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C. Human Testimony.
a. Fathers.

Essential goodness. Athenag. Legat. pro Christ.

xxiv. 302.
Communicative goodness. Just. Mart. de Res. viii.

p. 593; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 17, 86, tom. II.
p. 60, ed. Klotz; Athenag. Legat. pro Christ.

26.
See also Just. Mart. Quæst. et Resp. ad Gr.

Quæst. i. init.; Aug. de natura boni, iü. init.

vol. vill.; Tertull. adv. Marc. lib. II. cap. iv. b. Confessions.

Augsburg Confession, Art. 1.; 2 Helvetic, Art. II;

Bohemian, cap. iii ; Gallican, Art. I; Belgic,

Art. 11.; Wittemberg, cap. i.
Prop. VII. The one Liring, True and Ererlasting God is the Maker

and Presercer of all things, both risible and invisible.
1. He is the Maker of all things.
A. The Testimony of Reason.

Successive duration is not eternal.
Matter is not capable of producing motion.
If the creature gave being to itself, then is it both

cause and effect, and exists and does not exist at

one and the same time.
Invention of arts.

Novelty of the world is shewn by its histories.
B. Divine Testimony.
a. Old Testament.

Gen. i. 1. “In the beginning God created the

heaven and the earth.”
See also Gen. i. 27, 31; Exod xx. 7-11, xxi. 17;

Ps. vii. xxxi. 6, civ. 4, cxxiv. 8, cxxxiv. 3;

Prov. xvi. 4; Eccl. iii. 11; Isa. xl. 28. b. New Testament.

Heb i. 10. “Thou, Lord, in the beginning

hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the

heavens are the works of Thy hands."
See also John i. 3; Acts xiv. 13; Rom. iv. 17 ;

Col. i. 16; Heb. i. 14, xi. 3.

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C. Human Testimony.
a. Heathens.

Sir G. Wilkinson shews that the notions of the

ancient Egyptians are remarkably coincident

with Mosaic data.

Virg. Æn. vi. 724. b. Christians.

Irenæus against Heresies, b. i. c. 10. “God hath

no need of anything, inasmuch as He made all things by His Word and Spirit, and still governeth all things, which all receive their

being from Him." See also Tertull. Apol. adv. Gent. c. xvii.; Just.

Mart. Arist. dogm. Evers. p. 577. e. Creeds.

The Apostles', Nicene. d. Confessions.

2 Helvetic, cc. 6, 7; Basil. Art. 1, 2; Gallican,

Art. 2, 7, 8; Belgic, Art. 11. V. XII. XIII.; Scotland, Art. 1, 2.

2. He is the Preserver of all things, both visible and invisible. A. The Testimony of Reason.

As God made all things out of nothing, so the act

of His power is necessary that all things fall not

back into nothing.
B. Divine Testimony.
a. Old Testament.

Neh. ix. 6. “Thou, even Thou, art LORD

alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, and Thou preservest

them all.” See also Gen. viii. 22, The Seasons. Ps. xxxvi.

6, Man and beast. Job vii. 20, xxviii. 4, 6. Ps. xxii. 9, 10; xciv. 3, 7,9; civ. 27, 28; cxij. 4-6; cxxxvi. 25; cxxxix. 3, 4; cxlviii. 8. Prov. xxi. 1; Isa. xlix. 15; Jer. x. 23; Dan. iv. 35.

b. New Testament.

Acts xvi. 28. “In Him we live and move and

have our being : as certain also of your own

poets have said, For we are also His offspring." See also Matt. vi. 26, x. 29, 30; John v. 17;

Rom. xi. 36 ; Col. i. 17; 1 Tim. iv. 10; Heb.

i. 3, 13.
L'se of the doctrine of Providence, Acts xxiii. 11,

compared with Acts xxvii, 22, 34, and v. 31;
James iv. 13, 15.

41;

C. Human Testimony.
a. Fathers.

Athenag. de Res. Mort. 18; Clem. Alex. Strom.

i. p. 317; Arnob. cont. Gent. i. (2 init.);
Athan. Orat. cont. Gent. 42, vol. I. p.
August. de Agon. Christ. c. viii. Expos. cxlviii.;
In Expos. Fid. init. Theodor. de Provid.
Serm. I. vol. iv. p. 323; Chrysost. in Joh.
Hom. 38, vol. II. p. 708, 20; Cyril. in Hos.
vol. III. pp. 64, 65; (Ecum, in Act. XVII.

vol. 1. p. 138.
b. Confessions.

2 Helvetic, c. vi.; Basil. Art. 1. S$ 2, 3; Gallican,

Art. II. VII. VIII.; Belgic, Art. II. XII. XIII.

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Prop. VIII. In the Unity of this GODHEAD there be Three Persons,

of one substance, pouer, and eternity, the FATHER,

the Son, and the Holy Ghost.
1. The use of Reason. *
A. Instead of urging arguments from human reason in

support of the doctrine of the Trinity, the believer
esteems it sufficient if he can meet an objection, too
often made, that it is contrary to reason. Now all our
ideas are from sensation and reflection, and human
reason can only sit in judgment upon such propositions
as the mind arrives at by the use of these natural

1

* See Butler's Analogy, Part 11. c. iii.

faculties. It is undeniable but that there are many things, of which by the natural use of our faculties we can have no knowledge, and therefore reason has nothing to do with them. We do not, and cannot, by our senses take cognizance of the natures of spiritual beings, and therefore we are not able to argue on the principles of human reason against such doctrines as the Trinity, Incarnation, &c., which are wholly and altogether beyond the reach of our faculties of sensation and reflection. “ As a blind man has no idea of colours, so we have no idea of the modes by which the All-wise God exercises His universal perception and intelligence: we have ideas of His attributes ; but we are absolutely ignorant what is the intimate essence of anything; by no exercise of either sensation or reflection can we know intimate essences; much less can we have any idea of the intimate essence of God.” (Sir Isaac Newton's Scholium Generale, at the end of his Principia.) We believe the fact of the union of the Three Persons in the Divine Essence, but we do not presume to require an explanation of the mode : human language could not express it, neither could the human intellect comprehend it.

B. Theologians have suggested as illustrations, but not as

arguments, the following natural Trinities.

Sun, beams, heat.
Well-head, fountain, stream.”
Body, soul, spirit.'
Root, shrub, fruit."

C. Relics of primitive Tradition.

The Trimurti of the Indians, namely Bramah, Vishnu,

and Shiva.

See the Bishop of Lincoln's Remarks on Tertullian, p. 534. Irenæus blames those who use illustrations of the above kind, Adv. Hæres. lib. ii. c. xiii.

1 See Athan, Quast, al. tom. 11. p. 336; Just. Mart. Dial.c. Tryph. c. cxxviii. also c. lvi.; Tertull. Adv. Prax. c. viii.; Apol. c. xxi.; Lactant. Inst, iv. c. xxix.

? Ruffin. In Expos. Symb. p. 18; Tertull. Adv. Prax. c. viii.
3 Origen, In Ps. cxxii.
4 Tertull. Adv. Prax. c. viii.

The Egyptian Triad— Kneph, Neith, and Ptha. Isis,

Osiris, Horus.
The Scandinavian Triad-Odin, Braga, and Freia.
The Greek Triad – Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto.
The Platonic Triads-First Cause, Reason, Animal life

or Spirit. Word internal (Aoyos évõrd0etoc), Word

external (Aóyoc popopikos), World or Spirit of world. 2. Divine Testimony.

Preliminary remark. The Old Testament was the guide

of man's infancy. Its teaching was, therefore, obscure and imperfect. Still it contains the germs of Christian truths, and we find abundant intimations and suggestions, which become altogether inexplicable as soon as we lose sight of the doctrine of the Trinity. The proofs are indirect which we adduce from the

A. Old Testament.
a. Certain peculiarities in the original language

of the Old Testament, which imply the
existence of a plurality of Persons in the
GODHEAD.
(1) The occurrence of the plural noun

Oyb (Eloheem) as the name of
GOD.
Gen, i. 1. “In the beginning

God created (Eloheem, Gods,
bara, sing. verb, created) the
heavens and the earth.”
a. This plural appellative is

ordinarily used with sin-
gular verbs, pronouns,
and adjectives.
Sing. verb, Gen. i. 1.
Eloheem (Gods) cre-
ated, creavit Du.

See Spence's Polymetes, pp. 272, 284 ; Potter's Antiquities, vol. 1. p. 358. • Tho mingular noun ti bo Eloah, is only used in poetry and the later Tlebrew: twice in the lIymn of Moses, several times in the Prophets, forty times in the book of Job, and in the other books sixteen times. The plural DN Klohoom, occurs more than two thousand five hundred times.

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