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2. Human Testimony.
A. Father. Tertull. de Præscript. Hæret. cc. xxi. xxxvii.
Prop. VI. The Church may not decree anything against Holy Writ, so
besides the same ought it not to enforce anything to be believed for necessity of Salvation. 1. Divine Testimony.
New Testament. Gal. i. 8, 9, “ But though we, or an angel
from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. As we said before, so say I now again, If any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed."-See also Acts iv. 18-20; v. 29. Gal.
iii. 15. 2 Tim. iii. 15. 2. Human Testimony.
A. Fathers. Chrysost. in Matt. c. xxiv., Hom. XLIX., “ There
fore at this time all Christians must go to the Scriptures; because that, at this time, since heresy possessed these Churches, there can be no trial of true Christianity, neither can there be any other refuge for Christians, that would willingly know the truth of faith, but only the Divine Scriptures.”—See also Tertull. de Præscript. Hæret. 23, p. 239, Lut. 1641. Cyprian, Epist. ad Pomp. lxxiv. p. 214, 215, Oxon. 1682; De Unit. Eccl. p. 105. August. de Unit. Eccl. c. iii. 5, tom. IX. cols. 340, 341, ed. Par. 1679. Hierom. Coram, in Agg. Proph. c. i. tom. II. col. 1690, ed. Par. 1693-1706; Epist. par. 1. tract 2,
epist. viii. B. Confessions. Basil, Art. x. Wirtemburg, Arts. xxx.
xxxii. Sueveland, Arts, xii. xv.
De Auctoritate Conciliorum Of the Authority of General Generalium.
Councils. GENERALIA Concilia, sine General Councils' may not
jussu et voluntate principum be gathered together without congregari non possunt, et ubi the commandment and will of convenerint, quia ex hominibus Princes. And when they be constant qui non omnes Spiritu gathered together, (forasmuch et verbo Dei reguntur, et as they be an assembly of men, errare possunt, et interdum whereof all be not governed errarunt, etiam in his quæ ad with the Spirit and Word of Deum pertinent : ideoque quæ God, they may err, and someab illis constituuntur, ut ad times have erred, even in salutem necessaria, neque robur things pertaining unto God. habent, neque auctoritatem nisi. Wherefore things ordained by ostendi possint e sacris litteris them as necessary to salvation esse desumpta.
have neither strength authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of Holy Scripture.
i Councils, o úvoôou and concilia, are of two kinds, æcumenical (olkoúpeval, general or universal) and provincial. Their decrees are called canons, kavóves, rules.
The number of ecumenical councils according to the Greeks is 7, according to the Romanists, 18. The first four are reckoned in the English Church as standards of Orthodoxy.
The first six are enumerated under Prop. I. The remaining twelve are, (7). 2 Council of Nice (A.D. 787), which sanctioned the worship of images.
(8). 4 Council of Constantinople (A.D. 869), which sanctioned images and condemned Photius.
The Phraseology of this Article.
possint. B. In the English.
not only in worldly matters, even in things pertaining
but also in things pertain unto God.
ing unto GOD. 2. When the Latin and English are compared with each other. congregari
be gathered together. ubi convenerint
when they be gathered to
(9). 1 Lateran Council (A.D. 1123), convened by Pope Calixtus II., which asserted the papal right of investiture and decreed the celibacy of the clergy.
(10). 2 Lateran Council (A.D. 1139), convened by Pope Innocent II., which decreed against heretics and for a reformation of the Church.
(11). 3 Lateran Council (A.D. 1179), convened by Pope Alexander III., · which condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses, and settled the mode of electing the popes.
(12). 4 Lateran Council (A.D. 1215), convened by Pope Innocent III., which condemned the Waldenses and Albigenses, and determined the doctrine of transubstantiation.
(13). 1 Council of Lyons (A.D. 1245), convened by Pope Innocent IV., for promoting the Crusades, restoring Church discipline, and dethroning the Emperor, Frederick II.
(14). 2 Council of Lyons (A.D. 1274), convened by Pope Gregory X., for the re-union of the Greek and Latin Churches.
(15). Council of Vienne (A.D. 1311), convened by Pope Clement V., to suppress the Templars, condemn heretics, and assist the Christians in Palestine.
Council of Constance (A.D. 1414-1418), convened by the Emperor Sigismund, with the consent of the Pope to settle the Papal Schism. This Council finally sanctioned the denial of the cup to the laity, condemned the doctrines of Wiclíf, decreed the death by burning of John Huss and Jerome of Prague. This council is allowed to have the authority of a general council with respect to its last Sessions.
Council of Basil (A.D. 1431-1448), the authority of this council is a disputed point with Romanists.
(16). The Council of Florence (A.D. 1439), which decreed the doctrine of Purgatory and Papal Supremacy.
(17). 5 Lateran Council (A.D. 1512), convened by Pope Julius II., which annulled the decrees of the Council of Pisa (A.D. 1511).
(18). Council of Trent (A.D. 1545-1563), convened by Pope Pius III. to declare the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, and to crush the Reformation.
ex hominibus constant
be an assembly of men. robur
strength. nisi ostendi possint e sacris unless it may be declared that literis esse desumpta
they be taken out of Holy
Scripture. Five PROPOSITIONS. I. General Councils may not be gathered together without the com
mandment and will of Princes. II. General Councils be an assembly of men, whereof all be not
governed with the Spirit and Word of GOD. III. General Councils may err, even in things pertaining to GOD. IV. General Councils sometimes have erred, even in things pertaining
to God. V. Things ordained by General Councils as necessary to salvation,
have neither strength nor authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of Holy Scripture.
Prop. I. General Councils may not be gathered together without the commandment and will of Princes. 1. Divine Testimony. A. Old Testament. Numbers xi. 16, “And the LORD said
unto Moses, Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tabernacle of the congregation, that they may stand there with thee.”—See also 1 Kings viii. 1. 2 Kings
xxiii. 1. 1 Chron. xii. 1, 2. 2 Chron. xxix. 4. B. New Testament. Rom. xiii. 1, every
soul be subject unto the higher powers.”—See also Matt. xxii. 21.
Rom. xiii. 7. 2. Human Testimony. (1). General Council at Nice, convened by Constantine,
A.D. 325, to assert the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father; to settle the time of keeping Easter; and the Meletian schism, relating probably to ordination.
It condemned Arius. (2). General Council at Constantinople, convened by Theo
dosius the Great, A.D. 381, to assert the proper divinity of the Holy Ghost. It added to the Nicene creed the words
which relate to the Holy Ghost. It condemned
Macedonius. (3). General Council at Ephesus, convened by Theodosius the
younger, A. D. 431. The union of the two natures in the one Person of Christ. It condemned the Nestorian
heresy, and Celestius the disciple of Pelagius. (4). General Council at Chalcedon, convened by Marcian,
A.D. 451. The junction together of the two natures in
CHRIST, never to be divided. It condemned Eutyches. (5). General Council at Constantinople, convened by Jus
tinianus, A.D. 553. It condemned the Origenists and
the three chapters. (6). General Council at Constantinople, A:D. 681, under Con
stantine Pogonatus. It condemned the Monothelites.
Prop. II. General Councils are an assembly of men, whereof all be not
merly, when the sons of God came to present themselves
Hilar. lib. viii. de Trinit. Opp. 947.
Prop. III. General Councils may err, even in things pertaining to God.
The proofs of this Proposition are given under Prop. IV.
PROP. IV. General Councils sometimes have erred even in things per-
of Nice-Sozom. I. xxxii. Jerome saved the orthodoxy
: “Ecumenical councils, even such as have been lawfully gathered together, as they may conclude things well, so may they likewise judge and determine things rashly, unjustly, and impiously.”—- Albertus Pighius, a learned Roman Catholic writer. See Pigh. Hierarch. Eccles. Assert. col. 1538, lib. vi. C. XIII. fol, 247, 2.