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Prop. IV. Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of bread

and wine) in the Supper of the LORD, cannot be proved by Holy Writ.'

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** Canon 1. If any one shall deny that the body and this owiek

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3 1. The Romish doctrine concerning Transubstantiation. 4 Lateran Council, A.D. 1215, decreed, c. i., • There is one universal Church of the faithful, out of which no one at all is saved, in which Jesus Christ Himself is both Priest and Sacrifice, Whose body and blood are truly contained under the shapes (sub speciebus, kinds,) of bread and wine in the Sacrament of the altar, having by the power of God been transubstantiated, the bread into His body and the wine into His blood, so that, for perfecting the mystery of union, we ourselves might receive of Him what He Himself received of us.

Council of Trent, Session 13, On the Eucharist. On the most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist. blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and therefore entire Christ, are truly, really, and substantially contained in the Sacrament of the most holy Eucharist; and shall say that He is only in it as in a sign or in a figure, or virtually, let him be accursed.--Canon 2. If any one shall say that the substance of the bread and wine remains in the Sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, together with the body and blood of our LORD Jesus Christ; and shall deny that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood, the outward forms of the bread and wine still remaining, which conversion the Catholic Church most aptly calls TRANSUBSTANTIArion, let him be accursed.--Canon 3. If any one shall deny that in the venerated Sacrament of the Eucharist, entire Christ is contained in each kind, and in each several particle of either kind when separated, let him be accursed. -Canon 4. If any one shall say that, after consecration, the body and blood of our LORD JESUS Christ is only in the wonderful Sacrament of the Eucharist in use whilst it is taken, and not either before or after ; and that the true body of the Lord does not remain in the hosts or particles which have been consecrated, and which are reserved or remain after the communion,-let him be accurscd."

The 5th Article of the Creed of Pope Pius IV.:

“I profess likewise, that in the mass there is offered to God, a true, and proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and for the dead. And that in the most holy Sacrifice of the Eucharist, there is, truly, really, and substantially, the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ: and that there is made a conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood: which conversion the Catholic Church calls TRANSUBSTANTIATION.”

In accordance with the Creed and with the Canons, is the following extract from the Catechism of the Council of Trent:

“ But now the pastors must here explain, that not only the trne body of Christ, and whatever APPERTAINS to the true MODE of existence of a body, AS THE BONES and NERVES, but also that entire Christ, is contained in this Sacrament.”-See also part 11. $ 40.

History of the Doctrine of Transubstantiation. 2 Council of Nice, A.D. 787, decreed that the bread and wine are not figures, but the very body and blood. Amalarius, A.D. 836, in the west, and Damascenus, A.D. 740, in the east, maintained the same view. Paschasius Radburt, A.D. 840, developed this view into the doctrine of Transubstantiation : he was opposed by Joannes Scotus, Rabanus Maurus, and Ratramn or Bertram, to the last of whom Bishop Ridley was, under the divine blessing, largely indebted. The doctrine was opposed by Berenger, A.D. 1049, who had not however courage to maintain his opposition against the penal threats of Rome. It was introduced into England by Lanfranc, 1060. The 4 Lateran Council, A.D. 1215, decreed that Transubstantiation was a doctrine of the Catholic Church. The Council of Trent, 1551, finally established it.

* See Bellarm, on the Eucharist, lib. 1v. c. xxiii.

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1. Reason.

Transubstantiation contradicts our reason. Our senses inform

our reason that what we eat in the Supper is bread. To
believe in Transubstantiation involves also a double miracle,
first, that the bread has been converted into flesh, and
secondly, that the reason has become assured of the reality
of the conversion. Transubstantiation gives to CHRIST a
wheaten as well as a human body. Transubstantiation
makes the communicant an eater of God.
A. Divine Testimony.

John’ vi. 54, 55, does not prove the doctrine. The

doctors of the Council of Trent (sess. XXI. c. i.) acknowledge that the Fathers interpret variously this passage. The Romanists are inconsistent in adopting the literal sense; vv. 35 and 63

explain the whole passage. Matt.' xxvi. 26, 28, “This is my body." The

literal sense is inconsistent with the context, vv. 27, 28, in which our LORD declares the cup to be His blood of the New Testament; also with v. 29, where the consecrated wine is still called wine. Our LORD declares what the Bread was at that very moment when Ile commenced, This is my body, whereas according to the Romanists transubstantiation takes place after the utterance of these words. The bread also remained bread after consecration; 1 Cor. xi. 26-28.-Comp. Gen. xvii. 10, 11; xli. 26. Dan. ii. 38. Ezek. v. 5. Acts x. 17. Rom, xiii. 14. 1 Cor. x. 4. Gal.

iii. 27; iv. 24. Rev. i. 20; xvii. 18. B. Human Testimony.

a. Fathers. Tertullian, adv. Marcion. lib. IV. c. xl.,

“ He made the bread received by and distributed

5 See Athanas. Quicumque dixerit, vol. 1, p. 710. Origen ad Matt. xv, vol. III.

p. 500.

6 See Bishop Turton's Examination of the sixth chapter of St. John's Gospel, in his valuable work on the Roman Catholic Doctrine of Eucharist; Part 1.

7 August. in Lev. ix. 57, 3, vol. 111. p. 516. Epist. Bonif. vol. 11. 98, 99.

to His disciples Ilis body, saying, This is my body, that is, a figure of my body." See also De Orat. c. vi.; De Cor. III. p. 121, Lutet. 1641. De Res. Carn. c. xxxvii. Adv. Marc. lib. II. c. xiv. 3; c. xix. Adv. Jud. c. X. De Anim. c. xvii. August. Epist. ad Bonifac. Epist. XCVIII. 9, tom. II. col. 267, Par. 1679-1700, “ Sacraments would not be sacraments, if they had not a certain resemblance (similitudinem) of those things whereof they are the sacraments : and from this resemblance they commonly have the names of the things themselves: as the sacrament of CHRIST's body according to a certain manner of speech, is Christ's body.” Serm. c. clxxii. ad Infant. tom. V. col. 1103, Par. 1679-1700. What ye see, is bread. - See also cont. Maxim. lib. II. c. xxii. 3, tom. VIII. col. 725. Ambros. de Sacr. lib. iv.

c. iv., “ The bread and the wine remain still the same they were before, and yet are changed into another thing." Gelas.' cont. Eutych. in Mag. Biblioth. Vet. Patr. Col. Agrip. 1618–1622, tom. v. pars II. p. 671, “ The substance of the bread, or the nature of the wine, ceaseth not to be, but they remain in the property of their own nature.” Cyril Alex. in Ioan. Evang. lib. iv. c. ii. tom. iv. p. 360, His faithful disciples pieces of bread.” See also Apol. adv. Orient. Anath. XI. Def. Cyril. tom. VI. p. 193, Lut. 1638. Theodoret. Immut. Dial. I. tom. IV. p. 18, Lut. Par. 1642-84, “ CHRIST honoured those symbols which are seen with the appellation of His own body and blood, not changing the nature thereof, but unto the nature joining grace.” Theodor. Serm, ad Infant., “After the consecration, the mystical signs do not cast off their own proper nature, for they remain still in their former substance,

- CHRIST gave

• See Bishop Pearson on the Creed, Art, III. pp. 273, &c. ed Dobson,

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form or kind.” Just. Mart. Dial. c. Tryph. c. cxvii.-See also p. 345 A., 296 E., 260 A, &c., 344 D. Routh's Reliq. Sacr. I. p. 276. Iren. (apud Ecumen. in Pet. c. iii.) August. de Consecr. Dist. II. C., qui manducasti. Cyprian. Epist. Ixiii. Cyprian (?) de extr. Unct. p. 48. Origen. in Matt. xv. 17. August. cont. Adimant.

vol. viii. c. xii. 3. b. Council. Council of Constantinople, A.D. 754. c. Confessions. Augsburg, Wirtemburg, c. xix.

1 Helvetic, Art. xxii. 2 Helvetic, c. xii. Sueveland, c. xix. Bohemia, c. xiii. Scotland, Art. xxi. Basil, Art. vi. Belgic, Art. xxxv. Westminster, c. xxix. 5 6.

PROP. V. Transubstantiation' is repugnant to the plain words of Scrip

ture, overthrouveth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions. A. Transubstantiation is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture.

New Testament. 1 Cor. x. 17, “We are all partakers of

that one bread;" xi. 26, “ As often as ye eat this read." -See also Matt. xxvi. 26-29. Acts iü. 21. 1 Cor.

xi. 27, 28. Heb. vii. 27; ix. 22, 25-27; x. 10, 12, 14, 18. B. Transubstantiation overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament.

Because where there is no sign, there is no sacrament.
Becauses in that case we eat not the sign but the thing

signified.
C. Transubstantiation has given occasion to many superstitions.

Adoration of the Host or idolatry. Denial of the cup. Pro

cessions. Reservation. Elevation, and many such like superstitions.

1 August. Epist. ad Marcellan. vol. 11. 138, 7, ; in Ioann. Tract. Lxxx, et Epist. xxiii, ad. Bonif.

2 See Tertull. adv. Marcion. lib. III. c. xvi. ; adv. Judæos, c. x. Iren. adv. Hæres. lib. iv. c. xvii. 5. Theophil. ad Matt. XXVI. p. 162. Cyprian. Epist. LXIX. p. 182. Cyril. Hier. Catech. Myst. 4, init. Theodoret. Dial. 1. vol. iv. p. 17. Hieron. ad Hedibiam, vol. 1. Epist. cxx. 2.

3 The same statement may be made in regard to the Lutheran doctrine of consubstantiation or impanation. Luther taught that the bread and wine, after consecration, are accompanied with the real body and blood of Christ. Luther adopted the opinions of John Pungens Asinus, a writer of the 13th cent.

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Prop. VI. The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the Supper
only after an heavenly and spiritual manner.
1. Divine Testimony.

New Testament. John vi. 35, And Jesus said unto them,

I am the bread of life; he that cometh to Me shall never
hunger; and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst.”.

See also John vi. 48, 57, 60, 63.
2. Human Testimony.
a. Fathers. Cyprian de Cæna Domin. p. 44, “ This bread is

the food of the soul, and not the meat of the belly.”
Chrysost. in Epist. 1, ad Corinth. Hom. VII. tom. x. p. 51,
“I judge not those things which are seen, after the outward
appearance, but with the eyes of my mind I understand
the body of CHRIST." August. ad Ps. xcviii. 9, “ Under-
stand spiritually what I have said unto you; you must not
eat that body which you see, nor drink that blood which
they are about to shed that crucify Me. I have com-
mended a certain sacrament to you; spiritually understood
it will quicken you. Although it is necessary that it be
celebrated visibly, it ought yet to be understood invisibly.”.
Ælfric, Archbishop of Canterbury, a.d. 996, Epist. ad
Wulfsin Schyrbum [p. 45), “ That bread is Christ's
body, not bodily but spiritually."-See also August. Serm.
LXXXIV. 3, tom. v. append. col. 152. Id. ad Mum. Catech.
II. tom. II. p. 236. Orig. in Exod. Hom. VII. 8, p. 155.
Greg. Nyss. de Vit. Mos. tom. I. p. 215, Par. 1638. Greg.
Nazianz. Orat. XXXVII. 4, tom. I. p. 647, 648. Chrysost.
in Ioan. Hom. XLVII. tom. VIII. p. 277, Par. 1718, 1788,
1789. Ambros. de Sacram. lib. v. c. iv. 24, tom. II. col.
378.

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b. Confessions. 2 Helvetic, c. xii., xix. i Helvetic, Art.

XX., xxii. Gallican, Art. xxxvi. Saxony, Art. xiv.

PROP. VII. The mean whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten

in the Supper, is faith.

* Tertull. de Resurr. Carn. XXXVII. Athan. Epist. iv. 19; ad Serap. tom, 1, pars II. p. 710, Par. 1698. August. de Doctr. Christ. lib. 111. c. xvi. 5 See Bishop Short's Hist. of the Church of England, vol. 1, c. i. $ 16.

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