico plate pointed and not grooved below. It is and Texas. In the old world, among the spo- common on the coasts of Europe, and in Engcies of sorex, subdivided into several by Wag- land and France it is much used as food. The ler, and called musaraignes by the French, shrimpers catch these animals in large nets is the common European shrew (S. araneus, with a semicircular mout] which they push Linn.), 43 to 5 in. long, of which the tail is before them along the bottom during ebb tide; 1} in.; the color is reddish mouse above and this fishery gives employment to many hundred grayish below; it is found in dry places very people in Great Britain. Shrimps are used in generally over Europe.—The shrews appear the United States chiefly as bait. They spawn during the miocene age in small numbers, and throughout most of the year, carrying the eggs continue through the diluvial epoch to the present time, without material change.

SHREW MOLE. See More. SHREWSBURY, the shire town of Shropshire, England, on the river Severn, 140 m. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 23,406. The remains of the ancient castle are still standing, and also a portion of the ancient walls of the city. The Severn is crossed by two bridges; there is a canal, and railways connect it with all parts of the kingdom. Shrewsbury is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and in 1872 had 32 places of worship. The principal manufactures consist of thread, linen yarn, and canvas; and there are extensive iron works at Coleham, a suburb. The salmon fishery of the

Common Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris). Severn is valuable. There is a considerable trade in Welsh flannels.—Shrewsbury was im- attached to the swimming appendages, and portant in the 5th century, and is prominent cast their skins from March to June. They in English history as a royal residence for feed on such animals as they can seize with short periods. Its original name of Pengwern their claws, and on what may be killed by the waves or other causes, and are themselves de- | tries, from the common practice of eating panvoured by fishes, aquatic birds, echini, and star cakes on that day, the use of eggs having been fishes. Other species are found in the Medi- formerly forbidden during Lent. terranean. Though the American shrimp re- SHUBRICK. I. John Templar, an American ceived from Say a different name from that naval officer, born in South Carolina, Sept. 12, of Europe, there seem to be no well marked 1778, lost at sea in 1815. He entered the specific differences.—The long-beaked, almost service as a midshipman in 1806, and was attransparent crustacean, commonly called shrimp tached to the Chesapeake in her affair with the in New England, and used sometimes for bait, Leopard in 1807. În May, 1812, he was made has been described by Mr. Stimpson as palo- a lieutenant, and served in the Constitution monopsis vulgaris.


in her action with the Guerriere in August, SHROPSHIRE, or Salop, a W. county of Eng- 1812, and in the Hornet's with the Peacock land, bordering on the counties of Chester, in February, 1813. For his services in these Stafford, Worcester, Hereford, Radnor, Mont- engagements he received medals from congomery, and Denbigh; area, 1,291 sq. m.; gress. He was second lieutenant of the Presipop. in 1871, 248,064. The surface is greatly dent when she was captured by a British squaddiversified. Toward the frontiers of Wales ron in January, 1815. In that year he was it becomes wild and mountainous, while the first lieutenant of the Guerriere, and was presother parts are comparatively level. The Sev. ent in all the operations against Algiers. On ern flows S. E. between the elevated and the the conclusion of peace, he was despatched level portions, and has a course within the with the treaty to the United States in the county of nearly 70 m., all navigable. Its Epervier sloop of war, which was never heard chief tributaries are the Tern and the Teme. from after she left the Mediterranean. II. There are several small lakes, of which Elles- William Branford, an American naval officer, mere, covering 116 acres, is the largest. There brother of the preceding, born in South Carois communication by canals with all the im- lina, Oct. 31, 1790, died in Washington, D. O., portant rivers of England. The soil varies May 27, 1874. He was appointed midshipman much, and there are considerable tracts of in June, 1806, and in May, 1807, joined the moorland, but much of it is easily worked and sloop of war Wasp. At the beginning of the yields good crops. Large numbers of cattle war of 1812 he was an acting lieutenant on are reared. Lead mines are worked to a con- board the Hornet, and was soon transferred to siderable extent. Iron, coal, and limestone are the frigate Constellation, which rendered imfound, and the manufacture of iron is exten- portant services in defence of Norfolk and the sively carried on. There are manufactures of navy yard at Gosport. In 1813 he was transmachinery, glass, stone-china ware, earthen- ferred to the Constitution, in which he made ware, and coarse linen and woollen goods. two cruises, and aided in the capture of three The principal towns are Shrewsbury, the cap- ships of war, including the Cyane and Levant ital, Bridgenorth, Wenlock, and Ludlow. (1815). When the Levant surrendered he was

SHROVE TIDE (A. S. scrifan, to absolve in ordered to her command. He returned to the confession), the days immediately preceding United States in May, 1815, second in comAsh Wednesday. These days were so desig- mand of the Constitution, and was awarded a nated because on them, and especially on the sword by his native state and a medal by conlast of them, people were wont to confess gress. In December, 1815, he was made setheir sins as a preparation for Lent. Shrove nior lieutenant of the Washington, 74 guns, untide or confession tide comprised a whole der Creighton, the first ship of the line which week in some countries. In most Roman made a full cruise under the United States Catholic countries it began on the Sunday be- flag, returning in 1818. He became commandfore Lent. While the ancient penitential can- er in 1820 and captain in 1831, and on Feb. ons were in vigor, all adults were enjoined to 3, 1844, was appointed chief of the naval bupresent themselves to the bishops and priests, reau of provisions and clothing. On July 9, in order that private penitents might be shriv- 1846, he was appointed to command the Paen in private and assigned a day for receiving cific squadron; on July 8, 1853, the eastern communion, and that public penitents might coast squadron; and on Sept. 8, 1858, the Brabe instracted as to what they should do to be zil squadron and Paraguay expedition, from reconciled at Easter. This practice continued which he returned May 11, 1859. On July substantially long after public penance had 16, 1862, he was commissioned rear admiral. fallen into disuse. It is mentioned in the SHUMLA, a walled and strongly fortified city homilies of Ælfric (died about 1005) as being of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, 48 m. W. of in force in England in his time. Shrove tide Varna and 185 m. N. W. of Constantinople ; soon became a season of feasting and merri- pop. about 20,000, exclusive of the garrison. ment, especially Shrove Tuesday, the eve of It lies on the N. slope of the Balkan, about the long Lenten fast. This day is still called midway between its crest and the lower Danmardi gras (fat Tuesday) by the French, and ube, in a gorge, enclosed on three sides by Shrove tide is known to them as les jours mountains. The inhabitants of the higher porgras. Shrove Tuesday is also popularly called tion of the town are principally Turks; of the Pancake Tuesday in English-speaking coun- lower, Jews, Armenians, and Greeks. There


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is trade in grain, wine, silk goods, copper ware, | 13° and 18° and lon. 98° and 102°, being bound. morocco, soap, and candles.—This town, ori ed by its dependencies, the gulf of Siam, and ginally called Shumen or Shumna, was burned the British territory of Tenasserim. Two in 811 by the emperor Nicephorus, and in mountain ranges, extending mainly S. E. from 1087 it was besieged by Alexis Comnenus. the Himalaya, form general natural divisions It was taken by the Turks in 1387, and embel- from China on the north, and partly from lished and fortified in 1689 and the 90 years Anam on the east and Burmah and the Brit. that followed, mainly by the grand vizier Has- ish possessions on the west. A third range, san, whose tomb is the most remarkable mon- less continuous and direct, passes through the ument of the city. In all the wars between central regions; in this is situated the Phra Turkey and Russia, it has formed the point of Bat, or mountain of “the sacred foot” (footconcentration of the Turkish army. The Rus- print) of Buddha, a Mecca for Buddhists. The sians attempted unsuccessfully to take it in gulf of Siam, between Siam proper and the 1774, in 1810, and in 1828.

Malay peninsula, forms a long coast line, and SHURTLEFF COLLEGE, an institution of learn- has numerous islands, much precipitous shore, ing under the control of the Baptists, at Up- and several ports, of which Bangkok is the per Alton, Madison co., Illinois, iş m. E. of chief. It is never visited by typhoons or the city of Alton. It was established in 1832 heavy gales.—The country is watered by sev. under the title of Alton seminary, and char- eral rivers, bearing the generic name Menam, tered in 1835 as Alton college. In 1836 its “mother of waters," and taking the specific name was changed in honor of Benjamin name or names from cities or provinces. The Shurtleff, M. D., of Boston, who had given it Menam Kong, Mekong, or river of Cambodia, $10,000. It was designed especially for the 1,800 m. long, traverses in its middle course education of young men for the ministry, but the N. E. or Laos dependencies of Siam. a distinct theological department was not or- (See Mekong.) The Menam Chow P'ya, Meganized till 1863. The institution now consists nam Bangkok, or simply the Menam, rises in of an academic and preparatory department, the north and flows S. through the centre of Kendall institute for young ladies, the college, Siam proper into the gulf of Siam. Its length and the theological department. Both sexes is about 600 m.; its principal tributary is the are admitted to the academic and preparatory Meping from the west. Bangkok, Ayuthia, department and to the college. The latter has Angtong, and other towns are situated on the a classical and a scientific course, on the com- Menam. The Salwen flows on the border of pletion of which the degrees of bachelor of British Burmah. These rivers, with the very arts and bachelor of philosophy respectively numerous intersecting canals, for rowing, not are conferred. Kendall institute, established tracking, are the great highways of traffic. in 1873, has a fine building and grounds, and The plains, irrigated and enriched by their is chiefly used as a home for young ladies at- annual overflow, are extensive and fertile; the tending the other departments. Tuition is valley of the Menam equals in richness that free in the theological department, and several of the Nile, and in extent half of the state of scholarships have been founded to provide for New York.—Th seasons are two, the wet or the tuition of needy students in the other hot and the dry or cool. The former, opening departments. Additional aid is afforded to near the middle of March, is not a succession needy candidates for the ministry by the “Illi- of wholly rainy days, but resembles a New nois Baptist Education Society.” The libraries York April and August combined. The anof the institution contain 7,300 volumes. The nual rainfall is about 60 inches. April, the number of instructors in 1874–5 was 14; of hottest month, has at Bangkok a maximum students, 204 (164 males and 50 females), viz. : of 97° F. and á mean of 84°. In October the theological department, 5; college, 53; aca- S. W. monsoon gives place to the N. E., which demic and preparatory department, 146. The ushers in the dry and cool season; this is very whole number of students has been 3,825; of fine, with only a few light showers throughout. graduates, 159. The property of the institution January is the coolest month; but the meramounts to about $180,000; the debt to $30,000. cury rarely falls below 65°. The mean annual

SHUVALOFF, Count. See supplement. temperature is 821°, and the mean range 13°. SIAM, the chief kingdom of the peninsula Vegetation is luxurious, fruitful, and beautiful styled Indo-China, or Further India. Siyam, beyond description, and the soil yields a rich from the dark color of the inhabitants or of return to rude and careless cultivation. Rice, the soil, is the ancient, and Muang T'hai, the sugar, pepper, cotton, and hemp are the staple kingdom of the free, the modern native ap- products. In the abundance, variety, and expellation for the country; T'hai, the free, for cellence of fruits, vegetables, and spices, Siam the people. With its Laos, Cambodian, and is unsurpassed. Many fruits, as the durian, Malay peninsular dependencies, it lies between mangosteen, and custard apple, are cultivated lat. 4° and 22° N., and between lon. 97° and in large gardens or orchards, trenched, and 106° E.; greatest length 1,350 m., breadth 450 watered by the daily tide. In the forests are m.; area estimated at about 300,000 sq. m.; found gutta percha, lac, dammar, gamboge, pop. about 5,750,000. The capital is Bang- catechu, gum benjamin, and the odoriferous kok. Siam proper lies mainly between lat. agila or eagle wood; innumerable medicinal


plants, herbs, and roots; sapan, fustic, indi- | head is shaved bi-monthly. A black bristling go, and other dyes; the lofty silk-cotton tree, tuft 4 or 5 in. broad and 2 in. high is left on with its soft silky floss for mattresses, but too the top; that of the women, whose hair is only brittle for the loom; the bamboo, the rattan, closely cut, is often encircled by a thread of and the atap, together forming the material of bare skin whence two or three hairs' breadths three fourths of the houses; the teak, with have been uprooted. The dress consists of a other ship and house timbers; iron, red, and cotton waist cloth (to which women add a silk white woods, rose woods, and ebony; the shoulder scarf), a jacket for the cold, and a banian, and the sacred fig tree. The animal straw hat for the sun. Children under seven kingdom is no less varied and interesting. Most or eight years old are clad only in jewels, fig celebrated is the white elephant, a dark-cream leaves, flowers, and turmeric. Priests, with albino, prized and honored as very rare, and head entirely shaven and uncovered, wear sevwhen captured belonging to the king. The eral yellow robes of cotton and silk. Kings national standard is a white elephant on a crim- and nobles on state occasions wear silk and son ground, and the royal seal, medals, and gold brocades and high conical hats. The Simoney bear the same device. Albino deer, amese are indolent, greedy, and untruthful, monkeys, and even tortoises are sometimes intemperate, servile, and superstitious. At found, and the natives believe white animals the same time they are peaceable and polite, to be the abode of transmigrating souls. The decorous in public, and affectionate to kinelephants of Siam attain a size and strength dred and kind to the poor and imbecile. The unsurpassed in other countries, and are much dwellings are of one story, partly to prevent prized throughout India. Among other ani- the indignity of another's walking over the mals are the rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, bear, head. They consist of huts, built on piles, pangolin, otter, musk civet, wild hogs, ourang of bamboo, roofed and sided with atap leaf; outangs and other apes, monkeys, and deer; boats, serving also as peddling stalls or vehidogs and cats, wild and domestic, are innu- cles; floating houses, of panelled teak, rising merable. The forests abound in peacocks, and falling with the tide on bamboo rafts; pheasants, pigeons, and other birds; aquatic and palaces, of white stuccoed brick, adorned birds of all kinds are numerous; the sea swal- with gilding, carving, painting, foreign furnilow which produces the edible nest is common. ture, pictures, gold, silver, china, and glass. Among the reptiles are the crocodile, turtle, These palaces are not of Chinese, but rather python, cobra de capello, numerous other of Indian architecture, and they often occupy snakes, and several varieties of lizards. Fish several acres, with the dwellings of the wives, are plentiful, but of poor quality. The most the quarters of the servants, and the grounds, noteworthy insect is the coccus ficus, which which are paved, shaded, adorned with flowproduces the lac of commerce by punctures in ers, and enclosed by high walls, Marriage resinous trees. Gold, copper, iron, tin, and takes place as early as 18 for males and 14 for lead all abound, in great purity; but by rea- females, without the aid of magistrates or son of the rudeness of working, the jealousy priests, though the latter may be present to toward foreigners, and the fevers and hard- make prayers, and especially to feast and to ships of the jungle, their vast wealth is com- receive presents. The number of wives, ordiparatively undeveloped. Antimony, zinc, sul- narily one, in the palaces reaches scores and phur, and arsenic also exist, and silver in com- hundreds; but the first is the wife proper, to bination. Salt is largely manufactured by so- whom the rest are subject. Social distinctions lar evaporation, and saltpetre less so. Mining, are very numerous, and in the law are reprepreviously under the strict surveillance of gov- sented numerically, from 100,000 for the secernment, and carried on chiefly by Chinese, ond king down to 5 for the lowest slave. Behas recently excited some interest among Eu- fore “the lord of life" on the throne, far above ropeans. Rubies, spinel, corundum, sapphire, numerical representation, all crawl and crouch, amethyst, garnet, topaz, and other precious or, with head bowed to the ground, lie "dust stones are found. --According to the French at the sacred feet.” Prince is approached by consul Garnier at Bangkok (1874), the popula- noble, noble by lord, lord by master, &c., each tion of Siam proper and its Laos dependencies with body bent, eyes prone, and hands folded is composed of 1,800,000 Siamese, 1,500,000 and raised to the forebead or above the head, Chinese, 1,000,000 Laos, 200,000 Malays, 50,000 giving and receiving homage. An annual serCambodians, 50,000 Peguans, and 50,000 Ka- vice of three months is paid to the king by rens and others. The Siamese are of Mongo- all, save the Chinese triennially taxed. One lian origin and Laos or Shyan descent. They third of the common people, it is largely esare olive-colored and of medium height. The timated, are slaves by birth, by gambling or head is large, face broad, forehead low, cheek other debts, by redemption from the penalty bones prominent, jaw bones in retreat very of crime, by capture, &c. Men sell their childivergent; mouth capacious, lips thick, nose dren, their wives, or themselves; convicts in heavy, and eyes black and without the Chinese scores clank their chains about the streets; turn of the lid. The teeth are stained black, and villages of thousands are made up of foreign sometimes serrated. The hair is all plucked captives. Yet Siamese life is in the main comfrom the face in youth, and the most of the fortable, and is moreover gladdened by many

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