Obrazy na stronie

Lord Cottington.
Lord Langdale.
Piercy Lord Powis.
Lord Somerset.

Lord Arundel or Wardour.

Lord Morley and Monteagle.

Lord Eure.

William Lord Powis.

Sir Walter Blunt.

Sir Edward Widdrington, Colonel.
Sir Philip Constable.

Sir John Clavering.

Sir Nicholas Thoreton.

And several hundred more of the same, and inferior rank:"--Crit. Hist. Eng. p. 219.

In prosecution of this grand design of a coalition with the church of Rome, and to render himself and the church of England more acceptable to her, the king disowns the foreign protestants, and actually breaks off communion with them; two instances shew this. "It had been always usual," says Lord Clarendon, "for the ambassadors, and all foreign ministers of state employed from England into any parts where the reformed religion was exercised, to frequent their churches and give all possible countenance to their profession; but the contrary to this was now with great industry practised, and some advertisements if not instructions given to the ambassadors there (Le Clerk says they were ordered) to forbear any extraordinary commerce with men of that profession. And Lord Scudamore, the last ordinary ambassador there, not only declined going to Charenton, (the protestant church at Paris) but furnished his own chapel, with wax candles upon the communion table and other ornaments, as gave great umbrage and offence to those of the reformation there who had not seen the like,

Besides that, he was careful to publish upon all occasions, by himself and those who had the nearest relation to him, That the CHURCH OF ENGLAND looked not upon the HUGONOTS Of FRANCE as a part of their communion: which was likewise too much and too industriously discoursed at home."-Clarend. Vol. 111. p. 96.

Another instance of like contempt shewn to foreign protestants, amidst a profusion of respect and complaisance to the church of Rome, was this" Upon the queen of Bohemia's earnest solicitation with king Charles her brother, An. 1634, a collection was ordered over England for the poor persecuted ministers of the Palatinate, who were banished their country for their religion. In the brief which was granted for this purpose, was the following clause :-Whose cases are the more to be deplored, because their extremity is fallen upon them for their sincerity and constancy IN


THEM PROFESS,-IVhereas those religious and godly persons might have enjoyed their estates and fortunes, if they would have submitted themselves to the ANTICHRISTIAN YOKE, and have renounced or dissembled the profession of their religion. Laud had two exceptions to this passage. 1. He denied the RELIGION of the Palatine churches to be the same with ours; because they were calvinists, and because their ministers had not episcopal ordination. 2. He objected to the church of Rome's being called an ANTICHRISTIAN YOKE; because it would then follow that she was in no capacity to convey sacerdotal power in ordinations; and consequently the benefit of the priesthood, and the force of holy ministrations would be lost in the English church, for as much as she has no orders but what she derives from the church of Rome. Laud acquainted the

king with his exceptions: the passages were expunged;" and the brave Palatines disowned as churches professing the same religion with us: whilst the church of Rome is declared to have ever remained firm upon the same foundation of sacraments and doctrines instituted by GOD; and the points in controversy betwixt the church of ENGLAND and IT, to be of an inferior and lesser nature, which do not at all affect the salvation of a man's soul."-Neal, Vol. II. p. 271.

Finally. To effect with the greater ease this intended coalition, the press was in this prince's reign laid under a severe restraint. "The printers and booksellers of London presented to the parliament several petitions complaining of the restraint of books written against popery; whilst a licence was never refused to such as were composed in favour of popish doctrines. They instanced in several books of this kind which were denied to be licensed."-Rapin, Vol. x. p. 211. And even those which had been formerly licensed by authority, as Bishop Jewel's, Dr. Willot's, Fox's Martyrology, and even the Practice of Piety, which had gone through thirty-six editions, &c. were now not suffered to be re-printed. "The queen and the Roman catholics, it is said, must not be insulted; and therefore all offensive passages, such as called the pope Anti-christ, the church of Rome no true church; and every thing that tended to expose images in churches, crucifixes, penance, auricular confession and popish absolution must be expunged."-Neal, Vol 11. p. 172. "No books imported from abroad were allowed to be sold till a catalogue of them had been first delivered to the archbishop or bishop of London, to be perused by themselves or their chaplains.

"Gellibrand, the mathematical professor, was prosecuted for publishing an almanack, in whichr the names of protestant martyrs were inserted out of Fox's calendar, instead of those pretended saints whom the pope had canonized: But at the same time the archbishop's chaplain licensed, without scruple, a scandalous book in which the first reformers, who sealed their religion with their blood, were stigmatized with the odious names of traitors and rebels."-Neal, Vol. 11. p. 299.Bennet's Mem. p. 233.


Persecution and Severities in the Reign of this PRINCE particularly against the English Nonconformists and Puritan Clergy.

WHILST the papists were thus carressed and highly favoured at court, and their doctrines freely uttered both from the pulpit and the press; there were great numbers of the king's protestant and good subjects, who, not falling so easily into his arbitrary measures, fell under his severe displeasure; and were treated with a rigor seldom exceeded in the most persecuting and cruel reigns.

"Mr. Nath. Bernard, lecturer of St. Sepulchre's London, was fined a thousand pounds, and committed to prison for preaching against Arminianism."-Tindal's Summary, p. 120. "Three members of the university of Oxford were expelled for the same crime."-" Above twenty other ministers were fined, censured and put by their livings for not bowing at the name of Jesus, or preaching against it.-The king's instructions, and

the severe principles of the prime minister brought a great deal of business into the spiritual courts; one or other of the puritan ministers was every week suspended or deprived, and their families sent a begging."-Neal, Vol. II. p. 209, 255."The severe pressing the Book of Sports, (i. e. requiring the clergy from their pulpits to publish the king's orders for revels, dances, and recrea tions on the Lord's day) made dreadful havock amongst them for seven years.-How many hundred godly ministers (says Mr. Prynne) have been suspended from their ministry, sequestered, driven from their livings, excommunicated, prosecuted in the high commission and forced to leave the kingdom for not publishing this declaration. Dr Wren, bishop of Norwich, says, that great numbers in his diocese had declined it and were suspended; that some had since complied; but that still there were thirty that had prremptorily refused and were excommunicated. This the bishop thinks a small number; but if there were as many in other dioceses, the whole would amount to near eight hundred."-Ibid. p. 251, 254.

The Dutch and French churches, which consisted of several thousand industrious protestant families, whose ancestors had taken refuge in England from bloody persecutions, and who had brought with them those manufactures of wool, &c. which had proved of inconceivable advantage to the kingdom," were now by the king's injunctions forbid to worship, if born in these kingdoms, unless they conformed to the English liturgy and ceremonies. This prohibition was an open violalation of a charter of privileges, confirmed no less than five times by king James, and twice by king Charles himself. The mayor and corporation of Canterbury certified, that above twelve hundred of their poor were maintained by these foreigners;

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