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De Tribus Symbolis.
Of the Three Creeds.
SYMBOLA' tria, Nicænum, TuethreeCreeds, NiceneCreed,
Athanasii, et quod vulgo Athanasius's Creed, and that Apostolorum appellatur, omni- which is commonly called the no recipienda sunt, et credenda; Apostles' Creed, ought throughnam firmissimis Scripturæ testi- ly to be received and believed ; moniis probari possunt. for they may be proved by
most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.
The Phraseology of this Article.
recipienda sunt, et credenda.
Title. The Three Creeds Of the Three Creeds.
to be received and believed.
1 Lúußolov; où together, Ballw I cast : a collection. It has been variously understood, as a watch word, signal in war, or tessera, or ticket of hospitality. The heathens had their symbols, by the use of which they distinguished between the initiated and the uninitiated. A creed is also called in Greek, páðnua, i.e. a lesson to be learned by the Catechumens, and ypapi, and kavwv. The Latin word comes from credo, I believe.
2. When the Latin and English are compared with each other.
which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed, ought to be
throughly received and believed. II. The three Creeds, the Nicene Creed, Athanasius's Creed, and that
which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed, may be proved
by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.
that which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed, ought to be
Exposition of Faith preserved by Irenæus (A.D. 178),
Adv. Hær. lib. I. C. X.-See also c. xxii.; and lib.
III. c. iv. “The Church, though dispersed over the whole world, received from the Apostles, and from their disciples, that [belief] in one God, the FATHER Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and the seas, and all things in them; and in one Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Who was incarnate (Tov oapkwOévta] for our salvation ; and in the Holy Ghost, Who spake by the prophets of the dispensation, the advents, the birth of (from) a Virgin, the passion, the resurrection from the dead, and the bodily [īvo apkov) ascension into heaven of the beloved Jesus Christ our LORD, and His coming again from heaven in the glory of the Father, to gather together in one all things, and to raise up all flesh of all mankind, that so to Christ Jesus our LORD, and God, and Saviour, and King, according to the good pleasure of the invisible Father, every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth, and every tongue should confess to Him, and that He may minister true judgment to all; that He may send into eternal fire wicked spirits, even angels who transgressed and became apostates; and impious, and unjust, and lawless, and blasphemous men: but having given life to the righteous and holy, to those who have kept His commandments and abided in His love, some from the beginning, and others after repentance, He may reward them with immortality, and surround them with everlasting glory.' Exposition of Faith preserved by Tertullian (A.D. 200), Adv. Prax. c. ii.
“We believe that there is one God, but under this dispensation, which we call æconomy, that there is also of the one God, a Son, His Word, Who proceeded from Him, by Whom all things were made, and without Whom nothing was made; that this (Son or Word) was sent by the Father into the Virgin, and born of her, Man and God, Son of man and Son of God, and named JESUS Christ; that He suffered, that He died and was buried according to the Scriptures, and was resuscitated by the Father, and taken up into the heavens, to sit at the right hand of the Father, and to come to judge the quick and dead ; Who sent thence, according to His own promise, from the Father, the Holy Ghost, the Paraclete, the Sanctifier of their faith who believe in the FATHER, and Son, and Holy Ghost." See also De Veland. Virgin. c. 1, and De Præscript. Hæret. c. xiii.
Ancient Creed of the Church of Jerusalem, as preserved by St. Cyril,
Tract. de Catech. p. 159.
the heresy of Paul of Samosata (A.D. 269). Routh. Rel. Sacr.
Divinity of Christ, p. 430.
philus Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea Palestina. Socrat.
Hist. Eccles. lib. 1. c. viii. Theodor. Hist. lib. I. c. xi. “ We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one LORD JESUS CHRIST, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, Life of Life, the only-begotten Son, the first-born of every creature, before all worlds begotten of God the Father, by Whom also all things were made: Who for our salvation was incarnate and conversed among men, and suffered, and rose again the third day, and ascended to the Father, and will come again to judge both the quick and dead. And we believe in one HOLY GHost. And we believej every one of these to be and exist, the Father truly a Father, the Son truly a Son, the Holy Ghost truly an Holy Ghost."
b. The same as altered by the Nicene Fathers, at the first General
Council, held under Sylvester, at Nicæa, in Bythinia, A.D. 325, three hundred and eighteen bishops being present. Socrat. Hist. Eccles. lib. 1. c. viii. Euseb. de Vit. Constant. lib. III. c. vii. Symb. Nicæn.
apud Athanas. Epist. ad Jovian. de Fide, 3. Theodor. lib. 1. c. viii. “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, the Maker of all things, visible and invisible: and in one LORD Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father, the only begotten, that is, of the substance of the FATHER; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance (ouoouo lov) with the FATHER, by Whom all things were made, both that are in heaven and that are upon earth : Who, for us men and for our salvation, descended, and was made flesh, and became man : He suffered, and rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven, and will come again to judge both the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost.
“But such as say there was a time when He was not, and that before He was begotten He was not, and that He was made out of things which were not: or such as say the Son of God is of another substance or essence, or convertible, or changeable, the same persons the Catholic and Apostolic Church pronounces accursed.” c. The same as altered by the Constantinopolitan Fathers, at the second
General Council, held under Damasus, at Constantinople, A.D. 381,
one hundred and fifty bishops being present.
• We believe in one God, the FATHER Almighty, Maker (of heaven and earth, and) of all things visible and invisible. And in one LORD Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father [before all worlds), Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance (ouoouo lov) with the Father, by Whom all things were made; Who for us men and our salvation (came down from heaven), and was incarnate [by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and) was made man, (and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate]: he suffered (and was buried), and the third day He rose again (according to the Scriptures), and ascended into heaven, (and sitteth on the right hand of the Father): and He shall come (again with glory) to judge both the quick and the dead: (Whose kingdom shall have no end). And we believe in the Holy Ghost, (the Lord and Giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. And we believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church : we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins, and we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.] Amen.”
This Creed was inserted (probably by Damasus) into the Liturgies of the Western Church. Filioque, “and from the Son,' was inserted at the second Council of Toledo, in Spain," A.D. 447. Its insertion was opposed by Leo III., bishop of Rome, but finally sanctioned by Nicholas I. For a history of the schism between the Eastern and Western Churches, which was brought about by the insertion of Filioque,” see Mosh. Ch. Hist. cent. IX. part ii. c. 3. Council of Ephesus (A D. 431), see Evagr. Hist. Eccles. lib. II. c. iv.
? Socrat. Hist lib. v. c. viii. Sogom. Hist. lib. vii. c. vii.
3 Baronius ascribes the insertion of these words, Filioque, to the second Council of Toledo. The third, fourth, eighth, eleventh, twelith, and thirteenth Councils of Toledo confirm this addition.
Council of Chalcedon (A. D. 451), see Evagr. Hist. Eccles. lib. II. c. xviii. Council of Sardica (A.D. 447), Bev. Synod. vol. 1. p. 92. Council of Constantinople (A.D. 518), Concil. vol. 11. p. 1340. Anglican Council (A. D. 673), Bed. Hist. Angl. lib. iv. c. xvii. d. Creed of Pope Pius IV. published in a bull (A.D. 1564).
The Nicene Creed being announced ; “Art. 1. I most firmly admit and embrace the Apostolical and Ecclesiastical traditions, and the rest of the observances and constitutions of the same Church (i.e. the Church of Rome). Art. 2. I also admit Holy Scripture according to that sense which Holy Mother Church has held and does hold, to whom it belongs to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Holy Scripture : neither will I ever receive and interpret them otherwise than according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. Art. 3. I also profess, that there are truly and properly seven Sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our LORD, and necessary for the salvation of mankind, though not all for every one; to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Matrimony, and that they confer grace; and that of these, Baptism, Confirmation, and Orders cannot be reiterated without sacrilege. And I also receive and admit the received and approved ceremonies of the Catholic Church, used in the solemn administration of all the aforesaid Sacraments, Art. 4. I embrace and receive all and every one of the things which have been defined and declared in the Holy Council of Trent, concerning original sin and justification. Art. 5. I profess likewise, that in the Mass there is offered to God, a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and for the dead. And that in the most holy sacrifice of the Eucharist, there is truly, really, and substantially the body and blood, together with the soul and Divinity, of our LORD JESUS Christ: and that there is made a conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood; which conversion the Catholic Church calls transubstantiation. I also confess, that under either kind alone, Christ is received whole and entire, and a true Sacrament. Art. 6. I constantly hold that there is a Purgatory, and that the souls therein detained are helped by the suffrages of the faithful." Art. 7. Likewise that the saints reigning together with Christ are to be venerated and invoked, and that they offer prayers to God for us, and that their relics are to be venerated. Art. 8. I most firmly assert, that the images of Christ, of the Mother of God, ever virgin, and also of other Saints, may be had and retained, and that due honour and veneration is to be given them. Art. 9. I also affirm that the power of Indulgences was left by Christ in the Church, and that the use of them is most wholesome to Christian people. Art. 10. I acknowledge the Holy Catholic, Apostolic Roman Church for the Mother and Mistress of all Churches; and I promise and swear true obedience to the Bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Vicar of Jesus Christ, Art. 11. I likewise undoubtedly receive and profess all other things delivered, defined, and declared, by the sacred Canons and general Councils, and particularly by the Holy Council of Trent. And I condemn, reject, and anathematize all things contrary thereto and all heresies which the Church has condemned, rejected, and anathematized. Art, 12. This true Catholic Faith, without which no one can be saved, which I at present freely profess and truly hold, I promise, vow, and swear most constantly to retain and confess the same entire and immaculate to the last breath of my life, (God being my helper). And I will take care, as far as in me lies, that the same shall be held, taught, and preached by those subject to me, or by those the charge of whom shall devolve on me, in my office; So help me God, and these holy Gospels of God.”
All priests in the Roman Catholic Church are required to signify their assent to the Creed thus enlarged by Pope Pius, in the words which are printed in italics.