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differing gifts, the apostle does, undoubtedly, pronounce each to be a gift; so, by calling the several ways of Jewish purification, viz. sprinkling pouring, dipping, Siapopos Bahμo differing baptisms, he does, as certainly and undoubtedly, pronounce each to be a baptism. Yea, that the apostle has, in this place, a inore particular regard to the Jewish sprinklings, than dippings, seems highly probable (to say the least) from his express mention of the sprinklings, verse 13. as some of the principal of those legal purifications, or different baptisms, concerning which he had spoken. Verse 10. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of a heifer, (with which the water of purification was made) SPRINKLING the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh; how much more, &c.
If any shall imagine that the baptizing of cups, pots, tables, human bodies, &c. is meant by these diverse baptisms, the reply is obvious. These, if they must be all dipt, in order to their being baptised, can with no truth or propriety be called diverse or differing kinds of baptisms; for they are then but one and the same baptism of differing things.
Here, then, is full proof that the scripture uses the word Banhos, baptism, in so general and large a sense, as evidently to comprehend sprinkling, if not chiefly to intend it. Sprinkling then, in the judgment of an inspired writer, is an authentic and divinely instituted manner of baptizing. I proceed,
2. To shew, that the word Barw, to baptise, is frequently used, in scripture, where the act of pouring or sprinkling, not dipping, is intended: and that a person is said to be baptised, when not his whole body was plunged under water, but when water was applied only to a part,
LUKE xi. 38. The pharisee, who invited our Lord to dine with him, marvelled that he had not first been BAPTISED before dinner, or & TEUTON Gan. Did he expect that our Lord should have plunged his whole body under water before dinner? Undoubtedly not. But what his expectations were may be learnt from those of his brother-pharisees, in the very same case, as to the disciples; they found fault with them for eating with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen hands.* So Grotius explains it-Ear baptised; that is, says he, ato ras x-gas, had not first washed his hands. And "Dr. Pocock observes, and quotes Beza as saying, that Barhdar, to be baptised (Luke xi. 38.) means the same as "λg and xg to wash, and to wash the "hands. And since that washing the hands might be done, either by putting them into the water, or by pouring water on them; here is a word "used, 16, which comprehends both the one "and the other of these ways."
MARK vii. 3, 4. The pharisees and all the εαν μη βαπτίσονται Jews, when they come the market, except they are BAPTISED, eat not. Did they think themselves obliged, on every such occasion, to be dipt wholly under water? Absurd to imagine! For it is said, not only the pharisees, but ALL the Jews--If the pharisaie severity might, possibly, subject those very precise persons to such a total immersion, at all times, even in the depth
Mark vii. 2.
Note, Aaron and his sons, even when they went into the tabernacle, and officiated in the most solemn manner, to offer up the burnt-offering upon the altar unto God, are directed (Exodus xxx. 18-21.) to wash their hands and their feet at the laver, verse 19-(not to bathe the whole body) and again, verse 21. So shall they wash their hands and their feet, that they die not.
Dr. Wall's Defence, &c. page 1'11.
of winter, whenever they came from market; it can never be imagined, that ALL the Jews did the same. Dr. Pocock proves, from Maimonides and the whole body of the rabbins, that the Jews had no such custom.* Some, indeed, to weaken this testimony of the rabbins, have alleged the many whimsical and silly notions with which their writings abound: but this is, certainly, itself, extremely weak. The enquiry is about a national custom, a common, familiar, well known fact. Were their heads so strangely turned that they could not transmit to us a credible account what their national usage was as to washing the hands? Should a papist, or mahometan be called into a court of judicature to give testimony to any public, indifferent fact; would not any person draw upon himself the smiles of the court, who should attempt to set aside their evidence, by alleging their absurd notions and speculations in religion?
Others aware of the force of this text, endeavour to evade it by a different rendering, viz. And what they buy in the market, unless it be washed, dipt, they eat not. But this will by no means, help off the difficulty. They might, indeed, thus baptise, or dip, the flesh and herbs they brought from the market; but did they also dip their corn, honey, meal, salt, oyl, milk, &c.?
Others object,-That, not to suppose the evangelist here to mean a total immersion, by Carlwx7xes, is to make him guilty of an insipid tautology. For after having said, verse 3. The pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not. He would not immediately have added, verse 4. And when they come from the market, except they wash they eat not-had not this latter washing been something different from the former.
Vid. Wall, p. 11. Dr. Gale's Reflections, &c. page 167,
But, why not? Is it not quite proper to sayThe pharisees and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft (van sedulò, crebrò, sæpissimè, so the Syriac. Casaub. Vulg. Erasm. Arab. i. e. frequently and carefully) eat not. And (particularly, one occasion, in which they are wont thus carefully to wash, is) when they come from the market; for then, except they wash they eat not.
In the same MARK Vii. 4. we read of the washing (Gr. Barhops the baptisms) of cups, and pots, and Kaw of beds. Did they wash their couches and beds by putting them wholly under water? No; this words Barhoμus baptisms, says Dr. Lightfoot,* does not always signify dipping or putting under water; but sometimes washing only, or even sprinkling.
1 Cor. x. 1, 2. The apostle says-All our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and were all BAPTISED into Moses, εβαπλ φανlo εν τη νεφέλη και εν τη θαλασση by the cloud and by the sea. But how were they baptised in, or by, the cloud, and by the sea? By being immersed into, or totally overwhelmed with them? Most certainly, not. The Egyptians were thus baptised; the Israelites were not. For it is said, ExOD. xiv. 21, 22. The Lord caused the sea to go back, by a strong east wind, all that night, and made the sea dry land; and the waters were divided; and the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea, upon the dry ground; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. Note: though they might possibly be said to be covered or overwhelmed by the cloud; yet so were they not, nor could they be, by the sea. The sea, it is unde-. niable, never overwhelmed, or covered, them at
Vid. Poli. Syn. in Loc,
all: yet behold! they are expressly said to be baptised in, or by, the sea, as well as by the cloud. Their being baptised, then, by the sea, must signify something else besides being immersed into, or covered or overwhelmed with it. What then, does it mean? Or how were they baptised by it?-As God sent a strong east wind to drive back and divide the waters; the same instrument was, no doubt, employed to continue them in this state. Now by the mighty agitation into which the waters were cast, by this violent repulsion; and the strong wind at the same time furiously blowing; it is easy to conceive the passing Israelites must be sprinkled with the spray of the tossing waves, and thus were baptised by it.
Here, then, is another incontestible instance of a scripture-baptism without immersion. The Israelites are expressly said to be baptised in, or by, the sea, as well as by the cloud; yet no one will presume to say they were buried or overwhelmed in it.
In further confirmation of this sense of the word, Carl to baptise, I beg leave to ask-what is the real nature or design of christian baptism? It is unquestionably but an emblematical, or figurative thing. But what is the water, in this religious rite, designed to figure or represent? Undoubtedly the Holy Ghost. This is frequently in scripture, spoken of and promised, under the emblem of water:† and is represented as the great instrument of purifying, refreshing and strengthening the soul, as water is of the body. Accordingly, John says, I indeed baptise you with water; but he, Christ, shall baptise you with the Holy Ghost.-Except a person is born of water,
* See Luke iii. 16. John iii. 5. Acts i. 5. ii. 38. x. 47. 1 Cor. xii. 13. Tit. iii. 5.- Isai. xliv. 3. Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 27. John iv, 10, 14. John vii. 38, 39.