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See cc. v.

B. Jews.

Philo" frequently alludes to “The Word of God"
in a personal sense, and denominates Him

the second GoD, δεύτερος θεός.
C. Christians.
a. Fathers.

Author of the Epistle commonly ascribed

to Barnabas (A.D. 72) speaks of JESUS
as the Son of God (c. xii.), the Up-
holder and End of all things (c. xii.),
the Creator, Governor, and sole Judge
of the world ; and interprets Gen. i.
26 as the speech of the Father to Him.

Clement of Rome (A. D. 96), Epist. to the

Corinthians, c. ii. “Ye were humble-
minded, not boasting of anything,
submitting yourselves rather than sub-
jecting others, being content with the
portion dispensed of God, and dili-
gently taking heed to His words, ye
were enlarged in your bowels, and
His sufferings were before your eyes.
See also cc. xvi. cxxxvi, and comp. c.

civ. with Ps. ii. 7.
Author of the work commonly called

“ The Shepherd of Hermas” (A.D. 100)
calls Jesus the Son of God, and tes-
tifies that He was with the FATHER
as a counsellor at the Creation.” See

pp. 115, 116.
Polycarp, Epist.to the Philippians(A.D.108)
C. vi. “For we are before the


of our Lord, even God, and must all stand

before the judgment-seat of CHRIST." quainted with the promise of the true Saviour, had anticipated that event, recording it as though it had actually happened, and introducing that mystery into their religious system? See Sir G. Wilkinson's Ancient Egypt, vol. i. cc. xii. xiii., especially pp. 317. Primitive tradition is also clearly discernible in the mystical sacrifice of the Phænicians as recorded by Sanchoniatho. See Euseb. Precep. Evang. lib. 1. c. x. and lib. 1v. c. xvi., and J. Bryant's Observations, &c. pp. 286-292,

8 See Dr. Pye Smith's Scripture Testimony to the Messiah, p. 579.

Ignatius (A.D. 101), in his Epistle to the

Smyrnæans, c. i. p. 34. “I glorify JESUS CHRIST, Who is God, our LORD, Who is indeed of the family of David according to the flesh; the Son of God, truly begotten of a virgin." He frequently calls Jesus emphatically God; confesses Him to be the Son of God, who was with the FATHER as His Eternal Word, mpòaiwvwv, and proceeded from Him, according to the will of the eternally active God. See Epist. ad Ephes. cc. vii. xviii. Rom.

c. ii. Magnes. c. vi. Smyrn, c. i. Justin Martyr (A. D. 150), Dial. c. Tryph. c. xxxvi.

“ You must permit me to rehearse such prophecies as I please, to demonstrate that Christ is called God, and LORD of hosts, and mystically Jacob by the Holy Ghost.He attributes to Jesus the name and dignity of God. Dial. c. Tryph. cc. v. lvi. lviii. cxiii. cxxvii. &c. 1st Apol.

c. Lxiïi. &c. Tatian (A.D. 165), Orat. cont. Græc. c.

xxi. “For we are not fools, nor do we announce idle tales that GOD was

made in the form of man.” Melito (A. D. 175), Routh, Rel. Sacr.

vol. 1. p. 112. “We are worshippers of CHRIST, verily God, the Word,

before the worlds." Irenæus (A.D. 185), lib. II. c. xiii. $ 8.

“In what will the Word of God, nay rather God Himself, since He is the Word, differ from the Word of men, if He have the same order and pro

gress of generation." Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 194), Quis dives salvetur, c. vi.

“Our LORD, a

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p. 222.

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He is God, foreknew both what questions He should be asked, and what

answers any one would give Him.” Tertullian (A.D. 200), Adv. Jud. c. vii.

“ CHRIST is to all a king, to all a

Judge, to all God and LORD.” Hippolytus (A.D. 220), cont. Plat. vol. i.

“ For all, both righteous and unrighteous, shall be brought before

GOD the Word.”
Origen (A. D. 240), in Joan. tom. II. 28,

vol. iv. p. 87. “GOD, Who is above

all created things, became man.” Cyprian (A. D. 250), De Idol. Van. p. 228.

“ Christ is the power of God, His reason, His wisdom, and His glory." Epist. VII. p. 15. “We have an Advocate and Intercessor for our sins,

JESUS CHRIST our LORD and God.” Novatian (A.D. 257), De Trinit. c. ix.

“ CHRIST JESUS the LORD our God." Dionys. Alexandr. (A. D. 260), Adv. Paul.

Samos. p. 207. “ But Isaiah before
this was inspired, and spake of the

Child, who was God, the mighty God.”
Archelaus (A.D. 278), Routh, Rel. Sacr.


284. « These divine won-
ders proclaimed with a loud voice that

He (CHRIST) was God.”
Methodius (A.D. 305). “ For that too

was CHRIST, a man filled with the
pure and perfect GODHEAD, and God

contained in man."
Arnobius (A.D. 306), Contr. Gent. lib. I.

“What! some one raging, angry, and thoroughly excited will say, Is that CHRIST GOD? We reply, God,

and God in the highest sense." Peter of Alexandria (1. D. 306), Routh,

Relig. Sacr. vol. III. p. 341. “Offer

vol. IV.

p. 24.

ing to Him most appropriate and suitable gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh, as to a king, and God,

and man." Lactantius (A.D. 310), Epit. c. xliii. “He

was with us on earth, when He put on flesh, and nevertheless He was God in man, and man in God: but that He was both, was declared before

by the prophets." b. Councils.

Antioch, A.D. 269, excommunicated Paul

of Samosata.
Sixth of Antioch, A.D. 341.
Nice, A.D. 325, against Arians.
Constantinople, A.D. 381, against Mace-

Ephesus, A. D. 431, against Nestorians.
Chalcedon, A. D. 451, against Eutychians.
Constantinople, A.D. 553, against Ori-

genists and Nestorians.
Constantinople, A. D. 681, against Mono-

c. Creeds.

1 Antiochene, A.D. 269.
2 Antiochene, A.D. 341.
Nicene, A.D. 325.

Athanasian, 5th century.
d. Confessions.

1 Helvetic, Art. xi. 2 Helvetic, c. xi.

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On the nature of Christ the first four general Councils decreed : Nice, 1. alnows, that He was truly God, against Arius. Constantinople, 2. Telews, that He was perfect man, against Apollinarius. Ephesus, 3. dòiaipetws, “not dividing the substance," against Nestorius. Chalcedon, 4. šovy XUTW, confounding the persons," against Eutyches. These heresies are respectively condemned in the Athanasian Creed. * Perfect God and perfect man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting," against Arius and Apollinarius. “Although He be God and Man, yet He is not two, but one Christ," against Nestorius. “One, not by conversion of the GUDHEAD into flesh,' against Eutyches.

“ The Athanasian Creed glances at one heresy or another in almost every paragraph.”—Professor J. J. Blunt.

Bohemian, c. iv. 6. Augsburg, Art. vi.
Gallican, Arts. xiii. xiv. Belgic, Art. x.
Wirtemberg, c. ii. Sueveland, Art. i.


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The Son is of one substance with the FATHER.
1. Reason.

It has been proved that the Son is very and eternal

God. He is, therefore, of one substance with
the.FATHER; for if otherwise, then there would

be more Gods than one.
2. Divine Testimony.
A. Old Testament.

Zech. xiii. 7. “Awake, O sword, against My

shepherd, and against the man that is My
fellow, saith the LORD of hosts : smite the
shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered :
and I will turn Mine hand upon the little

B. New Testament.

John xiv. 9. “Have I been so long time with

thee, and yet hast thou not known Me,
Philip? He that hath seen ME hath seen
the FATHER; and how sayest thou then,

Shew us the FATHER?”
See also John viii. 19; xii. 45. Col. i. 15.

Heb. i. 3.
Passages wherein Jesus is called ó ideoç vios

Too Hoỡ, John v. 18, Rom. viii. 32.
3. Human Testimony.
a. Fathers.

Tertullian, Adv. Prax. c. iv. « The Son is of

the substance of the FATHER.”
See also idem, c.xxii. Ignat. Epist. ad Magnes.
vii. ad Smyrn. c. iii. Clem. Alex. lib. VII.

Iren. Adv. Hæres. lib. II. C. xvii.;
lib. IV. c. xxxiii. Tertull. de Orat. c. ü.
Hippol. cont. Noet. c. vii. Orig. cont.
Cels. lib. VIII. c. xii.; In Gen. vol. II. p. 34 ;
Hom. in Gen. xvii. § 5, vol. 11.; In Ezek,


c. xiii.

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