Obrazy na stronie


1430. This was probably the High. EDINBURGH --MANNERS--HUGMENAT, land pipe; nor was the other introdii. ced at all into Scotland beiore the le- « PERSONAL appearance is afventeenth century, and then probably feeted by the differences of occupafrom England. In a MS. pocin of that tion, dress, food, air, cleanliness, &c. time, a shepherd is described 'with a In the higher ranks little difference is

pair of fine bagpipes upon a green difcernible between the natives of • hill;' and at a later period, the pride Scotland and those of England; but which the pipers took in that inftru- in the lower, the line is somewhat ment, decorating it with ribands, more strongly marked. I have already marching backward and forward in spoken of the women: the chief re. great state, and seeming inspired by culiarity of the men is in sometimes the sounds which they produced, was wearing the Scotch bonnet; for the well described in the Elegy on Habuie other parts of Highland venture are Simpson:

almost unknown here. Both fexc's oc• Who on his pipe bore bonny flags; cationally prefent picturcique and uso He made his cheeks as red as crimion, commcn forms, ibe women carrying "And bobbit when he blew the bags.' water-ipouts, or large bundles of linen,

“ The effect which the bagpipes the men with long baskets at their produce on the Scottish military, is no backs. Llave also remarked a few less striking than that of the cele- water-carriers, loaded with finall caiks, brated Ranz des Vaches on the Swiss. whose figurce appear very singular to an It is to be accounted for chiefly from English eye in the pretini day; though, the associated recoilection of their na

as appears from Ben Jonson's Every tive foil; but the nature of the sounds Man in his Humour, they were formeriy themselves is in no small degree con- not unusual in London. ducive to enthusiasm. In music, no

“ In the great points of food and distinction is fo marked to an unculti- air, Edinburch appears as fortunate as vated ear, as that of tone: and the a large city can be. I have heard, inpowerful tones of the bagpipe, toye- deed, from a medical man, that the ther with its sudden and rough tranfi- Tharp winds are oft on fatal to very tions, render it peculiarly confonant young childion; but thofe who survive with the turbulent feelings of warfare. are rerdered rumarkrhly healthy, and I own that I ain friendly to those dif- the whole city is prefervei fem epidetinctive marks of national character. mic disorders. The general supply of I cannot but regret that fo few of t.. food may be inferred from the remarkHighland gentry now retain that an- able circumilance, that in 1781, there cient appendage of their ftate, the came into the Firth of Forth, fcurtees piper; and that this music is no longer fail of the líne, above fifty IV et indiaused, as formerly, to alleviate the toil, men, and 500 Baltic traders: thele verand cheer the intervals of ruftic labour. scls remained here several weeks, were For the same reason (rather than on regularly fo: nished with the helt pro grounds of musical tante), I am pleafed vilions, and yet their comumption did with the institution of the annual prize not cause the least rise, even in the for players on the Highland pipes. price of vegetables. The fith-inarket This custom was first established among is to well supplied, that a turbot, which the dealers in cattle, who came to the would fetch thirty thillings in London, Trist, or meeting, at Falkirk; nor was has been known to be sold here for the idea of those gentlemen injudi- eighteen-pence. The chief food of cious, who advised them to transfer the poor is herrings, oatmeal, and po. their contest to the race-week at Edin. tatoes: wheaten bread, however, is burgh, where it is now held in the very much used. The hotels and higher theatre. I do not, however, think eating-houses are dear; but there are this by any means sufficient. A tem- in the Old Town many respectable porary timulus will never keep alive a places, where the charge of a dinner national feeling: and the real friends is very moderate, Cleanliness is a mat, of ancient Scottish melody should en- ter of much importance to the general deavour to revive its practice in those health and accommodation of the city. parts of the country where it is gradu. In this respect there has been of late a alle falling into diluie.” Vol.ii. p. 178, very favourable change; but fome


thing still remains to be done toward names of places, the use of peculiar the improvement of the general modes words, and (as some pretend to discoof lizing. One circumstance, which ver) even in the accent. The intio. operates very materially against it, is duction of English manners, however, the division of houses into different is most strongly marked. Where naflats or stories, each occupied by a few tions, so intimately connected, cement parate family: the itairs, and other their union by gradual aslimilation, the conmon parts of the building are lub- consequences must be highly advantaject to much filthincís, and the want geous on both sides; but there are of neatness in theie gives to the whole fome persons who carry their affectaa negleded and disgufting air.

tion of every thing English to a ridicu“ Peculiar cuftoms gradually die lous excess. Thele are still lefs paratay, as a nation advances in civiliza- donable than those who mort.obitio tion and refinement; but it is not un- nately adhere to the obfolete customs pleasant to trace the records of former of their ancestors. The former, by occurrences in some of these remain their unsuccessful attempts, acquie ing evidences. Of this kind is the only the awkwardness of a foreign air: Hugmenoy, a fort of Saturnalian fefti- the latter exhibit strong traces of coval, celebrating the conclufion of the nuine character and native virtue.” old, and commencement of the new

Vol. ii. p. 2120 year. The meaning of the word is difficult of explanation. It is probably

ANECDOTE OF a corruption of some phrase, similar

OLD LADY OP in found, among the superstitions of the Romish church, such as áryla unen, “ TWO miles from Alloa, is Clackboc mane, hoc manet, &c. After mid- mannan, a miserable village, which, night, when the year is fully ended, however, assumes the dignity of a many persons (chiesly of the lower county town. It is feated on a hill, orders) run through the streets with whore fummit is crowned by the tower good-humoured festivity, seldom doing of Clackmannan, once the feat of the any other mischief than stopping those chief of the Bruices. This venerable they meet, kisling the women, and pile, which is going fast to decay, offering each other hot-pint, a beverage forms, from its situation, a picturesque composed of ale and whiskey. Tore object, and commands a view ro lers. fuse the cup, or to neglect wishing any admirable. From the top of the castle, ore a happy new year, is regarded as to which I climbed with difficulty, the an affront. Some few families, who prospect appears most extentive; but retain the Jacobite ideas, regale on it forms a more pleasing picure from this night with poslet; in memory of an adjoining row of trees, on the de-. the birth of the Pretender.

clivity called King's Seat Hill. Here, " From what has been already faid, a short time ago, lived the old Lady of it may easily be inferred, that much Clackmannan, no less remarkable for diversity is displayed at Edinburgh in her wit and good humour, than for the general syitem of manners, which her economy and her Jacobitisin. On results from so many complicated a very fender income, me maintained caufes. Over all is spread that gravity much of the state, and all the respectawhich characierizes Scotland, when bility of her ancestors. She preserved compared with England, and which is the sword of King Robert Bruce, with particularly visible in every thing re- which she affumed the right of conferfpesting religious habits and opinions. ring knighthood; but when asked, The mixed effect of the law and of the whether she was of that monarch's university conduces much to the pre- family, the answered with much digvalence of literature. Commerce adds nity, · King Robert was of my family.” her influence: and the great refort of Vol. ii. p. 234. independent families from the country increases the contrast. The traces of ancient events are not wholly obliterated. Some circumstances mark the “ A NEAT bridge across the Ettrick former dignity of a royal city: and the leads to Selkirk. This town, feated connexion with France is observable in on a height, and fortified with ihree a few minutive of cookery, dress, the gates, was considered as a place of






great strength. Its inhabitants difin- have been merely built on a figure of guithed themselves by their valour; the Virgin Mary, in the armorial bearand the manufacture of shoes having, ing of the town. The burrough confrom time immemorial, been very con- ftitution is here as prejudicial as it is Aderable, the Souters of Selkirk' have in the other small towns in Scotland, cbiained no unmericed celebrity. While where it prevails; but it has, perhaps, I was here, I was enabled, by the fa- served to prolong fome old cuttoms, vour of my friend Mr. Scott, who is which would otherwise have been train therifl-depute of this county, to in- qute out of memory: Such wer the veftigate with some accuracy, the tra. filver arrow, an ancient prize mi r. ditional accounts of the battle of Ilod. chery; and the piper, who used isiy det. The general report is, that the through the ftreets (on the Lid turn-clerk led a large body of shoe. pipe), every morning and thens.; nakers to that battle, most of whoin but whose place has been suppies were cut off; but he himself escaping late years, by a drum and fie. with difficulty, was created a knight Vol. ii. p. 262. banneret, and that dignity perpetuated on his office. For all this there is doubtless fome foundation. The men of Solhirk distinguished themselves on

THE predatory life of the old that occasion. The town ftill holds a

Bordurers, forms an interesting subject Large portion of lard, on account of of contemplation. From the border ther fervices. A charter, which I ex- histories of Ridpath and others, the ainined, and which was granted by events of this continual warfare may James V. in 1538, confirms some pre- be collected; but the concomitant vious charters ; 'becaule,' among other feelings of men in such a state of foreasons, “the burgh of Selkirk, and ciety, are to be fought in local tradiinhabitants thereoff, continuallie, tions, poetical remains, and works « fince the feild of Floudoun, where drawn from fimilar sources. Much • his Majestie was extraordinarly allifted illustration of border customs may be .by thein, has been opprefied, herrit, found in the rude literary attempt of an 6 and outridden be the Inglish theives

unlettered mute, entitled, “Avue Hifand traittors. The weavers' com

'tory of several honourable Families pany ftill possess the fragment of a

of the honourable Name of Scot,' by banner taken in the lattle. The town

Captain W. Scott, who informs us, clerk of that period (Sir Andrew Bry- that he was seventy-three years old in den) was knighted, as appears from 1686, the date of his publication. The leveral charters. His descendants still

whole composition, which consists of live here, and till lately poffeíted a

two parts, Watt's Bellanden, and sword and halbert, taken on that oc- Satchel's Past'ral, is without order or casion. The official knig!ithood of the arrangement, and in a barbarous metre; town-clerk, has always been a preva- but the authorities cited are often kent notion here; and it is not many curious, and fome of them no longer years fince a dispute of precedence, acceflible. Tiere we find, that the on some public occasion, was settled very term Freebooter was not confiderby the submission of both parties to ed as a reproach by the Borderers, who his superior rank. It may be doubted during the open wars of the two coun, whether all the Selkirk warriors were tries, combined, with their personal hoemakers; but it is certain that their views of plunder, something like a nakillin making “the single-soled shoon,' tional fpirit of patriotiim. At other is of confiderable antiquity. The well. times they became dangerous to both known fong, · Up with the Souters of parties, though generally profefling • Selkirk, tometimes cited as a corro- hofiility orly to the inhabitants of the boration of their claim, is probably of cppofite territory. Finally, when the much later date, and of more trifling tvo governments agreed to measures origin; referring to a match at foot- of muiual advantage, for the suppresball, or some other game, at which it fion of the border depredations, an is usual for whole parishes to contend. irregular fyftem of conventional justice The tale which is related of the wo- arote, which itself was not urfrequent, man, who was found after the battle ly the source of frem dispute and of Ilodden, frozen to dcath, seems to bloodthed. The old ballads pourtray 3


these various states, with many forcible loud lamentations: it is, however, very touches of humour and pathos; and dangerous, in cases of contagion, and their effect is enhanced by incidents should be as much as pofiible discoun. descriptive of personal character, or of tenanced. I cannot omit one fingular, popular fuperftition. Among them but obsolete custom, formerly prevamay be particularly notieed Dick o' lent here, called kandfafting. There the Coti, jock of the Side, Hobie was a certain holm, where coupics Noble, the Battle of the Redswaire, met and joined hands: they then lived Johnie Armftrong, &c.

together a year, after which, repairing It was long before the ancient once more to the fanie spot, they border customs could be wholly over- either united for life, or ihook hands, come; but they may now be said to be and separated. like a tale that is told;' nay, the very “ Among the local curiosities in this tales of a tale, the ballads, the popular neighbourhood, we may reckon the traditions, the memory of events at- traces of the old market-town of Staple tached to names and places, even the Gordon, now deitroyed; as well as diale& itself is gradually wearing out. those of many other places, which Süll the peculiarity of litzation must prove the country to have been much necessarily itamp a peculiar characier more populous than at present, such on the inhabitants. The whole coun- as Stanger's Wa's, &c. In the hills try is divided into different rales, are frequent monuments of the Camenamed from the waters flowing through ronians, and other sectaries, who were them. This is to univerfally the cate, killed in the religious diffentions of that 'the water' is here provincially former times. At a place, called the used for the neighbourhood;' and a Shaw Rigg, a large thone is finding traveller asking for falt-fith, or pickled upright, in memory, as is faid, of a herring, may, perhaps, be surprised at Pictih king; and a place in the river is receiving for answer, that there is called King Pool, on account of his * none in the water. All the Borderers being drowned there. After all that are capital horsemen; and to this day has been written on the Piats, their frequent fairs, and other public meet- origin, and even the language they ings, chiefly on horseback. At such ipoke, is very doubtful. The popular afsemblages, which are usually crowd- belief respecting these Pechts (for lo ed, there are not often boxing-matches, they are called), is, that they were cudgel-playing, &c. as in England; dwarfish, but wonderfully strong meit, but in their itead leaping, fair wrest- poffefling something like fupernatural ling, and other contests merely ami- power; and the authors of many ancable. The profellional pipers, former- cient works, which we know from hifa ly very common, are now rare: but tory to have been Roman, Danish, &c. young men, for their own amusement, That this nation, if they were exco play much on the Lowland bagpipe, established in Ekale, spoke the Gaulic fiddle, &c. Dancing alio is a favourite language, is probable from many names diverfion; and there are sometimes of places, either existing or recollected. subscription dances for the benent of The Eik itself is so called, either from the poorer families. Superstitious no- esk, an eel; or from uisge, water: and tions have greatly decayed of late; yet in some instances a Scoti-Saxon word is there is still some belief in witches and added to an original Gaelic term, as in {pirits,

Dou-glen-Cleugh, the two first syllables * Black, white, and grey, with all their fignifying a dark vale, in Gaelic, and trumpery:

the last, a hollow, in Lowland Scotch." "The Sabbath is observed with great Vol.ii. p. 268. ftri&nefs. A man will not have himfelf on that day: and a parent has been known to express fcruples at gathering a cabbage for his fick child. At church, “ IN returning we paied Ancrum all ranks appear in neat, but not House, which stands on a commandlively dresses, generally werring a black ing eminence, surrounded by majestic and white plaid, of a sinall simple pat- woods, and looks down on the junction lern. The latewake, or fitting up to of the Tiviot with the winding Ale. watch the dead, prevails here, fome. Beyond it is Ancrum moor, the scene times with weeping, singing, and other of the bloody battle of 1545, in which



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the Scottish army completely routed Such declarations however have now the English invaders. On reaching the ceased, and it is unjust to reproach the banks of the Tweed, we once more Portugueze with these absurdities. It paid our respects to the Earl of Bu- should be remembered, that, in Italy, chan; and then proceeded by Dry- Jacquier and Le Sear, the worthy edigrange to the Leader. Lauderdale, tors of Newton's Principia, were cbligwhich takes its name from this river, is ed, fo late as the year 1739, to declare in this lower part prettily varied with they did not believe with Sir Isar plantations; but as we advanced, it Newton, that the earth moves roud became gradually more bare and uniñ- the sun. Men have so often laughed teresting. The old house of Cowden- at the expense of the Portugueze, that knows, now in part modernized, is a it is but fair to reinind them of ihe fui. picturesque object, at the foot of the lies of other nations. hill celebrated for its bonny broom.' “ The Inquisition was never very In a little plain, a mile or two further, powerful in Portugal. During the latt is the village of Earlstoun, with the reign it was quite infignincant; being tower of Thomas the Rhymer. This confined to disorderly monks. The extraordinary character, who lived in temper of the Queen certainly increased the thirteenth century, obtained an in- their power, and rendered them partiAvence over the minds of his country- cularly formidable to an author. An men, by uttering, in rude rhynte, fen- auto da fe, or corporal punishment, it tences which were looked upon as pro- is true, are no longer practised; but phetical. Many of his prophecies were banishment is the more readily inflicted, preservec traditionally, and many tp1. being apparently confidered as a trifle, rious ones have since been publithed and therefore infliéted when it is double under his name. The common people ful whether the accused is guilty or believe, that he was a magician, and innocent. that he still exifts, practiting his fuper- “ Only one political journal is pubnatural arts, in fome unknown retire- lilled in Portugal, cailed the Gazeta ment. The town of Lauder is small de Lisboa, and all foreign newspapers and poor. Near it is Lauder Castle, are proliibited. Hence political news no bad specimen of the heavy turreted arrive somewhat tardily, and fometimes old refidences of the nobility. Beyond very late; but then their authenticity this, the country becomes more dreary, may be relied on, except when the as we ascend the Soutra Hill; from dubious phrafe dizem (they fay)is ad whence defcending upon the plains of ed. Nor is any distinction male in Lothian, the prospects gradually im- regard to delay between favourite prove, until we reach Dalkeith, be- news and the contrary; for the int.li. tween which and Edinburgh, the gence of the battle of Aboukir scenery has been already defcribed.”— equally late with the taking of Malta. Vol. ii. p. 285.

It was also the fashion to be very inpartial and difcreet; but wither it

was so always, or prudence at this time LXXIV. Hinckley's Translation of rendered it neceffary on account of the Link's Travels in Portugal, &c. connexion of Portugal with Spain, I

will not determine. (Concluded from p. 364.)

“ A court calendar is annually pub

lished at Lisbon, which is by no means ON THE LITERATURE OF PORTUGAL. bad; but, in March 1799, I could not “ IN old Portugueze books a pro- procure that of the current year. Be

testation follows the title, in which fides this there is the Caietario des the author declares he has not inten- Santos, and some smaller, Ård Jose Mationally said any thing contrary to the ria Dantes Permira, publithed by order Catholic church, and some poets have of the Academy, Efemerik siriras thought it necessary to declare they did which are copied from the lacki not believe in the heathen gods. A ephemeris. verse, pretended to be written by the “ In this country are ro litory great Camoens, is often quoted, in journals, reviews, &c. new work: he which he avers this; but the poem it- ing only briefly announced in the Gaself that contains it, is, like many zeta de Lisboa, and printed bills of others, falsely attributed to that writer. them posted up as in London and Paris


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