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whatever mysteries were concealed in OF THE SCYTHIAN ORIGIN OF THE the Skiran rites; and which, by ex

Ilerleia. plaining what were really the religious “ IT would be going into too wide principles of the Greeks from their a field of inquiry, were we now to exappropriate fymbols, may afford some amine the degree of intimacy which useful hints in the study of antiquities.” certainly existed, from earliest times, P. v.

between the Scythians and the Greeks,

by way of ascertaining the source from EXTRACTS.

which the pastoral game was imparted

to the latter. Nor would I here with THE GAME OF MERRILS,

to adduce all the various authorities, “ KNOWN to the Greeks by the which must be fresh in every memory, name of Tgródios, was probably more tending to establish the identity of the ancient than the Norleia, and perhaps northern inhabitants of Greece with the parent of it; inasmuch as depofit- the Hyperboreans, and proving how ing the pebbles alternately, must have generally Scythian manners and relibeen more ancient than the moving gious ceremonies were diffused over them *.

every part of Greece. It is enough to “ Dr. Hyde observes, that the Oric point out that the Greeks, at one time, ental name for this central square upon were associated with, and partook of the board of Merrils, is Zindan; Car- the manners of the Scythian Nomades, cer. Anglicè, the Pound,'quaß peco- to establish the possibility of their bav' rum carcer. And indeed it is very ing received the Terleic from them. In probable that it was originally intended accounting for the coincidence of anto represent something of this kind. cient customs, we must look for some For as the eastern shepherds amused probable reason, which will equally themselves by playing with the peb- apply to every party concerned in the bles, whilst they watched their folds, question. Now, the purpose of this they might afterwards have introduced inquiry could not be answered, by rethe figure of the fold itself, as an orna- ferring the origin of the game to any ment to the board. This had likewise other country. It is hardly probable its use; the pebbles being probably that Chaldæa or Egypt should have firft deposited there, and taken from sent the Netloia into Greece. The it, as occafion required, in the course former was a polished, as well as a

powerful nation, long beforethe Greeks “ And here, I think I observe the had quitted the wandering state ; thereorigin of the Sacred mark; for, as I fore little likely to have communicated have no doubt of the Terleis having to them a paftoral game. On the taken its rise from this simple game, other hand, it may be justly doubted the sheep-fold was retained in the centre whether the Egyptians communicated of the board of the Ilirleia also, and it to the Greeks; for, notwithstanding styled by the Greeks Enxòs, the sheep- a hearsay report of Plato, concerning fold. But in process of time, we find their god Theut being the inventor, this word accepted in a very different we have no reason to believe they ever sense f. And it came first to fignify considered it as a relaxation, if they the square enclosure, or railing within ever were acquainted with it; but rawhich the images of the gods were

ther made it fubfervient to their faplaced; and, at last, the begin, or tem- vourite study of astronomy; and by difple itself. And thus, from want of dif- posing the pebbles upon the Herlevtágior, criminating between the ancient and so as to express the relative situation of modern sense of the word Enxos, the the planets, they formed from it the space in the centre of the board was first idea of the orrery. But the macalled the Sacred;' and because it terial difficulty will be, to convey the covered the central Aation, or point game from Greece to the north of of - intersection, the ingå gan san'." Ohina, where it certainly was known.

The tñpor and Ping, of the Greek and *" The fcheme of this board, as known amongst the shepherds of this country, is mentioned by our poet Shakspeare as the Nine-men's Morrice.” † “ Potter's Antiquities, vol. i. p. 176.

Chinese

of the game.

P. 13•

3L 2

OR THE BOUGH-THE MISTLETOE.

Chinese ganes, will appear as armed termination may be varied) is applied natives of the same couniry, and en- 'to many different objects which must gaged in the same warfare, however have been totally unconnected with widely distant the field in which the this theme, we are to conclude that operation, of each were carried on; the word itself had some other generic the former, seeming to confide on their meaning. Amongst the various figni. own unaslisted exertions; the latter, fications of it, we find that Exiçar iinacting with auxiliaries, ill adapted to plies the north-wesi wind; and this the nature of their difcipline, and serv- may possibly have been its original ing rather : an incumbrance than an sense with regard to those other words. ornament to the game. We fall be Thus, the Exziguvious títol, were large at no lofst fixup the interirediate rocks lying to the N.W.; and the robwardering uibes of Alia, as the com- ber Skiron, whom Theseus few, was municrors of the came to all these perhaps a hardyandcruel Hyperborean. countries, whose feveral confines they The anę ubrous of Pausanias, who touched upon. Numerous as these founded the ancient temple of Minerva tribes must have been, and varying at the port of the Phalerus, came from from each other, both as to distinguish- Dodona, and was therefore of Pelalgic ing names and language, in this point descent; to which we may add, that they agreed, that they were Nomades; he poñibly received the title of Skiros, and they may be therefore allowed an on account of his coming from the indifcriminate right to the merit of the N.W. We might continue these re. invention.” P. 51.

marks, by obferving, that the picket and advanced guard of the Lacedæmonian

army was composed of troops called OF THE FEAST OF THE UMERELLA, corcing to Hesychius; for Exipos 25 a

Exigits. These were Arcidians, ac-,

settlement in Arcadia, establihed, no “ AMONGST the many Ilyperbo- doubt, ly a people who c?me from the rean rites bruugiit into Greece by the north-wefr; and it was in the faftreffes Pelasgi, which continued even after of this country that I have supposed the exfusion of that people by the the rest of the Pelalui had taken ihelter. Ilellenes, we may rank ihe Skirohoria. But it would be tedious to multiply Upon the fuccelies of the latier, no instances; I am however led to condoubt but many of the ancient poslef- ceive that Arcadia, of all the provinces fors of the country secured to them- of ancient Greece, must be the richest selves a thelier in the mountainous in Pelat ic remains; and that if a moparts of Greece, and particularly in 'derate attention were paid to those Arordia, where the feast we have inen- parts, many va wable discoveries might tioneri was long prete: ved; and be- present themselves to the inquirer, trayed it" origin by the Hyperborean which would amply repay his fearch." cerem ses employed in the celcbra- P. 101. tion .f it. It is fiifficient to far that “ From the celebration of this feast the Exegia, as conducted at Alea in about the summer folftice, and from Arcadia, admitted the cruel cuftoin of the circumstance of the Atheman year - scourging, which clearly indicates the beginning at the same time, we might quuier from whence the whole was conclude, that the Skiran rites were derived. The more enlightened Athe- intended to folemnize the opening of nians, however, from motives of hu- · the year; in which opinion we should manity perhap, omitted this practice · be considerably encouraged, were we in the feftival, which they were in the to advert to certain rites adopted by halni of celerating equally with the other nations, which would be found Arcadians, and which, no doubt, they to have the same allofion with the coually received hi' in the fame source. Surroptrial notwithstanding the new

"A further indictment to my be- fear of tafe nations began differently lieving that the Skrapboria were of from the other folitice, or from the Iperborean cr Scythian origin, arifes equinoctial points.P. 104. fr mth- following confiderations: that " The milk toe-bough was equally aitl ougi: this cerrimony bas och gene- an attendant emblem upon the Hyperra y erred to the Erişov, or Umbrella, borean year. As it was particularly yet, as this word (accordingly as its venerated on the night of the old year,

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I have little fcruple in construing it into in Inferis, is compared by Virgil to the an emblem of night.

mistletoe, and is actually represented " In Holstein, says the intelligent as growing upon the oak-tree. Editor of the Northern Antiquities, it is called the “ Marentaken,' or branch

Quale folet fylvis brumali frigore Vifof fpe&res. What can this imply, but that it was an emblem of night, which

* Fronde virere novi,'the ghosts were said to be aitendant upon? Yam te manet Nox, fubula

Talis erat fpecies auri frondeniis opaca

llice.' que Manes. As the Roman poet combined them together, so the mislle

FENEID, lib. vi. ver. 204. tol, representing the fades, was pro- « We now fhail learn to account for perly termed the branch of Spectresi' the otherwisc difficult meaning of the

“ When we read, in the Edda, that won! Exigos, as applied to the N.W.; Balder (who was the same as the Sun) it is; even in this infi', trive underwas killed by the mistletoe thrown at food as Iruspos, or Body, for the fe rites him, this can only denote, that-- were brourit by ihe Hyperboreans • The sun set, and the Prades of night recordered, " The Land of bades*? it

from the Nili'. which way thus be were spread over himn.'

was there that the Ciminerian Tirtarus « Keysler relates a fingular ceremony wis place, and the Orcus of the in Germany and Gaul, it on the latt Gretks and Rorraus, which laft sill day of Decenaber, you hs go about remains in our Orcudis, or Orkney with the mistletoe, crying, To the lands; is has been traply proved by mistletoe."The new year is at Mr. Bailly, and by almost every other < band !

writer who has taken up the subject of “ The Christians of northern Eul Northern antiquities. rope fondly continue their reverence “ The Pelatric inftitution of the for this bouch to the present moment, Skirsphoria was therefore the proces: and they suspend it in their halls on fiun of the bouyh; which miglit posChristmas Eve (which is about the win- fibly have been borne, in earlier times, ter folftice), as an einblem of the night, on the day preceding the winter fole which, tri them, precedes a new year stice;, but which certainly formed, in of Redem,cion.

the lawr ages, a religious festival at The Hyperboreans called night, Athens, on the day which preceded The Motser of tie izari' The init- the opening of the new fular year. It tletoe was a fit emblem of it; and the was attended likewise with other cereGrecks, who borrowed much of their monies, in which the fun was called religious worship from them, oniy ex- upon by the Athenians to assist, and charged winterior the fummer folitice, favour their agricultural labours.” and in other respects adopted the cere- P. 108. mony. The prest of the fun carried, for this purpose, a bouch, which, from its shade, was called Exiepà Exięt, or Exigov, It was, with the Grecks, an emblem of the nivht, or the old year, “ FROM the elegant translator of, to which the day of the new year was and commentator upon, Mr. Mallet's on the point of fucceeding; and from work t, to whom I have been aiready this allusion of the bough to night, fo much indebted, I learn that the whenever we fee a bough, or an um- Northern nations conceived that their breila, or a tree depicted upon Hetruf- gods' were feated, and administered can vafes, it invariably implies the justice from, under an ajh-tree; that shades, and alludes to the Inferi : and many customs till remain of courts it is a very curious circumstance, that being heid, and magistrates and officers the golden bough, which Æneas finds chosen under trees. An Etonian also

* “ What shall we say of the Umbri, the 'gens antiquissima Italiawhose name has hitherto been derived from "Ou bos, or from their having been overshadowed by the Apennines ? Were they not rather Exięwves, from the Land of Shades?" + “ Northern Antiquities, 2 vol. 8vo. 1770."

NORTHERN CUSTOM OF ELECTING

UNDER TREES.

will be pleased with recollecting, on count of an Elephant's Tusk, in this occafion, the ceremonies of his which the Iron Head of a Spear was college :--the 'café frondeæ pro taber- found imbedded. By Mr. Charles naculis,' in the window recefies of Conibe. ---X. Description of the the Lower School, and the arhours in Arseniates of Copper, and of Iron, Long Chamber, for which, if I mif from the County of Cornwall. By take not, a waggon-load of boughs is provided at the expense of the college; the Count de Bournon.—XI. Ana. and this happening at the time of the lysis of the Arfeniates of Copper, annvol election of candidates for the and of Iron, described in the preceduniversity, seem referrible to this, and ing Paper; likewise an Analysis of may be remains of the old northern cuf- the red octaedral Copper Ore of tom of electing under the bough.' And Cornwall; with Remarks on some I hope it may not be deemed too fan, particular Modes of Analysis. By ciful, if I suppose that Theseus elected Richard Chenevix, Esq. M.R.I.A. his magiftrates at the feas of the Bough: Appendix. Meteorological Journal at the summer solstice, that they might kept at the Apartments of the Royal

enter upon their office at the first new moon.” P. 118.

Society, by Order of the Prelident and Council.

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With 15

LXXVII. Philosophical Transactions

EXTRACTS. of the Royal Society of London, for

ON THE IRRITABILITY OF NERVES, the Year 1801. Part I. 4to. pp. BY EVERARD HOME, ESQ. F.R.S. 240. Appendix 26.

“ THE nerves have been hitherto Plates. 175. Elmsly.

considered as chords that have no powers of contraction within them.

selves, but only serving as a medium, CONTENTS.

by means of which the influence of 1. THE Croonian Lecture. On the brain may be communicated to the

the Irritability of Nerves. By muscles, and the impressions made Everard Home, Esq. F.R.S.-II. The upon different parts of the body conBalerian Lecture. On the Mecha. veyed to the brain. nism of the Eye. By Thomas Young, attempt to investigate the real state of

« The difficulties which attend every M. D. F.R.S. -III. On the neces. the nerves in the living body, and the fary Truth of certain Conclusions impossibility of acquiring any informaobtained by Means , of imaginary tion upon this subject after death, may Quantities. By Robert Woodhouse, be urged in excuse for this opinion A.M. Fellow of Caius College.-- having been so universally received, IV. On the Production of artificial fince it will be found, from the followa Cold by Means of Muriate of Lime. ing experiments and observations, to By Mr. Richard Walker.--V. Ac

be void of foundation. count of a monitrous Lamb. In a

“ The only means by which any Letter from Mr. Anthony Carlisle,

knowledge respecting the irritability of to the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, the operations in furgery performed

nerves can be procured, must be from Bart. K.B. P.R.S.-VI. An anato

upon nerves, either in a healthy ftate, mical Description of a male Rhino- or under the influence of disease ; or ceros. By Mr. H. Leigh Thomas, from experiments made upon animal Surgeon. -VII. Demonstration of a bodies before they are wholly deprived Theorem, by which such Portions of of life, and instituted for that particu. the Solidity of a Sphere are afligned lar purpose. as admit an algebraic Expression. By

“ My attention was directed to this Robert Woodhouse, A M. Fellow subject by the following case, which of Caius College, Cambridge. - VIII. ing the actions of the nerves when uno

explains many circumftances respea. Account of the Discovery of Silver der the influence of disease, and gave in Herland Copper Mine. By the rise to the experiments and observations Rev. Malachy Hitchins.-IX. Ac. contained in this Paper.

“ A person

“ A person thirty-fix years of age, was the first symptom in all these atnaturally eager and anxious in his dif- tacks, the assistants were led to conposition, whose stomach was peculiarly trive a glove, the front of which was irritable and irregular in its action, in strong enough to resist the motion of the winter of the year 1796, while the thumb, and to keep it in its place : riding in the country, was thrown while this was kept on, the attacks from his seat by a sudden motion of were less frequent. A ligature was the horse; and, in endeavouring to then applied round the fore-arm; save himself, fell with his whole weight when the thumb was beginning to be upon the end of his thumb, against the agitated, this was tightened, and the pommel of the faddle.

fpalms were found to be arrested at the « The part swelled, and became ligature, and of course deprived of very painful. A few days after, he their violence. hurt it again, which prevented the “ From this time, a tourniquet was swelling from subsiding, and it remain. kept constantly upon the fore-arm; ed uneasy and enlarged for three or and a person was always in readiness four months. It afterwards got well, to tighten it, the moment the spasm but the motions of the thumb were was expected, which was always prenot always under the command of the ceded by a general feel of uneasiness will; so that he was sensible, in the all over the body: as soon as the spasm years 1797 and 1798, while writing, of went off, which it did instantaneously, finding a difficulty in forming particu- the tourniquet was loosened. The lar letters.

spasms in the thumb and fore-arm “ On the evening of the 16th of returned frequently, and at irregular October 1799, which was cold and intervals, generally every three hours, damp, he was travelling in a poft-chaise sometimes oftener, and once did not with two other persons, and let down come on for thirty-fix hours. the window, to speak to the driver. “ On the third or fourth day, elecA cold wind blew directly into the car- tricity was tried, with a view to relieve riage, and he endeavoured to pull up them; tparks drawn from the thumb, the window; but not seeing the glass produced tremors in the muscles, which rise, he looked down, and his hand, in- were confined to the thumb. An elecftead of pulling up the window, was tric fock through the ball of the lying upon his knee. The thumb was thumb, brought on a very severe spalin bent in towards the palm of the hand; in the arm; but neither sparks, nor a a spasm came upon the muscles of the fhock through the other thumb, proarm, making them bend the elbow; duced any sensible effect. and immediately he became intentible : “ On the 29th of December, I first in a quarter of an hour he perfectly re- saw the patient; and, after watching covered himself. Some 'hours after, the symptoms for three days, made the upon bendirig his thumb, to show following observations upon the comwhat had happened to him in the car- plaint. riage, there was a return of the fame 66 That the beginning of the attack attack, which also rendered him insen- was fome involuntary motion of the fible for a few minutes.

thumb and fore-finger; and therefore, « From this time, he had no return the disease appeared to be in the branch of these attacks for nine weeks; at the of the nerve which fupplies these two end of which period, on the 18th of parts, called by Winllow the median December 1799, he was waving his nerve. hand over his head, with a degree of “ That the progrefs of the spasms eagerness, as a sign for some people to was in the direct course of the trunks make hafte and follow him; this ex- of the median nerve, up to the head. ertion made the thuinb contract to- “ That comp: eiling the parts in the wards the palm of the hand, and he course of that nerve, when it was done fell upon the ground in a state of in- before the fpatiis had reached them, fenfibility. This attack went off as always arrested their progress; but, the others had done; he had another when once the muscles had become in the evening; and, in the course of convulsed, or agitated, the fame conthe next day, two more, equally vio- preslion had no effect in stopping the lent. As the motion of the thumb progress of the pains.

" The

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