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assertions of the moderns, who have no other way to support a favourite hypothesis, than by running counter to all antiquity ; let the reader judge. :::

The foregoing' observations concerning demons, may enable us to understand what is meaned by a spirit of divi, nation, * (or, as it is in the original, a Spirit of Python or Apollo'',) with which the damsel at Philippi was thought to be poffefsed. Amongst many other forts of diviners in the Pagan world, there was one which were thought to be poffeffed class; yet they often intimate, that Paganism had no other support than human fraud and imposture. See Dissert. on. Mir. p. 241, 242, From the passages cited above, 'in the introduction, p.: . note, it appears, that they themselves doubted or disbelieved the reality of possessions, though they asserted it in their popular discourses. I have no desire of detracting from the just merit of these writers ; and mean only to Thew those, whọ lay too great stress on their authority, how little deference is due to it in the case before us.

* A&. xvi. 16, 18.. . ! Ilveõnce Múbwvos.


with prophesying demons ". Besides other " names that were given them, they were often called Pythons °, from Apollo Pythiús, one of the chief of all the prophesying demons, whose priestess at the famous temple at Delphi was from him called Pythia. He himself was the fon of Jupiter and Latóna, and born in the ille of Delos. It was with the spirit of this dead man, that the damsel at Philippi was thought to be inspired. St. Luke, without allowing her pretensions, (as we have. shewn elsewhere 9,) describes

na Potter's Greek Antiq. vol. i. chi 12. p. 268. See also ch. 9. p. 241, 246.. . "

..^. Such as d'aspeováanlos, fylæsgivavteis, &c.. - ° MýGwyes. Plutarch. de Orac. defect. p. 414. E.

P Or from Python, a famous Byzantine ventriloquist. See Hefych. Lexicon, and Vandale de Divinat. Idol, sub Vet. Test p. 650. This last writer has well refuted that strange, but too common opinion, that by a spirit of Python, St. Luke meaned the devil. Comparé Le Clerc's Supplement to Hammond, on Act. xvi. 16.

9 Disert, on Mir. p. 275. Cara ini

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them in the language of the Pagans ; which, without doubt, he uses in the fame fame sense as they did, especially as he gives no notice to the contrary; and, consequently, he cannot here refer to any other than a human spirit.

SECT. III. Prop. III. : Those Demons 'who were

thought to take polefion of men's bodies, were, it is probable, confidered by the

Jews as evil beings. THE word, indeed, is in itself in

different, and was, in the age of the Gospel, very commonly applied both to good and bad demons'. In the New Testament it doth not occur always in a bad sense': but it sometimes

· Philo de Gigantibus, p. 286, cited in Differt. on Mir. p. 207, 208.,

s In Act. xvii, 18. 2 Tim. iv. Į. Rev. ix. 20 it is applied to the fouls of fuch men as were deified or canonized after death. Differt. on Mir. p. 167, 203, 204. See above, p. 45, 46.


doth. St. James faith, The devils (demons) believe and tremble. To suppose with Dr. Sykes, that good fpirits are here spoken of, doth not agree with the apostle's reasoning in this place. St. Paul's argument likewise in his first epistle to the Corinthians ", is generally thought to proceed on the supposition, that the demons worshipped by the Heathens were wicked spirits : a fuppofition very agreeable to the characters ascribed to them, and the immorality of the worship paid them by their own votaties. Jofephus declares, that demoniacs were possessed by the spirits of wicked mens. By such fpirits, demoniacs amongst the

+ Ch. ii. 19. The word used by $t. James is δαιμόνια και but δαιμόνια and δαίμονες occur in Scripture'as fynonimous terms. Compare Mat. viii, 31. Luke viii. 27, 29. A copovadns cannot be taken in a good sense, Jam. iii. 15.' ::. .** Cor. x. 20,21. compare 2 Cor, vi. 14, 15, 16.

* Bell. Jud. lib. vii. c. 6. $ 3, cited above, p. 42. In his history of Saul (Antiq. lib. vi. c. 8. 2. and c. 11. $2.) and Solomon, (Antiq. lib. viii. c. 2. $ 5.) saspóroge must be taken in a bad senfe. He'


Heathens (after whom the Jews copied) were thought to be poffeffed'. And it was plainly with a view of difcrediting the mission, and blasting the character of Christ, that the Pharisees reproached him as a confederate with the prince of demons. " .077*, ;' 57...

exprefly represents Saul, as seized upon by an evil fpirit and dennons, T8 ra ng8 Guzou.drop, xa rau đayMoriwr, Antig. lib. vi. c. 11. 5 2.' Nevertheless, the adjective aspeórsos must be understood differeptly in this author;; and as equivalent to divine. It is joined with providence, Antiq. lib. xiii. c. 11. ' $ 3. Bell, Jud. lib. vii. c. 8. $ 5. Ode, in his Commentar. de Angelis, p. 202, has observed, that deagóvoor tipás is a divine prodigy, Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 17. Boudesa d'aspórnos, divine asistance, lib. iv. c. 3. $.14. dampávias Qlogá, di deftru&ion from Ged, lib. vi. c; g. side and ourQopa dasjórios, a calamity sent from God,i lib. i. c. 19..3. Other examples of this use of salvecuies are produced by Ode. See also Philoftrat. de Vit. Apolo lon. Tyan. lib. i. c. 2. P. 4. (ed. Olear. Lipf. 1709.) where despuénios is used : as equivalent to Seños. Olive r , w , .: Concerning the Larvati amongst the Latins, fee above,.p. 26, 27, note", In.the eastern languages, all


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