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long and lamentably divided. “Unius semper sententiam sequi, non id curiæ, sed factionis est.” I have taken the Articles in the literal and grammatical sense, and have endeavoured to support and confirm the plain and full meaning thereof by the most certain warrants of Holy Scripture, and the concurring testimonies of primitive Christianity.

In executing my design, I have adopted the following plan. Some account has been given of the phraseology of the present Articles respectively as collated with those first set forth in 1552. The English and Latin Articles of 1562, 1571 have also been compared, and existing variations have been designated. The Articles themselves have been divided into Propositions, in which the original language has been preserved as far as was possible. The Authorities and Testimonies in support and confirmation of each of the Propositions have been systematically arranged under the three heads of—(1) The Testimony of Reason, (2) Divine Testimony, and (3) Human Testimony. Heads of arguments from reason have been given sparingly and cautiously. Under the head of Divine Testimony I have collected and arranged the texts of Scripture, according as they belong to the Old and New Testaments; and in special cases, as the evidence they offer is direct and indirect. One text has been given verbally, with as complete a set of references as possible to all other apposite and relevant texts. Sometimes, perhaps, references may be made to Scriptural passages, the bearing of which upon the particular subject discussed may not be altogether apparent; still I trust that diligent meditation and prayer will, under the Divine blessing, bring their full meaning and evidence to light. Under the head of Human Testimony, I have attempted to supply a brief but suggestive compendium

of those doctrines and tenets of the holy Church universal as are preserved in the decisions of ancient Councils, both cecumenical and provincial, as well as in the writings of the primitive Fathers, especially those of the Ante-Nicene age. One testimony has been given, in most cases, verbally, with references to some others as complete as limited means, and residence in a rural district, and a small private library could furnish. I have also supplied references to the confessions of the various Protestant Churches.

I have not fulfilled even my own notion of what is imperiously demanded in a work of this kind. Many points I have been compelled to omit, lest I should inconveniently increase the bulk and price of the work. But such as the work is, and with all its imperfections, I humbly commend it to the blessing of God, the FATHER, Son, and HOLY GHOST; and with a deep sense of the utter worthlessness of man's unassisted endeavours, I pray that He may direct, sanctify, and accomplish my humble efforts for the glory of His Name and the benefit of His holy Church.

Δόξα τω Θεώ.

.

INTRODUCTION.

Outlines of the History of the Thirty-Nine Articles. 1. The Forty-two Articles drawn up in 1552, and published by royal authority in Latin and English, May 1553. A. Preliminary steps to their formation. a. Articles about religion, 1536, “Book of Articles devysed by

the kinges highnes majestie to stablyshe christen quietnes and unitie amonge us, and to avoyde contentious opinions." They were drawn up and issued by Convocation, containing the doctrines of Penance, Transubstantiation, Worship of Images, &c. In 1537 they were published in “ The Institution of a Christian Man,” or “ The Bishops' Book ;" and again, 1543, and 1545, in “ The Necessary Doctrine

and dition for any Christian Man,” or “ The King's Book.” b. The renewal to Edward VI. (1549) of the law which enabled

Henry VIII. (1543) to appoint a Committee for the
Reformation of Ecclesiastical Laws. The Committee' was
appointed Oct. 6, 1551.
The “Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum” was the

fruit of its labours. This work was drawn up by
Archbishop Cranmer, (1552), and published in
1571. Its doctrinal statements are substantially
though not verbally the same with those of the
Thirty-nine Articles.

1 The following constituted the Committee of 1551. (Lamb.)
BISHOPS.
DIVINES.

CIVILIANS.
Cranmer, Canterbury. Taylor, of Lincoln, Mr. Secretary Petre.
Goodrich, Ely.

Mr. Cox, Almoner. Mr. Secretary Cecil.
Ridley, London.
Sir J. Cheek.

Mr. Tralerne.
Poynet, Winchester. Sir A. Cook

Mr. Red. Coverdale, Exeter. | Petrus Martyr.

Mr. Coke.
Barlow, Bath.
luanes Alasco

May, Dean of St. Paul's.
Hooper, Gloucester Parker, of Cambridge. Skyoner.
Scory, Rochester
Latimer.

Taylor, of Hadleigh.

LAWYERS.
Justice Bromley.
Justice Hales.
Gosnald.
Goodrich
Stamford.
Carel.
Lucas.
Gawdy.

B. The actual process of their formation.
a. The first sketch was made in the summer of 1551.2
a. Particulars which were not in this sketch at the first,

though inserted before its publication.

Articles I.-V. IX. X. XVII. XXIX., (the XXVIIIth of the present set), as regards the clause against Con

substantiation or the ubiquity of CHRIST's body. 6. This sketch was submitted to certain Bishops, and re

mained in their possession until the beginning of the

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year 1552.

c. Its subsequent history.

In May 1552, the Council addressed a letter to Arch

bishop Cranmer, in which he was ordered “to send the Articles which were last year delivered to the Bishops, and to signify whether the same were set forth by any public authority.” The Articles were transmitted accordingly to the Council, and then returned to the Archbishop, and remained in his possession to September. They were soon afterwards presented by him to the King, and were revised by some divines attached to the royal household.

Cranmer afterwards reviewed them, and then forwarded them to the Council with a letter, in which he requested that speedy measures should be taken in order that the Bishops might be empowered to

require their subscription by the clergy. C. Their publication in Latin and English, May 20, 1553,' adjoined

to a Catechism.

* See Bishop Short's History of the Church of England, vol. 1. pp. 481. 3 “ Articles are now printed in the King's name, to which all persons must subscribe who are to be appointed to any office in the Church, as also those who are already appointed, under pain of deprivation." --John Utenhovius to Henry Bullinger, London, June 7, 1553. Original Letters, Parker Society, vol. 11. p. 694.

*“Besides this, he (Edward VI.) has lately recommended to the Schools by his authority the Catechism of John (Poynet) Bishop of Winchester, and has published the Articles of the Synod at London, which if you will compare with those of Trent, you will understand how the spirit of the one excels that of the other."-Sir John Cheke to Henry Bullinger, June 7, 1553, Original Letters, Parker Society, vol. 1. p. 140,

a. Authors.

Cranmert and Ridley, principally but not exclusively.

The with is certainly his, as is the homily referred to.
b. Contemporary Compilations to which the English Re-

formers were indebted.
a. The Augsburg Confession, which was drawn up

by Luther and Melancthon, and presented to
Charles V. at the Diet of Augsburg, 1530. The
Confession was printed in 1540. The obligation
may be clearly evinced by comparing Articles
I. II. IV. IX. XIV. XVI. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI.
XXXI. XXXII., with the corresponding Articles of

the Confession.
6. Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans, as

translated into Latin by Justus Jonas, 1523.
D. Their Authority.
a. It is questionable if they were submitted to the Upper House

of Convocation.
b. It is certain that they were not submitted to the Lower

HIouse of Convocation, nor confirmed by any Act of

Parliament.
c. It is probable that they were promulgated on royal authority

alone.
II. The Thirty-nine' Articles of 1562.
A. The Divines who revised and reformed them.

1. First, Archbishop Parker, 1562.

2. Afterwards, the Upper House of Convocation, Jan. 1562. (1) a. Archbishop Parker's alterations.

a. He omitted x. XVI. XLI. of the forty-two. See Strype's Cranmer, 390, c. xxvii. ii. 105.

& * Thirty-nine Articles passed the Convocation, but thirty-eight only appear in the Latin and English copies printed before 1571. Art. XXIX, was omitted “in compliance with the wish or order of Cecil, probably at the suggestion of his royal mistress.” -See Dr. Lamb's History of the Articles, p. 34. we smo 6 The omitted Articles.

Chc.our hunt De Gratia. X. Gratia CHRISTI, seu Spiritus Sanctus qui per eundem datur, cor lapideum aufert, et dat cor carneum. Atque licet ex nolentibus quæ recta sunt, volentes faciat: et ex volentibus prava, nolentes reddat, voluntati nihilominus yio. lentiam nullam infert. Et nemo hac de causa, cum peccaverit, seipsum excusare potest, quasi nolens aut coactus peccaverit, ut cam ob causam accusari non mereatur aut damnari.

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