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anno 259, in the time of Gallienus. * Marinus, being a candidate for a Roman office at Cæsarea, was informed against as a Christian by an antagonist, who pleaded that he ought not to have the office upon that score: the judge, upon examination, finding it to be so, gives him three hours' time to consider, whether he would quit his religion or his life. During this space, Theotecnus, bishop of Cæsarea, meets with him, and taking him by the hand, carries him to the church, and sets him by the holy table, then offers him a bible and a sword, and bids him take his choice. He readily, without any demur, lays his hand upon the bible; whereupon the bishop thus bespake him : Adhere, says he, adhere to God, and in his strength enjoy what thou hast chosen, and go in peace! With this he immediately returns from the church to the judge, makes his confession, receives his sentence, and dies a martyr.' Who that reads this story can question, whether the worshipping places, which Gallienus is said a little before si to have restored to the Christians, were properly churches with holy tables or altars in them? To the testimonies cited from Tertullian may be added one more, where he plainly distinguishes the parts of their churches, as the discipline of their penitents then required. For speaking of the unnatural sins of uncleanness, he says 82, "all such monsters were excluded, not only from the nave or body of the church, but from every part of it: they were obliged to stand without door in the open air, and not allowed to come under the roof of it.'

This discipline was in the Church of Antioch, in the time of Babylas, anno 247, when, according to the account given by St. Chrysostom 83 and Eusebius 84, Babylas ' excluded the γάρ ήδη τα της προθεσμίας του χρόνου 83 Cont. Gentil. t. 1. p. 741. [al. TTETÀ ÝPwroo ka 8 Tapaotàs to di- De S. Babyla, cont. Julian. et Genκαστηρίω, και μείζονα της πίστεως til.] (t. 2. p. 545. 6.) Τον βασιλέα την προθυμίαν επιδείξας, ευθύς εκεί- των της εκκλησίας προθύρων εξήλασε, θεν, ώς είχεν, άπαχθείς την επί θανάτω, κ. τ.λ.-Vid. ibid. p. 748. (p. 550 a.) τελειούται.

Τον βασιλέα.... αναιδώς τοϊς επιπη81 Ibid. c. 13. See before, s. 15. S@vta nepißolos, kai trávra ovyxén. 54, preceding

οντα, καθάπερ τινά κύνα και οικέτην 82 De Pudicit. c. 4. (p. 556 b.) áyvớuova Tôv dEOTOTIK@V ånreipywv Reliquas autem libidinum furias im- aúlwv. pias, et in corpora, et in sexus, ultra 84 L. 6. c. 34. (v. I. p. 298. 8.) jura natura, non modo lirmine, ve- Τούτον [Φίλιππον] κατέχει λόγος rum omni ecclesiae tecto summove- Χριστιανών όντα, εν ημέρα της υστάmus, quia non sunt delicta, sed on toù IIáoxa ravvuxidos, Tôvétè monstra.

της εκκλησίας ευχών τώ πλήθει με

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Emperor Philip from the church, with all his guards about him, on Easter-eve, and would not suffer him to pray with the faithful, till he had set himself in the place of the penitents, (uetavoias xópą Eusebius calls it,) and there made confession of his crimes.' I stand not now critically to inquire into the truth of this bistory, which some learned men $5 question, and others 56 defend : it is sufficient to our present purpose, that both Eusebius and St. Chrysostom give us such an account of the ancient churches, as necessarily supposes them distinct from common habitations in the middle of the third century. Nay, St. Austin 87, and the author of the Comments, under the name of St. Ambrosess, say expressly, “ that as soon as the religion of Christ was planted in the world, churches were built to pray for kings, and all that are in authority, &c.,' according to the Apostle's direction, 1 Tim. 2, 1, upon which St. Austin founds the use and building of churches. I lay no stress upon the Martyrologies, nor such writers as Abdias Babylonius, and Anacletus, which speak of churches built in Persia by Simon and Jude, and at Alexandria by St. Mark, and at Rome by St. Peter, because these are late and spurious writings. But yet, if we may judge of the first conversions by those that happened in the time of Constantine, we may conclude, that as soon as any people were converted, they provided themselves churches for divine service. As when Frumentius had converted the Indians, Socrates says 59, he immediately built churches among them; which is confirmed by Ruffin 90, who not only takes notice of that, but says further, that before he had converted them, meeting with some Roman merchants that were Christians, he encouraged them to build

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τασχεϊν εθελήσαι' ου πρότερον δε υπό 87 Cont. Faust. 1. 12. c. 36. (t. 8. TOÙ mnvikáde Tipocot@ros érretpatņvai p. 244 a.) Ex hoc quippe illis creεισβαλείν, ή εξομολογήσασθαι, και dentibns constructa sunt domicilia τοις εν παραπτώμασιν έζεταζομένοις, pacis, basilice Christianarum conμετανοίας τε χώραν έχουσιν, εαυτόν gregationum, &c. καταλέξαι.

88 In Eph. 4. See before, s. 7. 85 Cave, Prim. Christ. p.46. (part. p. 12. second part of n. 61. 1. ch. 3. p. 23.) I shall mention but 89 L. 1. c. 19. (v. 2. p. 51. II.) one instance more, &c.

Ευκτήρια πολλά ιδρύει, κ.τ.λ. 86 Pagi, Crit. in Baron. an. 247.

90 Hist. 1. 1. [al. 10.] c. 9. (p. p.6. (non liquet.)—Huet. Origenian. 225 b. 3.) Cæpit monere, ut con1. 1. c. 3. n. 12 tot. (Oper. Origen. venticula per loca singula facerent, t. 1. p. 19 f. 8.) Antiochiæ præterea ad quæ Romano ritu orationis causa contigisse fertur illud, &c.


themselves oratories in all places, whither they might resort for prayer, after the custom of the Romans.' Theodoret 91, and Socrates 92, and Ruffin 93, observe the same in the conversion of the nation of the Iberians by a captive woman, who taught them to build churches after the Roman form ; which they did, and then sent ambassadors to Constantine, (in whose time both these conversions happened,) to desire him to send them priests, to carry on the work they had thus begun, and to minister in their churches. Now we may reasonably conclude, that some such thing was observed in all conversions from the very first, allowing for the difference betwixt times of persecution and times of peace. For though they had not such public and stately edifices at some times as they had at others; yet they always had places peculiarly set apart for divine worship before the peaceable reign of Constantine, as the evidences produced above do undeniably prove.


Of the difference between churches in the first ages and those

that followed. And of Heathen temples and Jewish synagogues converted into Christian churches.

1. The only remaining objection against what has been ad- The first vanced in the last chapter is taken from a passage or two very simple of the ancients, which seem to imply that there was a great and plain. difference between the apostolic age and those that followed, in reference to this business of churches. Isidore of Pelusium 94 treating of this matter says, “In the Apostles' days


91 L. Ι. c. 24. (ν. 3. p. 56. 12.) 8.) Adest captiva, edocet Deum Και την αξιώγαστον εκείνην καταλα- Christum supplicandi ritum veneβών δοριάλωτον, παρεκάλει δείξαι της randique modum, in quantum de οικοδομίας το σχήμα και δε τον Βεσε- his aperire femine fas erat, pandir. λεήλ της αρχιτεκτονικής σοφίας έμ- Fabricari tamen ecclesiarn monet, πλήσας, και ταύτην ήξίωσε χάριτος, formamque describit : .... cunctis ως τον θείον διαγράψαι νεών και η idem volentibus, ecclesia exstruitur μεν διέγραψεν, οι δε ώρυττόν τε και instanter, &c. ώκοδόμουν, κ. τ.λ.

94 L. 2. Εp. 246. (p. 236 d.) "Οτι 92 L. Ι. c. 20. (ν. 2. p. 53. 5.) μεν επί των Αποστόλων, ότε η εκΟ μεν βασιλεύς μαθών παρά της αιχ- κλησία έκόμα μεν χαρίσμασι πνευμαλώτου το σχήμα των παρά Ρωμαίοις ματικούς, έβρυε δε πολιτεία λαμπρα, εκκλησιών, ευκτήριον οίκον εκέλευσε εκκλησιαστήρια ουκ ήν επί δε ημών γενέσθαι ευθύς τε προς οικοδομής τα εκκλησιαστήρια πλέον του δέοντος προσέταξεν ευτρεπίζεσθαι' και ο οίκος κεκοσμηται, ή δ' εκκλησία (άλλ' ουδέν ηγείρετο.

βούλομαι δυσχερής ειπείν) κωμωδεί3 L. Ι. [al. Io.] c. 10. (p. 127 a. ται. Εγώ γούν, είγε αίρεσίς μοι πρού

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there were no churches, (that is, buildings or temples,) when spiritual gifts abounded, and a holy conversation was the bright ornament of the Church. But in our days the buildings are adorned more than is necessary, whilst the Church is fallen into disgrace. And therefore, were I at liberty to choose, I should rather have wished to have lived in those days, when there were no such beautified temples, but yet the Church was crowned with divine and heavenly graces, than in these days, when temples are adorned with all kinds of marble, but the Church is deprived of all those spiritual gifts. These words, if they be taken in the strictest sense, may seem to import, that in the age of the Apostles there were no churches built; for beyond the apostolical age he carries not the comparison. But I rather take him to mean, that the Apostles had not such churches as they had in this time, that is, so stately and magnificent, so rich and beautiful, as many in after-ages. Which is certainly true; for in the first conversion of any nation the churches were always answerable to the state and condition the converts were in, which was commonly a state of persecution, when not many rich, not many noble, were called. Nay, even in those places where kings gave encouragement to the propagation of the faith, churches were another thing from what they are now, as we may learn from the history of our own nation. There was a time, Bede tells us, when there was not a stone church in all the land, but the custom was to build them all of wood; and, therefore, when bishop Ninyas built a church of stone, it was such a rarity 92 and unusual thing among the Britons, that they called the place Candida Casa, Whitern, or Whitchurch, upon it. The same author 93 tells us, “that Finan, the second bishop of Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, (since called the Bishopric of Durham,) built a church in the island fit for a cathedral see, κειτο, ειλόμην αν εν τοις καιρούς εκεί- 93 Ibid. c. 25. (pp. 131. 4. et 5.) νοις γεγενησθαι, εν οις εκκλησιαστήρια Finan ... in Insula Lindisfarnensi μεν ούτω κεκοσμημένα μή ήν, εκκλησία fecit ecclesiam episcopali sedi conδε θείοις και ουρανίοις χαρίσμασιν gruarm. Quam tamen more Scotoεστεμμένη, ή εν τούτοις, εν οις τα rum, non de lapide, sed de robore pèr ekkinoiaotúpia tavroious kekad- secto, totam composuit, atque arunλόπισται μαρμάροις, η δε εκκλησία dine texit. Sed episcopus loci T@V irvevpatikov xaplomátwv ékeivwv ipsius [al. illius] Eadbert, ablata ερήμη και γυμνή καθίστηκε.

arundine plumbi laminis eam totam, 92 Hist. 1. z. 6.4. See before, ch. 1. hoc est, et tectum et ipsos quoque $. 10. n. 89, preceding.

parietes ejus cooperire curavit.

which yet was not of stone, but only timber sawed, and covered with reed;' and so it continued, till Eadbert, the seventh bishop, took away the reed, and covered it all over, both roof and sides, with sheets of lead. No one after this will wonder at the account which Sulpicius Severus 94 gives of the churches of Cyrene, in the deserts of Libya, when he tells us he went with a presbyter into one of them, which was made of small rods interwoven one with another, and not much more stately and ambitious than his own house, in which a man could hardly stand upright. But the men who frequented these churches were men of the golden age and purest morals; they neither bought nor sold any thing; they knew not what fraud or theft was; they neither had, nor desired to have, silver or gold, which other mortals set such a value upon. For,' says he, 'when I offered the presbyter ten pieces of gold, he refused them, telling me, with some greatness of mind, That the church was not built with gold, but rather unbuilt by it,-Ecclesiam auro non strui, sed potius destrui, altiore consilio protestatus. These instances may serve to explain Isidore's meaning, when he says 95,' the apostolical age had no churches, or not such rich and noble structures as the peace, and affluence, and emulation of after-ages commonly produced.

2. Indeed there were many visible reasons why the state of Reasons the structures must needs alter in proportion to the advance

larging and ment of the state of religion itselt. For times of peace and altering the

state of ecpersecution looked with a very different aspect, and had a very clesiastical different influence upon the affairs of the Church. Persecution structures. was always attended with poverty, paucity of believers, and unsettled hopes; so that either they needed not stately and sumptuous buildings, or they were not able to erect them; or, at least, they had no invitation and encouragement to do it, whilst they were under daily apprehensions of seeing them

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94 Dialog. 1. c. 2. (p. 517.) Erat furtum, nesciunt. Aurum atque arvilibus texta [al. contexta] virgultis, gentum, quæ prima mortales putant, non multo ambitiosior quàm nostri neque habent, neque habere cupiunt. hospitis tabernaculum, in quo nisi. Nam quum ego presbytero illi decem incurvus quis non poterat consi- nummos aureos obtulissem, refugit stere. Quum hominum mores quæ- altiore consilio protestatus, ecclereremus, illud præclarum animad- siam auro non 'strui, sed potius vertimus, nihil eos æque emere, destrui. neque vendere. Quid sit fraus aut

95 See n. 94. P. 39.

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