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2. Divine Testimony.
A. Old Testament.

Prov. vi. 23. “ The commandment is a lamp; and the law
is light; and reproofs of instruction are the


of life.” See also Deut. iv. 2 ; v. 32; xii. 32. Josh. i. 7. Ps. xix.

7, 8; cxix. 9, 105. Prov, vi. 23; xxx. 5, 6. Isa. viii.

20 ; xxix. 13, 14. Ezek. xii. 8-12; xx. 18. B. New Testament.

John xx. 31. “These are written, that ye might believe

that Jesus is the CHRIST; and that believing ye might

have life through His name.” See also Matt. xv. 3, 6, 9. Mark vii. 7-13. Luke xvi.

27-31. John xv. 15, 39. Acts xvii. 4; xx. 27. Gal. i. 8, 9. Ephes. ii. 20. 1 Thess. ii. 13. 1 Tim. vi. 11. 2 Tim. iii. 14-17. Tit. i. 14. Heb. viii. 5. 2 Pet.

i. 19. Rev. xxii. 18, 19. 3. Human Testimony. A. Fathers.

Ignatius (A.D. 101), Epist. ad Philad. c. ix. “The Gos

pel is the perfection of uncorruptness.” Tertullian (A.D. 198), De Præscript. Adv. Hær. c. viii.

“We have no need of being curious since the coming of JESUS CHRIST, nor inquisitive since the publication of the Gospel. When we believe, we want nothing further to be believed. For this we first believe that we ought not to believe anything further.” c. xxxvi. “ Happy is the Church to whom the Apostles poured out the whole

doctrine, together with their blood.” August. ad Joan. Tract. XL. c. xi. “For seeing the LORD Jesus did many things, all are not written; as the same holy Evangelist Himself witnesseth, that the LORD CHRIST both said and did many things which are not written. But those things were selected to be written which

seemed to suffice for the salvation of those that believe.See also Tertull.' De Præscript. Hæretic. cc. vi. xxv. Iren.

adv. Hæret. lib. II, c. xlvii.; iv. c. lxix. Cyprian, Epist. xlvii. Ixiï. Chrysost. ad Tit. Hom. I. Hieron. ad Tit. c. i. August. de Trinit. lib. iii. c. xi. § 22, col. 570, tom. VIII. ed. Antv. 1700.

3 See Bishop Kaye on Tertullian, pp. 250-289. Dr. Hampden's Lecture on Tradition.

B. Confessions.

1 Helvetic, Art. i. iv. xxi. 2 Helvetic, c. ii. Scotland,

Art. xix. Bohemia, c. i. Basil, Art. x. Belgio, Art. ii. vii. Wirtemburg, c. XXX. Gallican, Art. ii. iv. v.

Saxon, Art. i. Sueveland, Art. i. § i. Prop. III. Whatsoeder is not read in Holy Scripture, nor may be proved

thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. 1. Divine Testimony. A. Old Testament.

Deut. iv. 2. “ Ye shall not add unto the word which

I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD

your God which I command you.” See also Deut. xii. 32. Ps. xviji.; xix. 7. Prov. vi. 23;

xxx. 6. Isa. viii. 20; xxix. 13. B. New Testament.

Rev. xxii. 18, 19. “I testify unto every man that

heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book : and if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and

from the things that are written in this book.”
See also Matt. xv. 9. Mark 7-13. 2 Cor. i. 13. Col.

ii. 18-22. Tit. i. 14.
2. Human Testimony.
A. Fathers.

August. Proæm. in lib. iii. de Sancta Trinitate, § 2.

Opp. tom. VIII. col. 562. “ Be not thou a servant to my writings, as it were to the canonical Scriptures. But in the canonical Scriptures, such things as thou didst not believe, when thou hast there found them, immediately believe: but in my writings, that which thou knowest not for a certain truth, unless thou per

ceive it to be certain, hold it not resolutely.” Cyprian, lib. 11. Epist. ii. “ If Christ alone is to be

heard, we are not to consider what any before us

hath thought good to be done, but what CHRIST, who is before all, hath done: for we ought not to

follow the wisdom of men, but the truth of God." See also Epist. xlvii. and lxxiv. p. 211, ed. Oxon. Tertull.

adv. Hermog. c. xxii. August. cont. Donat. lib. III. pp. 32, 33, vol. VII. Epist. xciii. $ 35. Opp. tom. II.

186. Basil, Opp. Græc. pp. 226-227, ed. Basil, 1551. B. Confessions.

2 Helvetic, c. i. Basil, Art. 2. Gallican, Art. v. 1 Hel

vetic, Art. iv. Bohemia, c. i. Wirtemburg, C. XXX. Westminster, c. i.

Prop. IV. In the name of the Holy Soripture we do understand those

Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church." 1. The Testimony of Reason. A. External Evidences.

The testimony of competent witnesses,

Authoritative decisions of the Church.
B. Internal Evidences.

Harmony of their contents.
Consistency of their contents with the character of God,

and adaptation to the condition of man.
Positive assertions of the writers themselves.

Circumstantial proofs arising from style, allusions, &c. 2. Divine Testimony. A. To the Canon of the Old Testament. a. Internal.

Deut. xxxi. 9, “ And Moses wrote this law, and

delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD,

and unto all the elders of Israel." See also Deut. xxxi. 24-27; xvii. 18. Josh. xxiv.

26. 1 Sam. x. 25. 2 Kings xxii. 8. 2 Chron. xvii. 9. Neh. viii. 1-8; ix. 1-3; Isa. xxxiv. 16. Dan. ix. 2.

4 Canonical, i.e. belonging to the Canon. Kavwv_signifies a straight rod : deriv. a rule of conduct. Gal. vi. 16. Phil. iii. 16. In ecclesiastical language it means that collection of inspired writings to which the Church appeals as the great and only standard of religious truth and duty.

• The words in the Church" are to be understood of the Holy Catholic, or universal Church,

b. External.
a. Our Saviour. Luke xxiv. 44, “And He (JESUS)

said unto them, These are the words which
I spake unto you, while I was yet with you,
that all things must be fulfilled, which were
written in the law of Moses, and in the pro-

phets, and in the psalms concerning Me.” See also Matt. xv. 3; xxi. 42; xxii. 29. Luke

xvi. 29. John v. 39; x. 30, 34–36. B. St. Paul. Rom. i. 2; üi. 2; ix. 4, 5. 2 Cor.

iii. 14. 2 Tim. üi. 15. 3. Human Testimony. a. The constant tradition of the Jews, that Ezra and the

Great Synagogue completed the Canon of the Old Testament, and that it has remained in an unaltered condition to the present time. It is preserved in the Pirke Aboth, one of the oldest books of the Talmud. Philo quotes most of the books, De Vit. Contemplat. tom. II.

p. 275, ed. Mangey. Horneman Observat. ex Philon. Josephus, Against Appion, book 1. c. viii. “ We have not

thousands of books discordant and contradicting each other, but we have only twenty-two, which comprehend the history of all former ages, and are justly regarded as divine. Five of them proceed from Moses ; they include as well the laws, as the account of the creation of man, extending to the time of his (Moses') death. This period comprehends nearly three thousand years. From the death of Moses to that of Artaxerxes, the prophets

6 See Buxtorf's Tiberias, lib. 1. cc. x. xi.

? Hence we learn that the Jews were accustomed to arrange the books of the Hebrew Canon in three classes : first, the Law, which contained the five books of Moses ; secondly, the Prophets ; and thirdly, the Hagiographa or Psalms: these two classes contained seventeen books. Further, if we compare Jerome's list (given in his Prolog. Galeat.) with this account supplied by Josephus, “ we shall find, first, that they agree in having three classes; secondly, in making the whole number of books amount to twenty-two; thirdly, in describing the books of the first class as amounting to five; fourthly, in describing the books of the third and fourth classes as amounting to seventeen.” They did not reckon the books contained in these classes alike. Josephus put four books only into the third class, and thirteen into the second; whereas Jerome put nine books into the second, and eight into the third. See also the Prologue to the Book of Ecclesiasticus. The same division appears in the New Testament (Luke xxiv. 44), in Philo, and in the Talmud. See Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. vi. c, xxv.

who succeeded Moses, committed to writing, in thirteen
books, what was done in their days. The remaining
four books contain hymns to God, and instructions of

life for man.”
The Apocrypha : see 1 Macc. iv. 46; ix. 27; xiv. 41.
b. The constant testimony of the Fathers.

Athanasius, Opp. tom. II. pp. 126. Melito, bishop of

Sardis, Catalogue. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. iv. 26. Origen.
Euseb. Eccles. Hist. VI. C. xxv. Philocal. c. iii. Jerome,

Prol. Galeat. in Opusc. iii. Epist. ad Paulin.
c. Councils.

At Laodicea, A.D. 365. Hippo, A.D. 393. 3 Carthage, A.D. 397, Can. 47. 4 Carthage, A.D. 419. d. Versions. Targums. Septuagint. Vetus Itala. B. To the Canon of the New Testament. a. Divine Testimony.

Internal Evidence.
To the Canon of the Gospels. 1 Tim. v. 18, “ The

labourer is worthy of his reward.” Comp. Luke

x. 7, James ïi. 8, with Matt. xxii. 39.
To that of the Pauline Epistles and the other Scrip-

tures. 2 Pet. iii. 16.
b. Human Testimony.
a. Catalogues.

Those which include the books which we receive
and count for Canonical.

Athanasius, A. D. 315.
Epiphanius, A.D. 370.
Rufinus, A.D. 390.
Jerome, A. D. 392, tom. Iv. part ii. col. 568,

Augustine, A.D. 394.
Council of Laodicea, A.D. 361, Can. 59.

3 Council of Carthage, A.D. 397, Can. 47.
Those which do not include all the books which we
receive and count for Canonical.
Cyril of Jerusalem, A. D. 340

omit the
Council of Laodicea, Canon 60

Gregory Nazianzenus, A. D. 375
Philaster, A.D. 380, omits the Epistle to the

Hebrews and Revelation.


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