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He gives it the name of tabernacle ; which is only a private appellation, belonging peculiarly to moveable or travelling churches. For Eusebius , speaking of Constantine’s intended expedition against the Persians, says, 'that among his other preparations for that war, he erected himself a tent, or tabernacle, in the form of a church, in which he might continually make his supplications to God, the giver of victory, with the bishops and clergy that were to attend him in his expedition.' Socrates?, speaking of the same thing, compares it to the tabernacle that Moses set up in the wilderness, and says Constantine did it that he might have a decent and convenient oratory, eŮKTýpov músperlouévov, in the most desert and barbarous places through which he was to travel.' And from this example, as Sozomen 8 observes, it became a custom throughout the Roman army for every legion to have their tabernacle, and priests and deacons appointed to attend the service of it.

12. Whilst I am upon this head, it will not be amiss to give the reader an account of two other words, which have some relation to this subject, and by their ambiguity are often mistaken and confounded, that is, ecclesia matrix, and diæcesana;

which seem to be words of the same importance, but are often very different from one another. Ecclesia matrix, a mother-church, is sometimes taken for an original Church planted immediately by the Apostles, whence others were derived and propagated afterward. So Tertulliano calls those Churches, to which the Apostles preached, either viva voce or by their epistles, by which all doctrines are to be judged. And in this sense the Church of Jerusalem is called “the mother of all Churches in the world' by the second general Council of Constantinople 10; and Arles, the mother-church of France, be

Of the distinction between ecclesia matrix and dioecesana.

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6 De Vit. Constant. l. 4. c. 56. (v. díav oknunu Kated Kevágato, kai ie7. p. 658. 17.) "Έπειτα την σκηνήν τω ρέας, και διακόνους απονενεμημένους της εκκλησίας σχήματι προς την εκεί- έχειν. νου του πολέμου παράταξιν συν πολύ 9 De Præscript. c. 21. (p. 209 a.) λη φιλοτιμία κατειργάζετο εν ή το Constat proinde omnem doctriθεώ, τώ της νίκης δοτήρι, τας ικετη- nam, que cum illis ecclesiis apostoρίας άμα τους επισκόποις ποιείσθαι licis matricibus et originalibus idei επενόει.

conspiret, veritati deputandam. 7 L. I. c. 18. See before, 8. 4. p. 10 Ep. Synodic. ad Damasum, ap. 7. n. 25.

Theodoret. 1.5. c.9. (v. 3. p. 207.5.) 8 L. Ι. c. 8. (v. 2. p. 19. 38.) 'Εξ Της δέ γε μητρός απασών των εκκληεκείνου δε και τα Ρωμαίων τάγματα, σιών της εν Ιεροσολύμοις τον ... Κύα νύν αριθμούς καλούσιν, έκαστον ί- ριλλον επίσκοπον είναι γνωρίζομεν.

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cause supposed to be planted 11 by the Apostles' missionary, Trophimus, first bishop of the place. At other times a motherchurch denotes a metropolis, or the principal church of a single province, as in some of the African Canons 12, where matrix is used sometimes for the primate's see, to which other bishops were to have recourse for judgment and decision of controversies. But most commonly it signifies a cathedral, or bishop's church, which was usually termed the great church, and the catholic church, and the principal see, in opposition to the lesser tituli, or parish-churches, committed to single presbyters. Thus in the African Code the matter is plain : in one canon 13 every bishop is prohibited to alienate or sell the goods of the mother-church, and presbyters the goods belonging to their titles. The Greek translation of this canon is here imperfect and corrupt, as Suicerus 14 has rightly observed; and by it Cujacius and others have been led into a mistake to expound matrix by matricula, the catalogue, or books of the church, whereas it means the cathedral, or bishop's church. As also in another canon 15, which says, “If any bishop is negligent to deal with heretics in the mother-church, he shall be admonished of his fault by the neighbouring bishops, that he may have no excuse.' The mother-church is here the bishop's church, or that which required both his care and residence, as the principal church of the diocese. This by Fulgentius Ferrandus 16 is plainly opposed to other inferior churches in the diocese, upon which only presbyters resided, both when he says that the judgment of the mother-church shall be sufficient in the election of a bishop ;' and again, that the bishop

Il Libellus Precum Episcopor. Cujacius, ..... matricem pro matriGallor. ad Leon. ap. Baron. an. 450. cula, sive catalogo, sive descriptione p. 125. (t. 6. p. 129 a.) Cujus hono- locorum, .... accepit, &c. ris obtentu ecclesiam Arelatensem 15 C. 123. (ibid. p. 1129 c.) Si in omnes decessores, prædecessoresque matricibus cathedris episcopus nenostri vel ut matrem debito semper gligens fuerit adversus hæreticos, honore coluerunt, &c.

conveniatur a vicinis episcopis, &c. 12 Cod. Afric. c. 119. al. 120. (t. 16 Breviar. c. 11. (ap. Justell. t. 2. p. 1217c.)...Μή προκριματισθη εν 1. p. 448.) Ut ad eligendum episcoû parpıký, K.T.à. Non præjudicetur pum sufficiat matricis arbitrium. in matrice, &c.

Ex Concilio Septimunicensi et Con13 C. 33. (ibid. p. 1065 b.) Non cilio Macrianensi.— Ibid. c. 38. (p. habente necessitatem, nec episcopo 449.) Ut episcopus matricis non uliceat matricis ccclesiæ, nec presby- surpet quicquid fuerit donatum ectero rem tituli sui usurpare.

clesiis, quæ in diæcesi constitutæ 14 Thes. Eccles. voce, Márpit. (t.2. sunt. Ex Concilio Hipponiregiensi. p. 321.) Quo loco perperam magnus

of the mother-church shall not usurp any thing that is given to the churches in the diocese.' These churches in the diocese are the same as we now call parish-churches; though they themselves are sometimes termed dioceses in the Pontifical 17 and the African Canons 18; and in some other Canons ecclesice diocesance, diocesan churches, as in the Council of Tarraco 19, which obliges all bishops to visit their dioceses once a-year, to see that no diocesan church,—that is, no church within the diocese,—was out of repair. So that a motherchurch and a diocesan church, in that ancient style, differed as now a cathedral and a parish-church with us. The motherchurch being otherwise called 20 the principal see, principalis cathedra, where the bishop was obliged continually to reside ; and sometimes the catholic church, as Valesius has observed 21 out of Epiphanius 22 and Nicephorus 23, in opposition to the lesser churches that were subject to it. Though, as I noted before, the Council of Trullo 24 calls every baptismal church a

17 Vit. Marcel. (CC. t. I. p.946 c.) constitutione decrevimus ut ... anHic .. viginti quinque titulos in nuis vicibus ab episcopo diæceses Urbe Roma constituit, quasi diæ- [al. diæcesano] visitentur; et siqua ceses, propter baptismum, &c. forte basilica reperta fuerit destituta,

18 Cod. Afric. c. 53 tot. (t. 2. p. ordinatione ipsius reparetur. 1077 a.) Dico, si placet, circa hos, 20 C. Carth. 5. c. 5. (t. 2. p. 1216 non tantum diæceses non esse ser- b.) Placuit, ut nemini sit facultas, revandas, verum et de propria eccle- licta principali cathedra, ad aliquam sia, quæ illis male faverit, omnimodo eeclesiam in diæcesi constitutain se annitendum, ut etiam auctoritate conferre. publica rejiciantur, atque ab ipsis

21 In Theodor. Lect. l. 1. p. 553. principalibus cathedris removean- (v.3. p. 566. n. 3.).. Notandum est, tur. Oportet enim, ut qui universis Nicephorum majorem ecclesiam vofratribus ac toto concilio inhæserit, care trv Katólov' non quod reliquæ non solum suam jure integro, sed ecclesiæ, huic subjectæ, non essent et diæceses possideat. At vero, qui catholicæ, sed per excellentiam quansibimet putant plebes suas sufficere, dam major ecclesia patriarchalis difraterna dilectione contempta, non cebatur Catholica. Sic Epiphanius tantum diæceses amittant, sed, ut in Hæresi Arianorum, haud procul dixi, etiam propriis publica careant ab initio, Catholicam Ecclesiam voauctoritate, ut rebelles.-C.56. (ibid. cat majorem ecclesiam urbis Alexp. 1080 e.) Audivimus constitutum, andriæ, quæ subjectas habebat pluut diæceses non mereantur episco- res minores ecclesias. pos accipere, nisi consensu ejus, sub 22 Hær. 69. Arian. n. 1. (t. 1. p. quo fuerant constitutæ : sed in pro- 727 c.) See b. 7. ch. 2. 6. 2. v. 2. p. vincia nostra cum aliqui forte in

329. n. 12. diæcesi, concedente eo episcopo, in 23 L. 15. C. 22. (t. 2. p. 623 b. 1.) cujus potestate fuerant constitute, “Ος άμα τα γενέσθαι οικονόμος, τα εν ordinati sunt episcopi, etiam dice- εκάστη των εκκλησιών προσφερόμενα, ceses sibi vindicant, &c.

διετύπου τους κατά τόπους κληρικούς 19 C. 8. (t. 4. p. 1565 a.). . Reperi- αποφέρεσθαι· άχρις εκείνου πάντα της mus nonnullas diocesanas ecclesias καθόλου εκκλησίας νομιζομένης. esse destitutas. Ob quam rem hac 24 C. 59. (t.6. p. 1170 a.) Mydauws

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catholic church, in opposition to private oratories, where baptism was not allowed to be administered.

It was necessary for me to be thus particular about the names of churches in the entrance upon this Book, because some of them are curious, and others ambiguous, that the reader might find them explained at once, and not be at a loss about terms upon every occasion in the following discourse. 13. Our next inquiry is into the original of churches; that is, Proofs of

churches in when Christians began to set them apart for divine service.

the first A very singular paradox has been advanced by some learned century, men in these last ages, that for the three first ages the Christ

collected by ,

Mr. Mede. ians had no such distinct places of worship; grounding upon some mistaken passages of Origen, Minucius Felix, Arnobius, and Lactantius, who say 'the Christians had no temples, 'which they take for a denial of their having any churches; which opinion, though advanced with some show of learning by Vedelius 25, Suicerus 26, and others, is altogether without ground, έν ευκτηρίω οίκω, ένδον οικίας τυγχά- conjunctionis et tanti conventus conνoντι, βάπτισμα επιτελείσθω; άλλ' οι frmationem, simulacrorum temploμέλλοντες άξιούσθαι του αχράντου rumve fundationes defugimus ; sed φωτίσματος ταις καθολικαίς προσερ- quia per Jesu doctrinam comperiχέσθωσαν εκκλησίαις.

mus, quemadmodum colendus sit 25 Exercit. in Ignat. Ep. ad Mag- Deus, ea nos evitamus, quæ sub pinesian. C. 4. n. 2. (p. 68.) At Ignatii etatis prætextu et opinatione quadam tempore, Christiani templa non ha- impios reddant, qui a vero per Jebebant proprie sic dicta: immo post sum cultu errando falluntur, qui Ignatii etiam tempora iis carebant utique solus ad pietatem est via, et aliquamdiu. Origenis tempore, qui in vero illud profatus, Ego sum via, post annum 200 scripsit, templis ca- veritas, et vita. Eodem tempore vixit rebant Christiani, ut patet ex libro Minucius Felix, in cujus Octavio octavo adversus Celsum; ubi Celsus Cæcilius idem Christianis objicit, Christianis exprobrat : ‘Post hæc Cur nullas aras habent? templa nulCelsus et aras et simulacra et delu- la ? nulla nota simulacra ? Hic exbra nos ait defugere, quo minus presse Octavius fatetur: Delubra et fundentur, &c.' Hoc Origines non aras non habemus. Post hos vixit negat, sed agnoscit, ' Quia,' inquit, Arnobius Afer, post annum 300 : haudquaquam Deum insensibilibus apud quem rursus Gentiles Christ(h. e. inanimatis) templis colendum ianis templorum defectum objiciunt: existimamus. Negat autem causam, 1. 6. adversus Gent. ' In hac consupropter quam Celsus putabat Christ- evistis parte crimen nobis maximum ianos templa defugere. Putabat Cel- impietatis affigere, quod neque ædes sus id ideo fieri, ut confirmarent in- sacras venerationis ad officia exsensibilis suæ et inexplicabilis com- struamus, non deorum alicujus simunionis fidem. Sed eam causam mulacrum constituamus aut forOrigines negat, et veram adducit. mam, non altaria fabricemus, non Verba notanda sunt, ex quibus con- aras. Ubi etiam agnoscit Arnobius, stabit, tum noluisse Christianos fun- templa nulla a Christianis exstrui, dare templa, tum cur fundare nolu- sed crimen quod in eo collocabant erint. 'Non igitur ad nostra hujus Gentiles amolitur. Circa annum 317 invisibilis et inexplicabilis animorum vixit Lactantius, qui, l. 1. de Falsa

contradicted by the authors which they allege, and by themselves who assert and maintain it. Mr. Mede 27 has an elaborate discourse in confutation of this opinion, wherein he has learnedly collected the authorities of the Ancients, which for the three first ages prove the being of Christian churches. I shall briefly, for the sake of those who have not that author at hand, relate the substance of his proofs, and add some others to his collections.

In the first place he shews that the Ancients, St. Austin 28, St. Basil 29, and the author under the name of St. Jerom, St. Chrysostom, Sedulius, (Ecumenius, and Theophylact, in their comments on that passage of St. Paul, 1 Cor. 11, 22,

Religione, c.2, Gentes accusat, quod 26 Thes. Eccles. voce, Naòs, (t. 2. templa, aras, simulacra haberent. p. 386.) ‘Cur igitur,'inquit, oculos in cælum 27 Discourses and Treatises of non tollitis ? et, advocatis deorum Churches, &c. (pp. 319-339.) nominibus, in aperto sacrificia cele- 28 Quæst. 37. in Levit. (t. 3. p. bratis ? cur ad parietes, et ligna, et 516 e. f.) Sicut ecclesia dicitur lolapides potissimum, quam illo spec- cus, quo ecclesia congregatur. Nam tatis, ubi eos esse creditis? quid sibi ecclesia homines sunt, de quibus ditempla ? quid aræ volunt? quid ip- citur, Ut exhiberet sibi gloriosam ecsa denique simulacra ? &c.' Quibus clesiam. Hoc tamen vocari etiam verbis etsi idololatrica templa ethni- ipsam domum orationum, idem Apoorum perstringit; tamen haud ob- stolus testis est, ubi ait, Numquid scure indicat, Christianos etiam tum domos non habetis, ad manducantempla omnia fugisse. Etenim quod dum et bibendum? an ecclesiam Dei Origenes in genere dixerat, Christi- contemnitis? Et hoc quotidianus loanos, ne in impietatem delaberentur, quendi usus obtinuit, ut ad eccletemplis abstinuisse, id Lactantius siam prodire, aut ad ecclesiam conjam in specie declarat, indicans quid fugere non dicatur, nisi quod ad loimpietatis Christiani evitarint, scili- cum ipsum parietesque prodierit vel cet existimasse eos sacrificia in aper- confugerit, quibus ecclesiæ congreto celebranda : ad parietes non esse gatio continetur. spectandum sed in cælum, adeoque 29 Regul. Min. quæst.310. (t.2.part. quia Deus ubique sit, templis opus 2. p.751 d.)'Notep oùdèv KoivÒN O Kellnon esse. Hic aperte profiteor, me ος επιτρέπει ο λόγος είσφέρεσθαι εις rationes illas propugnare non velle; τα άγια, ούτως ουδε τα άγια είς κοινών sufficit enim ostendere, Christiano- Oikov émitedciodai tņs maharâs diarum veterum praxin suis rationibus, θήκης φανερώς προστάγματι θεού

una qualescumque em demum fuerint, δεν τοιούτον επιτρεπούσης γένεσθαι nixam fuisse. Ex quibus apparet, του Κυρίου λέγοντος, πλείον του ίquandoquidem Lactanti tempore ερού ώδε και του Αποστόλου λέγονhæc opinio Christianorum fuit, sa- τος, Μή γάρ οικίας ουκ έχετε εις το cra in aperto celebranda, non ad pa- εσθίειν και πίνειν; τί είπω υμίν, έπαιrietes adorandum Deum ; quia ubi- νέσω υμάς; έν τούτω ουκ επαινώ εγώ vis sit, templis ethnicorum opus non γαρ παρέδωκα υμίν ό και παρέλαβον habere, eos quoque templis tum και τα εξής. 'Εξ ών παιδευόμεθα, μήτε quoque caruisse. Ex his veterum το κοινόν δειπνον εν εκκλησία έσθίειν testimoniis luce clarius meridiana και πίνειν, μήτε το κυριακόν δείπνον est, veterem ecclesiam, ad predicta εν οικία καθυβρίζειν, εκτός ει μη εν usque tempora, templis omnino ca- åváykn eredééntai tis kaðapótepov tóruisse.

πον, ή οίκον εν καιρώ ευθέτω.

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