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Unknown writer,' probably of the 2nd century, omits

Epistle to the Hebrews, James, and 3rd John.
B. Fathers.

Ignatius (A.D. 101), Epistle to the Philadelphians, S v.
Polycarp (A.D. 108), Epist. to the Philippians.
Papias (A. D. 116).
Just. Mart. “Memoirs of the Apostles.” “The Gospel."

See 1 Apol. cc. xv. xvi. xxxiii. Dial. c. Tryph. c. c.
The Epistle to Diognetus, xi.
Tatian (A.D. 172), Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. iv. c. xxix.
Hegesippus (A.D. 177).
Athenagoras (A.D. 180).
Theophilus of Antioch (A.D.180),“The Holy Scriptures,”

“Divine Word,” frequent references and quotations. Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 204), “Quis Dives Salvetur,"

prope finem, “ The Gospel and Apostolic Discourses.” Tertullian (A.D. 198) adv. Marc. iv. 2, “ The Evangelical

Instrument;" he distinguishes between the “Old
Scripture” and the “ New Testament." See Adv.
Prax. c. xiii., and calls the whole Bible totum

instrumentum utriusque Testamenti.”
Irenæus (A. D. 184), Adv. Hæret. lib. III. c. ii. &c.
Origen (A.D. 240). In his own writings he acknowledges

the present Canon. His list as given by Eusebius differs. Eusebius' (A. D. 315), Hist. Eccles. lib. III. cc. iii. iv. xxiv.

xxv.; lib. VI. C. XXV.

* See Routh's Reliq. Sacr. vol. iv. pp. 3-5, and the venerable Editor's learned notes.

9 See Bishop of Lincoln's Remarks on Justin Martyr, p. 132.
1 He has arranged the books of the New Testament into three classes :

(1). 'Opoyounevai ypapai-Scriptures universally received, viz. The Four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of St. Paul, the first Epistle of St John, the first Epistle of St. Peter.

(2) 'AvTieónevai ypapai-writings whose canonicity was disputed, viz. Hebrews, the Epistle of St. James, the Epistle of St. Jude, 2nd Epistle of St. Peter, 2nd and 3rd Epistles of St. John, and Revelation.

(3) Nobai ypapai-spurious writings, viz. the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Revelation of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Doctrines of the Apostles, and the Gospel according to the Hebrews.

Witnesses to the Canonical Authority of the αντιλέγομεναι γραφαί. .
1. The Epistle to the Hebrews.
a. Fathers.

Clement of Rome, Epist. to the Cor.c. i. with Heb. xiii. 17; c. x. with

xi. 8; c. xv, with xii. 14; c. xvii. with xi. 37; c. xxiii. with x. 37.
Polycarp.
Author of the Epistle which passed under the name of Barnabas.
Pantæm. (2nd cent.) apud Euseb. Hist. Eccles. vi. 14.

y. Councils.

Council at Laodicea, A.D. 364. Hippo, A.D. 393.

3 Carthage, A.D. 397. 4 Carthage, A.D. 419.

Irenæus.
Clement of Alexandria. Strom. vi. 645.
Origen (apud Euseb. Hist. Eccles. vi. 15).
Hilary of Poictiers.
Athanasius.

Cyril of Jerusalem. b. Version.

Syriac. e. Councils.

Laodicea, A.D. 364.

Carthage, A. D. 397. 2. The Epistle of St. James. a. Fathers.

Clement of Rome. Comp. Epist. to the Corinthians, c. iii. with Jam.

iv. 1; c. x, with ii, 21, 22; c. xi, with ii. 25; c. xxüi. with i. 5,

6; c. xxx, with iv. 6,
Author of the Shepherd, which work some ascribe to Hermas.
Irenæus, Adv. Hæret. lib. 1. c. iv. § 4; lib. iv. c. xvi. § 2.
Origen, ad Joann. xix. iv. 36.
Clement of Alexandria, (apud Cassiod.)
Ephrem. Syr. Opp. Græc, üi. 61.
Eusebius.

Jerome. b. Version.

Syriac, which was made at the close of the first, or the beginning

of the second century. 3. The Second Epistle of St. Peter.

Clement of Rome, Epist. to the Cor. c. vii, with 2 Pet. ü. 13; c. xxiii.

with iii. 4,
Author of the Shepherd. Comp. iii. 7, with 2 Pet. ii. 15.
Justin Martyr.
Irenæus, lib. v. c. xxii. § 2.
Origen, Hom. in Jos. Hom. iv. 14,
Eusebius.
Firmilian, Epist. ad Cyprian.

Jerome.
4. The Second Epistle of St. John.

Irenæus, lib. 1. c. xvi. $ 3; lib. II. c. xvi. $ 8.

Clement of Alexandria, Strom. ii. p. 464. 5. The Third Epistle of St. John.

Council of Laodicea, 'I wávyou tpɛīs. 6. The Epistle of St. Jude.

Clement of Rome, Epist. to the Corinth. c. ii. with Jude 22, 23.
Hermas.
Polycarp.
Irenæus,
Clement of Alexandria.
Tertullian.

Origen.
7. The Book of Revelation.

Ignatius, Epist. ad Philad. $ vi. Comp. Rev. iii. 12.
Justin Martyr, Dial. c. Tryph. c. lxxxi.
Melito, who wrote a Treatise upon it.
Tertullian.
Origen.

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8. Versions.

Syriac, 2nd cent.

Latin versions, 2nd cent.
E. Adversaries,

Celsus, A. D. 190. Lardner, vol. vIII. pp. 5–69; iv. 113.
Porphyry, A. D. 233. Ibid. vol. viii. p. 176 ; iv. 209.
Julian, A.D. 361-363. Ibid. vol. vii. p. 356 ; iv. 311.

C. The Canon of the Old and New Testament.

1. Divine Testimony, as A. and B.
2. Human Testimony.

Preliminary Remark. Almost all the witnesses who tes

tify to the canons of the Old and New Testament
singly, do so collectively, especially-
a. Fathers.

Clement of Rome quotes and alludes to the Old

and New Testament singly and collectively
under the names, Scriptures, the Scripture,
Holy Oracles. See Epist. to Cor. cc. viii, xüi.

xvi. xxi. xxviii. xlv. &c.
Theophilus of Antioch, Ad Autolyc. iii. 12.
Justin Martyr.
Irenæus, Adv. Hæret. ü. 27, and v. 20.
Clement of Alexandria, Strom. vii.
Origen, Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. VI. C. XXV.
Athanasius, (A.D. 325).
Augustine (A.D. 410), “totus Canon Scriptu-

rarum,” De Doct. Christ. lib. II. c. viii.

Epiphanius, (A.D. 390).
b. Councils.
Council at Laodicea, A.D. 364.

Hippo, A.D. 393.
3 Carthage, A.D. 397, 47th Canon,

Labb. et Coss. tom. II. col. 1177.

4 Carthage, A.D. 419. c. Confessions.

Gallican, Art. iii. Belgic, Art. iv. Wirtem

burg, c. xxx. Scotland, Art. i. Westminster,

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c. i.

Prop. V. The Names of the Canonical Books of the Old Testament are,
Genesis.

The First Book of Chronicles.
Exodus.

The Second Book of Chronicles.
Leviticus.

The First Book of Esdras.
Numbers.

The Second Book of Esdras.'
Deuteronomy.

The Book of Esther.
Joshua.

The Book of Job.
Judges.

The Psalms.
Ruth,

The Proverbs.
The First Book of Samuel.

Ecclesiastes, or Preacher.
The Second Book of Samuel.

Cantica, or Songs of Solomon.
The First Book of Kings.

Four Prophets the Greater.
The Second Book of Kings.

Twelve Prophets the Less.
This Proposition is included in the fourth.

Prop. VI. And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth

read for example of life and instruction of manners ; but yet doth it
not apply them to establish any doctrine ; such are these following:
The Third Book of Esdrasi.

Baruch the Prophet.
The Fourth Book of Esdras.

The Song of the Three Children.
The Book of Tobias.

The Story of Susanna.
The Book of Judith.

Of Bel and the Dragon.
The rest of the Book of Hester, The Prayer of Manasses.
The Book of Wisdom.

The First Book of Maccabees.
Jesus the Son of Sirach.

The Second Book of Maccabees.

* Viz. the Book of Nehemiah. 3 The other books, namely, the Apocrypha. 1. Derivation and meaning of the word. a, amo tis Kpuitis, from the crypt or ark in which the inspired

books were deposited. Epiphanius advocates this sense of the

word Apocryphal. b. dtokpúpos, hidden, (Mark iv. 22) from dToKPÚTtw, to hide.

Clement of Alexandria (Strom. lib. XIII, c. iv.) is the first writer who applies the term to a certain class of books. From the time of Augustine it has generally been applied to books “which are not of authority, and are kept secret; whose original is obscure, and which are destitute of proper testimonials, their authors being unknown, and their characters either heretical or sus

pected.”-Augustine against Faust.
2. History.

They were probably written by Alexandrian Jews.
They were not received into the Hebrew Canon.-Josephus.
None of them are extant in the Hebrew; all of them are in the

Greek language, except the fourth book of Esdras, which is only

extant in Latin. It is not known when they were first added to the Greek Bible;

probably, however, not long before the Christian era. The old Latin version was a translation of the Septuagint, and

therefore contained the Apocrypha. • The Church of Rome receives these books, with the exception of the third and fourth books of Esdras, and the Prayer of Manasses, as "sacred and ca

1. The Testimony of Reason.

The Apocrypha contain manifest fables. Rest of Hester,

chap. x. 6. They contain statements at variance with facts recorded in

those Scriptures which Romanists themselves confess to

be canonical. They contain doctriness which are repugnant to the canon

ical Scriptures.
They commend immoral practices.'
The authors' themselves of the Apocryphal books confess that

they were not inspired.
2. Divine Testimony.
A. Old Testament.

Isa. viii. 20. “ To the law and to the testimony: if

they speak not according to this word, it is because

there is no light in them.” B. New Testament.

Our Lord only sanctions those books of the Old Testa

ment which were contained in the Hebrew Scriptures, and which constitute the canon of the Old Testament

Scriptures adopted by the Church of England.

The Apostles acknowledged the Hebrew canon only. 3. Human Testimony. A. Jews.

Philo, though an Egyptian Jew, never quotes the Apo

crypha for the purpose of establishing any doctrine. Josephus against Appion, book 1. c. viii. “ From the

time of Artaxerxes unto the present time all things indeed have been committed to writing : but those.

nonical.” In the decree cited under Prop. II. the books of Tobit, Judith,
Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and the first and second books of Maccabees, are men-
tioned by name as belonging to the Canon of Scripture, and the rest of the
book of Hester, the Song of the Three Children, the Story of Susanna, and of
Bel and the Dragon, are really included in the same Canon, for they also are
contained in the Latin Vulgate.
• Prayers for the dead. 2 Macc. xii. 43, 44.

Transmigration of souls. Wisd. viii. 19, 20.
Justification by the works of the law. Tobit xii. 8, 9. Ecclus. ii. 3, &c.

Sinless perfection. Ecclus, xiii. 24. 6 Suicide. 2 Macc. xiv. 41-46.

Assassination. Judith ix, 2-9.
? Prologue to the Book of Ecclesiasticus.

1 Macc. iv. 46; ix. 27.
2 Macc. ii. 23 ; xv. 38.

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