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! « Since this remarkable inundation, constructed. From being all made of proper measures of prudence and cau: granite with painted iron roofs and tion have been adopted. For several screens, they likewise add to the emyears the height of the water had been bellishment of the places where they regularly marked at the castle. Now, stand.” P. 171. at all rifings of the river, signals were appointed at the admiralty, as a warn. ing to the inhabitants. Whenever it
INGENIOUS WORKS OF ARTS-A CU: rites above its banks at the mouth of
RIOUS PIECE OF MECHANISM. the Great Neva, notice is given to the “ MOST of the trades that relate to town by three diftinct firings of cannon, luxuries are here carried on to fuch which are repeated at intervals, as the an extent, and in so great perfection, danger increases. Within the town, as to render it, at leaft for the refidence, in this case, five cannons are fired from unnecessary to import thofe articles the admiralty battery, and on the from abroad. The chief of these are Atceple of it by day four white flags are works in the nobler metals. Here are displayed, and by night four lanterns forty-four Russian and one hundred and are hung out; and at the same time thirty mine foreign, consequently in all the church bells are nowly tolled. In one hundred and eighty-three workers places moft exposed to the inundation, in gold, tilver, and trinkets, as mafters; veliels are kept in readiness for saving and besides them several gilders and the people. These regulations, the filverers;--a monstrous disproportion, incre afing buildings, the embanking, when compared with those employed and the magnificent stone quay of the in the useful and indispensable bufiNova, together with the extension of nesses. The pomp of the court, and the water-surface by the various canals, the luxury of the rich and great, have render these weftern gales less alarming rendered a taste in works of this kind to the inhabitants of St. Petersburg; fo common, and carried the art itself so that a swell of five feet above the to such a pitch, that the most extraorlevel now excites but little or even no dinary objects of it are here to be met attention.” P. 158.
with. Several of them are wrought in a fort of manufactory: in one set of
premises are all the variou' workmen HEARTHS IN THE STREETS.
and shops for completing the moft ele" A PECULIARITY observable here gant deyices, ornamental and useful, are the street hearths; which, both on from the rough' bullion. Even the that account and from their humane embroiderers in gold and silver, though design in providing a comfortable place they are not formed into a company, of resort to the poor drivers and others are yet pretty numerous. The works of the lower class who are obliged to they produce are finished in so high a wait in the ftreets in the winter feason, taste, 'that quantities of them are told dcserve a short description. One of in the shops that deal in English or these hearths confits of a circular spot French goods, and to which they are furrounded by a parapet of granite, not inferior. This business, which is having a bench within of the fame'ma- a perpetual source of profit to a great terial, coyered with an iron roof, sup; number of widows and young women ported on pillars of that metal ; and of Nender incomes, forms a strong obin the middle is kindled a large fire, jection to the declamations againft round which twenty or thirty persons luxury. Perhaps the remark is not may conveniently lit and enjoy the unnecessary, that sham laces and em. 'warmth. Iron shutters are likewife broidery cannot here be used, even on placed on the stone parapet reaching the stage.” P.284. up to within a couple of feet from the “ Joinery is pradifed as well by the roof, whicḥ, siding in grooves, are easily Russians as the Germans; but the ca. moved fo as to keep off the force of binet-maker's art, in which the price the chilling bļafts. On all the princi- of the ingenuity far exceeds the value pal squares, near the playhouses, and of the materials, is at present solely wherever a number of equipages are confined to some foreigners, amongst usually collected, and the coachmen whom the Germans didinguish them. and servants are obliged to wait several felves to their honour. The artists of bours in the cold, these fire-hearths are that nation occasionally execute mafter
pieces, made at the intervals of leisure palaces of the monarch and the great under the influence of genius and taste, personages of the court with the astofor which they find a ready fale in the nishing productions of his art. In the refidence of a great and magnificent Imperial hermitage are a great many court. Thus not long fince one of pieces of furniture, cabinets, clocks, these made a cabinet, which for inven- and other works, of his savention and tion, taste, and excellency of work- execution. They are composed of the manship, exceeded every thing that had greatest variety of woods, to which ever been seen in that way. The price the artist, by a certain preparation, has of this piece of art was feven thousand givea a peculiar hardness and durabirubles; and the artist declared, that lity; and which, by the most laborious with this sum he should not be paid for and extraordinary mode of polishing, the years of application he had bestow- have received a glofs which needs no ed upon it. Another monument of rubbing for its preservation. The German ingenuity is preserved in the workmanship of these pieces is not less Academy of Sciences, in the model of a wonderful than their invention; not a bridge after a design of the state-coun- joint is visible; all is fitted fo exactly sellor Von Gerhard. This bridge, the together as though it were molten at most magnificent work of the kind, if one caft: some are inlaid with bronzethe poffibility of its construction could work of the most beautiful and diversibe proved, consists of eleven arches, a fied gilding; others with bas-reliefs, drawbridge for letting vessels pass, dif- gems, and antiques. But the most tinct raited foot-ways and landing- fuperlative production of this artist is places, &c. The beauty of the model, a bureau or writing-desk, which the and the excellency of its execution, Empress presented to the museum of leave every thing of the fort very far the AcademycfSciences about eighteen behind. The Empress Catharine re- years ago. Here the genius of the in- warded the artificer with a present of ventor has lavished its riches and its ferfour thousand rubles, and he has ever tility in the greatest variety of composifince been employed by the court.- tions: all seems the work of enchantAmong the more capital undertakers ment. On opening this amazing desk, of this class are people who keep ware. in front appears a beautiful group of houses of ready-made goods for sale; bas-reliefs in bronze, fuperbly gilt ; one in particular, who has by him to which, by the Nightest preffure on a the amount of several thousand rubles, spring, vanishes away, giving place to in inlaid or parquetted floors of all a magnificent writing-flat, inlaid with kinds of wood, patterns, and colours, gems. The space above this flat is dethat only require to be put together, voted to the keeping of valuable papers which may be done in a few days. or money. The bold hand that should Another confines himself to the making dare to invade this spot would immeof coffins, of which he keeps a great diately be its own betrayer: for, at the quantity, of every form and fize, and leaft touch of the table part, the most at all prices. Several of these dealers charming strains of soft and plaintive on a large scale have neither shop nor music instantly begin to play upon the tools, nor journeymen, but engage ear; the organ from whence it proceeds pnly in podriads; for example, to exe: occupying the lower part of the desk cute all the timber and wood work in behind. Several small drawers for a new-built house, and then take on holding the materials for writing, &c. the necessary workmen, over whom likewife start forward by the pressure they act as surveyors.-Before we dif- of their springs, and inut again as miss this subject, a man and his work quickly, without leaving behind a trace must be mentioned, who does honour of their existence. If one would change to his country, Germany; and in his the table part of the bureau into a line has excelled any thing that the reading-desk, from the upper part a moft refined ingenuity of England and board springs forward, from which, France has ever produced. The name with incredible velocity, all the parts of this man is Røntgen; he is a native of a commodious and well-contrived of Neuwied, and belongs to the feet of reading.defk expand, and take their Moravian Brethren. He has lived many proper places. But the mechanism of years, at several times,in St. Petersburg, this performance of art, as well as its nad has embellidhed and enriched the outward ornaments, should be seen, as
nothing nothing can be more difficult to de- all these stand immediately under the fcribe. The inventor offered this rare protection of the Emperor; on which and astonishing piece to the Empress account he has a great influence in their Catharine II. for twenty thousand government. This power in fome de. rubles; but the generously thought gree extends, likewise, over all the that this sum would be barely fufficient German princes; and the Emperor's to pay for the workmanship: the there. commands are in general fisietly oberfore recompensed his talent with a far. ed ; particularly where they concern ther present of five thousand rubles." the interest of the whole Empire. P. 287
“ The old cuftom of indulging ex(To be continued.)
travagantly in the expenk of funeral pomp and costly mourning, by which
many families had nearly ruined them LXXXI. A Tow through Germany; Francfort, and almost throughout the
felves, has been altogether abolished in particularly along the banks of the Empire. Rhine, Mayne, &c. and that Part “ A burial, including the mourning of the Palatinate, Rhingaw, &c. for the whole household and relations, usually termed the Garden of Ger- formerly often amounted (according to many. To which is added, a con- the rank and nobility of a family) to cile Vocabulary of farxiliar Phrases, several thousand guilders, and those of
At &c. in German and English; for lefs rank to several hundreds. the Use of Travellers. By the Rev. been conducted with an uncommon
Francfort, in particular, funerals have Dr. RENDER, Native of Germany. degree of expenfive folemnity. Several 2 vols. Svo. pp. 775. 165. Longo men, clothed in black cloaks, with an san and Rees,
appendage of a black veil of about
three yards long, forming a train beCONTENTS.
hind and sweeping the ground, wex employed for the space of three days
to invite about one hundred and fifty, A
PRELIMINARY Account of or two hundred mourners, to walk in
Germany—-Frankfort on the procession after the coffin. All the Mayn, and the adjacent Country--- family, celations, and friends of the Mentz, and the adjacent Country
deceased in the fame dress, with each 'The Palatinate, The Rhingaw.
a lemon in his hand, accampanied the corpse in so many mourning coaches.
The bier was carried by twelve perfons, COLOGNE-Westphalia---- The who in their way to the churchyard, Dutchies of Berg, Cleves, Guilders, intervals in the open street, and unco
according to the distance, stopped at and Juliers-Munfter-Ofnaburg- vered the coffin, to expose the face of Paderborn-Minden-- Techlenburg the deceafed. A band of fingers, three Account of the Secret Tribunals in days preceding the burial, afsembled in Westphalia-Hamburg-.Bremen- the ftreets before the house, chanting Embden- Hanover - Gottingen for an hour a folemn dirge. When the Hartz, or the Hercenian Mountain corpse was carried to the ground, the -A concise View of the present State fingers followed in a coach, and chantof the whole German Empire--A ed round the grave. The crucifix was German and English Vocabulary of without any regard to the particular
at all funerals carried before the corpte, tafy Words.
religion of the deceased. That of a
nobleman was conducted in the same EXTRACTS.
manner, but with far greater pomp. It commenced in the night-time at eleven o'clock, and all the mounters
and choristers, amounting to several “ DURING the reign of the late hundreds, with each a double torchen Emperor Jofeph II. many falutary laws his hands, preceded the corpse. This were established in this and other Impe- ftrange and ruinous custom was at once rial cities. It ought to be remarked, that abolilbed by law. At present a fuperal
in Germany, be the person ever so legislator, and which deserves to be rich, or even of the highest class of imitated in many foreign countries. nobility, is not attended with an ex- This law prohibits the burying of dead pense of more than fifty guilders, or bodies in any church or chapel whatabout five pounds English, at the most; ever. Neither rank nor opulence can and those of less fortune not more obtain permission to evade it, in the than ten guilders, and frequently not enforcement of which no respect is so much.
paid to persons. It is horrid,' said « These folemnities generally take the deceased Emperor, that a place place about the third or fourth day of worship, a temple of the Supreme after the person's death. The body is • Being, should be converted into a interred without pomp, parade, or peft-house for living creatures. A fhow, an hour after daybreak. Mourn. perfon, who upon his death-bech ing is wholly abolished, and prohibited makes it a condition of his will to be under a heavy penalty, even to the • buried in a church or chapel, acts mere wearing of a black crape or • like a madman; he ought to let his riband.
• fellow-creatures a good example, and “ This, salutary law was first observed not do all in his power to destroy at the desire of the amiable and much- • their constitutions, by expofing them beloved Landgravine of Hesse Darm to the effluvia arising from a corpte Aadt, who before her death command- in a state of putrefačtion'.” Vol. i. ed, that twelve private soldiers of the p. 65. horse-guards should carry her remains “ Since that time, the Germans have to the grave, and to be buried in an even begun to remove the buryingadjacent grove of a public garden.' places a mile or two from every city or Her grave is to be seen at the present town; by which means they have adow moment; and many English families Whed, or paved the way towards abou who travel through Francfort, go to lifhing, all the nonfenfical epitaphs and Darmstadt, which is distant about laughable infcriptions which generally twelve English miles, in order to visit abound in churchyards, and too often her tomb; on the top of which stands disgrace the memory they mean to cea a small urn of white marble, which lebrate; and have substituted for the the great Frederic II. King of Prussia, offensive cemetery an agreeable kind of Sent from Potsdam with this short epi- garden, more calculated to inspire taph engraven on it, namely, 'To the calm devotion than sentiments of hor. memory of my beloved friend and ror. . dear relation,' in token of the esteem “ It is Thocking to contrast this with be had for that universally beloved many small towns in European counprincess. Her example was followed tries, where there may frequently be by her husband, the late Landgrave of feen fourteen or fifteen churchyards, Hesse Darmstadt. He was a true friend when one on an extensive scale, out of of mankind, and fo peculiarly attached the town, would be fully fufficient to Was he to his army, that he desired to answer every good purpose *" Vol.is be buried among his foldiers.” Val.i. p72. Po 61.
SALUTARY LAWS AGAINST BURYING
“ THE wine produced in the cir THE DEAD IN CHURCHES.
cuit of Hochheim, whence the Eng. ** ABOUT fifteen years ago a truly lifh derive the name Old Hock,' excellent law was passed and observed is hardly one mile in length, and with great punctuality in Francfort, as about half a mile in breadth. well as in all other parts of the Empire, years of abundance this spot produces of which the Emperor Joseph was the rarely more than about two hundred
During my residence at the univerfity of Cambridge, I obferved that half the space of the town consisted of churchyards. There are no less than fifteen parishes, and as many churchyards; and it is remarkable, that many of them Contain a public pump! Even in the city of London there are several public pumps, either in churchyards or close to them; and it is very lingular, that the water is generally esteemed for its excellence.".
bogsheads. Most of this wine belongs poitted the free counts, Frey-Grafen, to the chapters of Mentz, and conses who were presidents of particular triquently is generally consumed by thë bunals of the Secret Ban. They were prelates themselves. They, however, presented by the matters of their chair make fome pretents of it to the Em to the Einperor for confirmation, who peror, Pope, cardinals, and fome of were made responsible for them, upon the most eminent princes in Germany. which they were invested with the The quantity which is sold and sent Royal Ban, and obliged to swear fealty abroad is very trifling. There are and lobedience to the Head of the En. places which produce as excellent wine pire. The latter alfo could punish the as that of Hochheim, as Nierstein, free counts, or deprive thein of their Rüdesheim, and that of Worms, called office; occupy the seat of a free count Leibfrau Mileb, i. e. · Virgins Milk, in the tribunals, decide in matters of and likewise in various other places, appeal brought before him, inspect and which wines are generally exported reform the tribunals, and appoint the under the same name as that above free knights, i. e. ' Frey-Schoffen;' but named Old Hock. Jlowever, the mif- this was confined to the territory of informed Englithman still retains his Westphalia.” Vol. ii. p. 189. prejudice of erroneously calling all “ The number of these free knights, Rhenith wines · Old Hock'.” Öbl.i. belonging to each tribunal, never was P151.
less than seven, nor did it amount to more than eleven. Seten free knights,
at least, were required to compose à SECRET
plenary court, lie. · Vollgericht, in
which the final fentence was pronoun: “ ARE first mentioned as generally ced. Knights of other tribunals wert known in the ycar 1220, and reported indeed permitted to be present on thefe to have been in force to the year 1665. occasions as visitors, but were not alThey were never formally abrogated, lowed to give their vote. On their res but lost their influence by degrees, as ception they promifed upon cath, to the sword of justice was wielded by give information to the Secret Tribu vigorous hands. The Westphalian Se- nal of every thing coming under its cret Tribunals were at firit only de- jurisdiction, perceived by themselves, figned for that country alone, and or reported to them by creditable perhad no jurisdiction whatever elsewhere. fons, and not to suffer any thing crea
The extent of their power was limited ted betwixt heaven and earth, to divert on the west by the Rhine, on the east them from the execution of their duty. by the Weser, on the north by Frief- They also bound themselves to proland, and on the south by the • Wefter- mote the intereft of the sacred Roman *wald,' i. e. the western Forest and Empire, and to invade the poffeffions Heffe.” Vol. ii. p. 186.
of the masters of the chair, and of the “ The Emperor being supreme judge free courts, only on legal grounds. of all secular courts of judicature in After having taken this oath, they were Germany, was also the fole inftitutor not permitted to reveal, even to their and chief of all tribunals.
confessors, the secrets of the tribunal; “ Free counties, being certain dif- and on transgressing this law, though tricts comprehending feveral parishes, only in the most trifting point, they where the judges and counsellors of were hanged without mercy. Thes the Secret Ban administered justice, pronounced judgment according to the conformably to the territorial statutes. itatutes of the Weftphalian Secret Trie A free county containcd feveral tribu. bunal, and executed it conformably to nals subject to the control of one maf- the decrees of the free courts. Thef ter of the chair, ' Stuhlherr.' There knew each other by certain fecret masters of the chair, who comincnly figns. were secular or ecclesiastical princes, “ The original constitution of the held their appointment by the will of Secret Tribunals did, however, not the Emperor, which they forfeited by long continue in force; all sorts of deciding in matters not within their abandoned characters being admitted, jurisdiction, or on deviating from the The number of free knights allowed laws of the frce tribunals. They are to every tribunal was originally limited