Obrazy na stronie



cafes. This renders conversation very

CONTENTS. pleasant, whereas the constant repetition of usted in Spanish encumbers it with needless redundancy; the Portu

PREFACE-Seven Odes-Elegy gueze is also especially formed for chit- – Three Sonnets-Twenty-one Epichat, for much may be fpoken without grams-Miscellanies - Battle of faying any thing. Thus the connec- Eddington, a Tragedy. tives or expletives pois and pois entao (well, well then), are continually used, though merely to gain time; and when

Imitations, &c. The Squire's Tale any one tells a story, the words esta modernized, Parts I. and II.-Imitabom, esta feito (it is well, it is done), tion of the 6th Satire of Persiusdenote that it is concluded. Perfons both of high and low birth constantly Art of Evglish Poetry, being an Imiuse these and other expletives, fre- tation, with Notes, of Horace's Epifquently very mal-apropos. Thus on tle to the Pisos-Translations from inquiring of a woman after we had tra- Petrarch. Part 1. Poems during the veiled fome way into Algarve, whether Life of Laura. Part II. Poems after we had yet entered that province, she the Death of Laura--The twelfth answered, Pois enta), Algarve, esta Pythian Ode of Pindar_Translation

feito, efta aqui' (well then, Algarve, of a Latin Ode, by Gray. it is done, it is here). It must be allowed, however, that this kind of conversation, which is always inter

EXTRACT FROM THE PREFACE. mixed with many forms and ceremo- “ of the poems which have been nies, may in serious affairs become before published, I have chiefly to revery fatiguing." P. 502.

peat what I have already said. They are the produce of that leisure which,

though coming unfought for to the LXXV. Poems, by John Penn, Esq. lover of literature, tends equally to

Confifting of original Works, Imi multiply proofs of the natural bias of tations, and Translations. 2 vols.

his mind. Part of them are only to Royal 8vo. With Plates. il.

be attributed to the occasions which

55. Hatchard, Cobbelt and Morgan.

apparently called them forth; but the generality are owing also, more or less, to a desire I had of exemplifying some points of criticism, and of pofiefling a fort of memorial of those judgments,

which the pursuits I was engaged in Engraved by Schiavonetti, Byrne, Fit- had from time to time led me to form. tler, Skelton, and Landseer. As these opinions, therefore, bear ra

ther a close relation to the poems colBUST of the Author. The Junétion of the Parrett and to refer to some of the former in treat

lectively confidered, I conceive, that Thone at Athelney, in Somerset. ing of the latter, will not only be Jnire.

thought not foreign to the purpose, The Solitude, near Philadelphia. but that, in affording new matter for View of the Churchyard at Stoke-Pogis, reflection, it will senlibiy apologize to where Gray is buried.

the reader, for calling his attention Sir Edward Cote's Pillar, in Stoke twice to the fame compositions. Park.

“ Before I specify any one in partiScene in the Battle of Eddington.

cular, I have only to observe concernAlfred's Tower, in Selvood Forest.

ing them all, that a finished and correct style has been attempted, and per

haps in some respects successfully; as Two Scenes in the Squire's Tale.

well as that the example of certain in

novations in the structure of the verse, Gray's Monument at Stoke.

and in the form of the expression Head of Petrarch, from a Modeh

(though I cannot say that they have Petrarch, Laura, &c.

yet prevailed generally), has been dili. Vaucluse.

gently guarded against. Instances of





these are, first, where an affected or at the same time made, that the rage improper stress is laid upon the third for novelty would spend itself upon fyllable in the verse; as in the follow- rhymes, instead of altering the fimpliing instance :

city of language. Except the ode now • The glad beam brightens

republished, every thing that I could

at all with recommended to attention I do not mean to say, that our lambic in the first, will be found in the second does not allow a degree of stress to be edition of the Battle of Eddington. laid upon the third syllable, which

“ The Sonnet, though of modern often improves the effect. We find in invention, has engaged the attention every page verses like,

of Boileau, and other critics. It has • Of man's first disobedience- been, and is still in different countries, And,

often employed to celebrate trifling

occurrences, which form proper fub• In these deep solitudes

jects for occasional verses, but do not And Pope likewise cautiously, and admit of much of the spirit of poetry; where the sense supports him, intro- but I must confess I am moft ftruck duces verses composed in the manner with the opinions of those who coneven of the first of these three exam- sider it as a species of elegy. It seems ples : as,

to me, full as much as elegy, equal to • The green reed trembles, and the a display of the pomp of numbers : bulrush nods.'

and I have often admired the graceful

dignity of its march, with its attendant “ Another mode of poetical expref- rhymes. It seems to have been well fion, and which may be accounted in- employed, as it has lately been, in denovation when frequently and com- scribing particular places; especially monly used, is where the verb precedes when some interesting event of palt the nominative case. The best poets, times has occurred in a beautiful Ipot : who have indeed employed this con

for this is a proper subject for elegy. struction, especially where the freedom The fonnet too, by its brevity, is fitted of blank verfe gave it greater pro- for the traveller, who is always on the priety, have done fo but sparingly. point of visiting some new place, and We may bear poffibly,

receiving new impreslions that might • Resounds the living surface of the efface the former ones. It is calculated ground

to express a fingle and general elegiac but it seems used in such instances as sentiment, before other thoughts conthe ne plus ultrà of poetical license. nected with it have been suggested by There are some, I know, who approve

the subject; and as there is, of course, with me of Cicero's opinion, that the the greater unity where a compolition only style to be cultivated, is that does not conlist of transitions, but which is the most proper to commu

forms of itself one sentiment, the close nicate and enforce our sentiments; relation of its parts by means of rhyme consequently who will see no origin- corresponds with this unity, and disality in a 'departure, upon general tinguishes this sort of poem. Boileau principles, from the vertification and thinks repeated rhyme fo necessary to phraseology of Pope and Dryden.

the sonnet, that he makes that its defi. “ Among the Odes there is one

nition, though he gives no reason for which formed a chorus in the first edi.

its necessity. tion of the Battle of Eddington. I

I have said elsewhere, that it may thought it did not fufficiently adhere be a question, whether the sonnet to the rule of Horace, forbidding

might not exceed the bounds of elegy,

and extend to every thing poetical that • Quod non proposito conducat, et may be conceived in a single thought; hæreat apte.'

forming thus a contrast in character Odes between the acts that seem with epigram, which might then conUnapt, or foreign to the general fine itself to point and wit. Suitably theme.'


to this idea, we have fome sonnets

which resemble the Greek epigram, I likewise thought the correspondence The reader and writer will better un. of the rhymes might not be sufficiently derstand each other, when the proper perceptible. Yet I recollect a wish í separation and distribution of styles


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shall, by any means, have been com- to subjects which I once fixed upon, pleted.' But though it is allowable to but to some that furnish ftill more usespeculate moderately, alteration, per- ful morals, I intend to do at my leihaps, ought here to be avoided. sure; although I finally relinquish the

" It has been observed, that those drama as a principal pursuit, when I moral writers are highly serviceable, first proposed to myself an advantage who, by means of short and striking from changing the line of my writing." precepts, keep up that lively sense of P. viii. duty to which the mind is too little prone. The Epigram, though of little

EXTRACTS. dignity as a composition or a work of fancy, is particularly calculated to be

ODE TO TIME; WRITTEN a vehicle of these; and, however liable

NEW YEAR'S DAY OF 1781. to abuse, may be much relied on by “ TIME, awful power, that rul'ft o'er* the moralist. It resembles farce, of which it has been said, that its pro- By rich, by poor, unbrib'd, unpity

fefled end, if we allow it to have any ing found; • reasonable one, is to instruct. Thofe, Beneath whose arm triumphant heroes therefore, who declaim enthusiastically fall, against point and interior wit, made And golden palaces beftrew the use of as they are by the ancients in

defert ground: compositions which are their proper vehicles, as if they were out of place,

“ Too long, whene'er thou haft re

new'd have not, probably, such poetical powers as their high tone and conve

The fowery foliage, or matur'd the nient argument would iafinuate. Aris

plain, totle speaks of a perception of the re

Have War, and Ruin fell, his hated lations of things as a proof of genius;

brood, but the notion which those persons en

And Death untimely, lower'd amid tertain, would induce us to think it

thy mournful train; was rather a proof of dulness.

“ While daunted at thy brow fevere “ The work to be noticed after the

Spring check'd her joy, the bloom Epigrains, is that which, if it has sug

of Summer fled; gested new critical rules, may be faid Autumn fate weeping on his fheaves, to have extended Alfred's influence, as

and near a legislator, even to the drama. I have,

Ev'n sullen Winter wore a thrilling in another part of these volumes, un

gloom more dread. folded its nature and object; and shall here, therefore, content myself with “ O, as thou hold'st thy ceaseless observing, that I had formed a drama- courte, tic scheme, with much thought, and

Grown milder now, great Power; with very peculiar views. Such un

with Peace combin’d, avoidable impediments to its execution Driving far off grim War and lawless as many authors experience, induced Force, me at length to lay it wholly afide; Thy formidable locks with lasing and perceiving (now that enthufiafm olive bind. has abated, and circumstances altered) the degree of trouble that must attend

“ So may the fields revive, and late

Where Desolation triumph'd, Plenty its execution, I am very far from being likely to resume it. But though I

reign : never shall be willing, that what I may By Fear withheld, though mourning write should be exhibited on any Eng

at his fate, lifh theatre, my opinions of the drama

So may the labourer ply his cheerful will be less clear than I should with,

toil again! unless I compofe one or two pieces, to “ Calm Nature's voice, and woodbe judged of in the closet, which may notes sweet, remove the objections that arose from The din of loud artillery succeed; my meaning being misapprehended, by Commerce a world's returning treasure giving examples of a character of wri. greet; ting that I contented myself with de- Nor Ind Britannia more, begirt with fcribing. This therefore, reforting, not. trophies, bleed.” Vol. i. p. 8.


the gale,


EPIGRAMA CONSOLATION OF “ When dusky evening then succeeds AVARICE.

the day, " SPOUSE of unfetter'd heart,

Within this land, and makes another's though now a wife

mern, In wedlock's bands has falten’d thee Penfive I gaze at the relentless stars, for life:

That fashion'd me from much too feelHer features mean fome good forebode

ing earth; thee ftill,

And curse the day I first beheld the

fun, And looks repulsive, that with terror By which I seem a favage in the woods.

thrill: To fiattering crowdslet tempted beauty“ I truly think no beat has, in the yield;

woods, Thy rights are guarded by a Gorgon Appear’d fo terrible by night or day, shield.Vol. i. p. 48.

As the I high for, where'er thines the


Nor do I pause for evening, or for EPIGRAM ON HIS MAJESTY'S HAPPY

morn; RECOVERY IN 1789.

For though I am a mortal piece of “ THE endanger'd veffel, victress of earth,

The strong defire I feel is from the Restor'd her pilot, spreads again the stars.

“ Before I may ascend to you, bright Fame boafts, that long the ocean's

stars, rage was brar'd

Or feek below the lover's myrtle Without his guidance, and the tackle

woods, far'd; Yet less in wonder, as the nations Leaving my body, then but mouldering

earth, knet This bark was govern’d by a British May I obtain her pity! Joy, one day, crew.Vol. i. p 49.

Will balance years of pair, and ere the

morn, Content, announc'd me by the setting

fun. SESTINA *. ( From Petrarch.) " TO every animal that dwells on " With her first witness’d by the setearth,

ting fun, Unless those few that dread the blazing Might I remain, and only see the stars fun,

During one night, and might it ne'er Fate has allotted, for their toil, the

be morn; day;

Nor might she', to that honour of the But, when the heavens are lighted by

woods the stars,

Transform’d, escape my love, as on Some hie to sheds for thelter, some to

that day, woods,

When Phæbus follow'd her below on There to enjoy their wish'd repose till

earth, “ But deep in earth, my coffin from

the woods “ And I, as soon as I behold the morn Dispersing round the dews and thades Brought, I should lie, and day exhibit o'er earth,

fars, And calling forth the beasts from all Ere such a glorious morn display the the woods,

sun.Vol. ii. p. 251. Perceive no cheerful influence in the Then, when I laming see the nightly LXXVI. An Inquiry into the ancient stars,

Greek Game, jupposed to have been I only weep, and languish for the day. invented by Palamedes, antecedent to

* " The lines of the Sestina terminate, in every stanza, in the same words, of two syllables; but, from the structure of an Italian verse, those words teem properly rendered by a monosyllable in Englith." VOL. V.No. L.





the Siege of Troy; with Reasons for has been very learnedly advanced, but believing the same to have been not with the most satisfactory effect; known from remote Antiquity in for the precise nature of the ancient China, and progressively improved games of fkill remains yet undeterinto the Chinese, Indian, Persian, mined; and many

paffages in the most

favourite claffic authors having reference and European Chess. Also two to them, wait for an explanation, which Dissertations: 1. On the Athenian they can only receive from a ftill more Skirophoria : 2. On the mystical lucid expofition. Meaning of the Bough and Um

“ The examination of this subject brella, in the Skiran Rites. (With has, however, involved in it the dif- five Plates, and seven Vignettes.) cussion of another; for no sooner was 4to. Pp. 169. 145. 145. Becket,

the form of the ancient Petteia ascere tained, than it presented itself in the

Chinese game of chess. If a concluCONTENTS.

fion has been drawn from this discoCHAP. I. Of the 11ersía—The very, that may be thought injurious to Game of Merrils Of Palame

the credit of the Hindus, it will yet des, and whether he invented the of history have been respected, com

be seen, that whilst the genuine records Ilerleia.-11. Of the Ludus Latrun

mon tradition only is combated; the culorum.—III. Of the Roman Al- vanity and error of which, it must at veus.-IV. Of the IIA.ybiorąOf the all times be considered a service renTerms adopted in the ancient Games. dered to literature to expose. If the V. Of the 'liçà I'çox pe peri, considered reader fall approve of the explana. as a Vallum or Mound, and of the tion here given of the Petteia, he will Scythian Origin of the netleia. - VI. perhaps be induced to conceive, that of the Ierleia, as known amongst in their invention of chess

, hås been

the claim of the Hindus to originality the Chinese. ---VII. Origin of the King and Pieces, from the Sacred

too incautiously admitted.

“ In attempting to elucidate the Square-King never taken at Chess- Grecian games, recourse has been had Checking and Check-mate.-VIII. to the authority of Julius Pollux, as Of the Game of elevated Pebbles, far as he has treated of the Petteia and and whether there was ever an inter the Plinthion; but as this writer has mediate Game.-IX. Of the Indian also observed, that the use of the latter Game of Chess.--X. Hindu Claims game was formerly permitted in the to the Invention of Chess-Phir. temple of Minerva Skiras, at Athens, daufi's Account of the fame-Indo

a further investigation into the meanScythians Communication between nies performed in honour of that god

ing both of the title, and the ceremoIndia and Europe through their Means, dels, was confidered neceffary to re

- Appendix. Of the Scythian Rites der the whole complete. To have en- A Differtation upon the Athenian tered upon such a disquisition digtelSkirophoria-Second Differtation on lively, would have interrupted the rethe mystic Meaning of the Bough and gular order of the firft inquiry; a temUmbrella, in the Skiran Rites-- porary illustration of another kind has Northern Custom of electing under therefore been resorted to, and the Trees.

reader will accordingly have an early insight into the general nature of the Skiran festival, from a design, which

with two others, has been obligingiy “ THE three following Tracts, writ. furnished by Mr. Tresham. But it! ten in the hours of relaxation from hoped that the reader's curiofity may business, are presented to the public be more completely satisfied by the with the hope, that what was taken two Differtations annexed: in one of up for private amusement, may prove them will be displayed, the extema acceptable as a matter of more general ceremonies of a very interefting Athe entertainment, if not of literary use. nian festival; and in the other, will b

“ The first is designed, if possible, submitted some general conjectures to illustrate a subject upon which much which may possibly bring to ligh



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