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Arts, Manufactures, leårned Socie- EXTRACTS FROM THE TRANSLATOR's ties, Manners, &c. in that Couutry. PREFACE-ACCOUNT OF THE , AU. By THOMAS BYGGE, Profeffor of Mathematical Astronomy in the " THOMAS Byggé, professor of Univerfity of Copenhagen, 'late mathematics and astronomy in the uniCommissioner from Denmark to versity of Copenhagen, and for the the National Institute, and Men royal navy, and member of several ber of several learned Societies learned societies and academies of fci and Academies of Sciences. Trant- Brahe, and the restoration of astrono
ences, is, since the death of Tycho lated from the Danish by JOHN my in Denmark, the eighth astronoJONES, L. L. D. ismo. pp. 405. mer in succession, of the royal obferWith a Frontispiece. 6s. Phillips, vatory at Copenhagen. After the deCarpenter.
struction of Tycho's obfervatory, on the island of Huen, Christian IV. in the
year 1632, erected in his capital a new CONTENTS
and stately Uranienburg. It is a tower TRANSLATOR’s Preface.--Let- one hundred and twenty Rhineland
ter I. Journey from Copenhagen feet in height *, constructed with great to Altona.-II. From Altona through architectural skill. From the summit
strength and folidity, and with much Ofnaburg and Munster, to Wesel- of the building there is a very fine proIll. From Wesel across the Rhine, spect. The winding staircase which and through Part of Belgium to leads to it, forms with the horizon an Brussels.-IV. Stay in Brussels, and angle of only si degrees, and makes Journey thence to Paris – V. Course an afcent fo commodious and easy, of Instruction in the Primary, Cen- that, in the year 1716, the Czar Peter tral, and Polytechnical Schools._V1. the Great several times rode up it, and Schools for public Services, viz. his confort, the Empress Catharine, for the Construction of Roads and
drove up and down in a coach and
fix." P. vi. Bridges, for Mineralogy, Geography, Ship-building, Artillery, Fortifica. guished rank, not only among the
“ Thomas Byggé holds a distintion, Navigation, &c.--VII Schools most useful aftronomers of Europe, but for Medicine, Pharmacy, and the fine likewise among the most active proArts; the French College.–VIII.. moters of the science of geography. The National Museum of Natural He took an active essential part in comHistory:-1X. The Central Museum piling the excellent and beautiful maps, for Arts at Paris, and the Museum published by the royal academy of for the Freuch School at Versailles. sciences at Copenhagen. When the -X. Of the National Observatory at formed,
Profeffor Byggé was appointed
design of preparing these maps was Paris.-X1. The fanie Subject con- the first trigonometrical and astronomitinued.-XII. Continued-Observa- cal obfervi But there are not the tories of the Military School of the only services he has rendered to geoFrench College, and of private Per- graphy: in a more extensive degree has fons.-XIII. The Board of Longi- he contributed to the advancement of tude, the Board of Geography, the that science, by forming under his care National Library, and the Libraries
a number of young men. Soeberg, of the Arsenal and the Pantheon, the brothers Wibe', D’Aubert, Rich, XIV. The National Institute, with Pihl, Fievos, Ginge, Engelhart, &c. an Account of its Meetings.—XV. names eminent in the annals of aftronoThe Aerostatic School in Meudon; A number of young officers in the
my, emerged from the school of Byggé. French Monuments.-XVI. Present Danish navy and army enjoyed Bygge's State of the Manufactures of France. instructions in practical astronomy, and
* “ Nearly 124 feet English."
under him acquired that knowledge encircled with a host of beggars, fo imwhich enabled them to furnish many portunate, that they rather demand useful and valuable observations from than solicit. charity. It seem that, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, and the shortly after the revolution, a number Eaft and West Indies, and thereby im- of the youth of both sexes, engaged in proved the defective geography of those the manufactures, were thrown out of regions.
employment, and reduced to the ne« None of Bygge's predecessors, focessity of living on the casual bounty. immediately and directly as he, applied of travellers. astronomy to the benefit of his coun- “ In order to show my pafs, it was try, and to the advancement of navi- necessary that I thould ga to the munigation. By his very accurate mensura. cipality, and thence to the police-office tions, a fairer basis of contribution, (bureau de police). As these two did new calculations, and juster fiscal re- not fit at the same time of the day, I gulations were established, which be- went to the house of one of the munis ing more accurately proportioned to cipal officers, a fhoemaker, whom I the possessions of the different contri- found at work in his shop. He did butors, many errors and defeats in po- not detain me a moment, when I litical economy, and innumerable liti- fhowed him the pass I had from the gations concerning landed property, French minifter in Copenhagen. On were thereby prevented. He also de- showing him the royal Danish pass, he termined and laid down with the shook his head; as much as to fay, greatest care, the true position of all That is of no use. His dress was not the coasts, harbours, islands, rocks, very fine, and yet he was the chief of and sand-banks in the Belts, and the the municipality. In all the other Categate, which are very dangerous to towns, in which there were barriers thips, and were before partly unknown; or turnpikes, I was only desired to and thus he rendered the navigation of show my pass, which the officer never the Danish seas more fecure." P. x. took out of my hands; but this was
not the case in fortified or garrisoned
places, where they examine them very EXTRACTS.
attentively. Formerly they expected
a small douceur on these occasions, VALENCIENNES-FRENCH VIĻLAGES which was strictly forbidden by the last -CHANTILLY.
French proclamation; rien de votre gé“VALENCIENNES is the first stage nérosité. I am told they were very in Old France. I came in on that fide well satisfied with ten or twelve fous, which was attacked by the Austrians. “ It is not very far from Valenciennes In the part near the rampart, whole to Frejus, where the French gained streets and lanes have been demolished, a remarkable victory, Here I saw a some have been levelled to the ground, small monument, erected to the meand others burnt. They have not mory of General Dampierre. Douay made the least attempt, since the fiege, lies farther off: a severe battle was to rebuild or repair them. Copenha- fought there in the reign of Louis XIV.; gen has been more fortunate in this and the French, in order to perpetuate respect. The third part of that city the day, raised a monument on the was consumed by fire, and in less than road fide, which consisted of a square three years the whole was rebuilt on pyramid, about thirty feet high, inan extenfive and improved plan, far ferted in a square pedestal, ornamented superior to the former. Fire-engines with pyramids of marble, in bas relief, are found to be of great use in Den- with inscriptions on each side. The mark, even in villages. I am not cer- pyramid is now stripped of all these tain that fire-engines are used in France, ornaments, which were broken down or in what manner they are regulated or carried away. Some say that this and kept up fince the revolution. was done by the Imperialists, who
“ The French villages will lose by could not bear that the defeat of their comparison, in the eye of the traveller, ancestors fhould be thus held out to who has just passed through the neat the view of every passenger. But others and handsome ones of the Netherlands. impute the dilapidation to Jacobins and The first moment you set your foot in terrorists, who did not wish that even the environs of Valenciennes, you are the fplendid exploits of their fore
fathers, under a monarch, fhould be with fome houses built entirely with transmitted to posterity.
this ftane inftead of bricks, “ The French villages are inferior, “ Cambray is well fortified, and is in almost every reipect, to those of furnished with a citadel. The city is Belgium. Most of the houses are built well built, neat, and clean. Throughof common clay, and the little furni- out the whole, you see the remains of ture betrays evident marks of poverty. wealth and prosperity, for which, no Some of them, however, exhibit ap- doubt, it is indebted to its famous pearances of prosperity and ease. Be- manufactories of cambric. From Cam. fides common corn, clover, horse- bray the road runs through Bonavis, beans, and walnuts are produced in Fins, Peronne (which is fortifięd), abundance, from the kernels of which Marche le Pot, Fonches, Roye, Con Jaft they express oil.
chy les Pots, Carilly, Gournay, Bois " I saw a great number of boys and le Liheu, and Pont St. Maxenze. girls in the fields, gathering in the “ The French posts are under very harvest; which led me to conclude, proper regulations. The horfes belong that those who ought to have been to the post-masters themselves, fome employed in that talk, were called to of whom have near 120, a number of the field of battle. I observed that which are always in the stable ; so that three-wheeled cars, or carts, were used you are not detained a moment. The instead of four-wheeled ones, which in poft-boy rides on one of the horses, general are very large, and sometimes and goes at a smart trot over heights require from two to four, and even and hollows, rough places and smooth; fix, horses to draw them; whilft one and it is in vain either to entreat him or two horses will pull a greater load to quicken or Nacken his pace. This in the former. But I must declare, road is a great thoroughfare for carthat in no country with which I am riages of every kind, and at every pofta acquainted, are the poor working house there is a blacksınith's shop. As horses treated with greater cruelty foon as you stop, those fons of Vulcan than in France. There can be no come out, and inquire if their affiftdoubt, that, where the ground is even, ance is wanted. The iron axle of my and the roads good, these three- carriage happened to be broken by a wheeled waggons, or carts, ought to stone on my way to Pont Maxenze, be preferred to those with four wheels. They were glad to hear of it, took it,
The roads in this part of France out, welded it together, and in about are paved, like those in Belgium. Some, two hours I was enabled to resume my however, are better than the highways journey. They alked a louis-d'or, in that country: though there are which was not unreasonable; and it many hollows and rough parts in seve- was so well done, that it has not failed ral places, and although the tolls are fince. very high, all idea of repairing them “ From Pont Maxenze I preferred seems to have been abandoned since the road round Chantilly. Here I tra, the revolution.
velled through a fine grove of oak and « Bouchain is a very strong fortifi- beech, with much underwood of forcation; for, by means of the well- ward growth. This narrow way is placed and finely constructed sluices, bordered with lofty trees, whose the greateft put of the adjoining coun- fpreading branches form the most try can be inundated at pleafure : fo agreeable and grateful fhade, especially that it wouid be very difficult to be from the noontide fun, fiege or take this fortress, if well sup- “ Chantilly belonged to the Prince plied with provifions. As to the town of Conde, and is well known for the itself, its mean buildings have fallen into beauty of its architecture, and the enruins: the inhabitants seem to share the chanting walks and plantations, parks fame fate, for you meet with poverty and pleasure-grounds around it. The in every quarter of it. Along the whole Jacobins have nearly demolished the tract from Valenciennes to Paris there fine park walls, and cut down the trees is a ftratum of chalk-stone, which is which fhaded the walks. All the in. used in decorating the cast frames of ternal decorations of the castle, the the windows, doors, and gatis; and, paintings, looking-glafles, tapeftry, the as you approach the capital, you meet valuable cabinet of natural history, li
brary and all, were plundered ; fo that felves. In the 7th year, Prony began the empty hell is all that remains of a course, which he proposed to deits former splendour. The mob cut monstrate hydraulic theories in geneand carried off the heads and arms of ral. I have heard some of those lecthe ftatues, which the Prince had been tures, which were excellent; but I so many ycars in collecting. In inaný fear that few of his hearers (about of the rooms are yet to be feen part of twenty in all) will be able to keep the small cells, in which those who pace with him. were doomed to the guillotine were “ I have heard Fourcroy read on înmured, during the bloody reign of the fermentation of wines, and on the the terrorists.
nature, quality, and preparation of " The roads begin to improve, as alcohol. He made different experiyou approach Paris. The fuccellive ments, to fhow that the fame of burnprospects on every fide feem to vie ing alcohol contains a variety of cowith each other in richness and va- lours, such as purple, violet, and green; riety: they furpals whatever imagina- the last of which appeared on mixing tion can conceive. The mildness of with it a solution of vitriol of copper. the climate, groups of vineyards, Fourcroy's delivery is fine, orderly, highly cultivated orchards and kitchen and emphatic; but perhaps a little too gardens, all contribute to render the rapid for some youths beginning the icene delightful; and peaches, apples, ftudy. When he had finished, he prepears, plums, cherries, and walnut- ceeded, in pursuance of a certain trees, flourish in the open fields in the order, to examine from eight to fixgreateft abundance.
teen pupils. “ From Chantilly I travelled through “ I have heard Hasenfratz lecture Lufarche, Echöuen, and St. Denis, on electricity, lightning, and thunder. and arrived in Paris in the afternoon of He concluded with an historical detail the 19th of August.” P. 60.
of all the fyftems of electricity; but
passed over Symmer's theory, or the COURSE OF STUDY IN THE POLY- the theory of Epinus, which was be
dualistic system, entirely. He adopted TECHNIC SCHOOL.
come prevalent in Paris. Hauy has “ THE Polytechnic School has two fince attacked the system of Epinus, very large and fine chemical labora- relative to electricity and magnetism. tories, besides two of inferior extent, He denies that the peals or claps of and some mechanical workshops. The thunder proceed from the electric director and administrator have lodg- fpark, which flies from one cloud to ings, at free coft, in the school. another, and bursts or strikes through
“ As a stranger, I bave attended the interjacent air, and infifts that it several lectures, among which was the comes from a vacuum, produced by analytic, by Lagrange. Whatever this the condentation of exhalations, which great man fays, deserves the highest are converted into rain : if so, there degree of confideration; but he is too never would be any peals or claps of abstract for youth. In the examina- thunder which would not be accomtion of these lectures, it has been found panied with rain. I have also heard that he has discovered a new demon. Hasenfratz lecture on machines. ftration of the first principles of the “ The object of those lectures ought differential calculus; and his Solution to be whatever relates to machinery, des Equations numériques, de tous les practical mechanics, and the different Degrés, Paris, 1797, merits attention. modes by which the motions of the
* I have heard Prony's hydraulic machines can be made to produce the lectures, particularly on the motion different effects, fo as to attain the of fluids through pipes, and on the object. I have not heard enough of undulation of water. This extraordi- those lectures to enable me to fay how nary man has the most imprellive and far this object may be attained. Hacaptivating delivery which can poflibly · senfratz is deficient in delivery. Once be conceived. In the course of the in each decade he conducts his pupils last year he printed a text-book of his to see the machines, the management ledures, containing theorems and pro- of the manufactures, the rooms where blems relating to his subjects, and a the arts are carried on, and where meketch or skeleton of the lectures them- chanics work. I accompanied bim in : VOL. V.-No. XLIII.
one of his mechanical excursions, which economic and nursery trees, and ever are exceedingly useful, and furnish the the indigent poor can obtain plants pupils with ideas which they could when they can be spared. not obtain in lecture-halls or libra
“ Captain Baudouin, in his travels ries.
into different parts of the world, had “ It was peculiarly enacted, that collected a great variety of natural cu. each of the pupils should have 1200 riofities; and presented the whole to livres a year, but this was decreed in the nation, on condition that he should the times of the assignats: so that those be furnished with a fhip to convey 1200 livres in paper yielded very little them to France. The English govern, money; and notwithstanding the af- ment consented that this ship should fignats are called in, the pupils received perform her voyage without molestalittle more than 200 livres a year, tion. Meanwhile the English had taken which amounted in the whole to 72,000 possession of the island of Trinidad, livres a year annually. The minister where this extensive and famous col. of the interior, in the 7th year, de- lection had been left. When Captain fired the fum of 394,133 franks, for Baudouin arrived at Trinidad, în order the use of the Polytechnic School; and to bring away his collection, the Engcertainly the pains and expense of the lifh would not give it up, on pretence government are well beftowed on an that their government had consented inftitution which will furnish the state to the safety of the expedition by sea, with so many public servants and use, and not by land. However, this and ful subjects.” P. 104.
the former expeditions were not altogether fruitless; for Baudouin has
brought into the botanic garden about THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATU
one thousand different kinds of live HISTORY
plants, besides assortments of seeds, “ WAS formerly called Jardin du and a confiderable herbarium. Roi ; but received its present name “ The gallery for natural history is by a decree of the National Conven- a building situated on the right hand, tion of the roth of June 1793. One as you enter the botanic garden from end of it extends to the Seine : it con- the street. On the second floor of this fifts of a botanic garden, library for building are four large apartments, natural history, a menagerie, of col- where fishes, birds, Mells, insects, mi. lection of foreign animals, and an am nerals, earths, and stones are deposited phitheatre or lecture-room.
on shelves, furnished with glass fronts. · The botanic garden which belongs The inner apartment is allotted to veto it is three hundred and twenty getables, and contains specimens of toises, or fathoms, long, and one hun- trees, together with the herbarium of dred and ten in breadth. It is parti. Tournefort. tioned lengthways, that is, from its “ Vaillant presented to the Museum entrance down towards the Seine, by a part of his birds. But several perthree very fine alleys; and intersected fons, who had certain knowledge of across by various others, which termic the fact, assured me, that Vaillant renate in the public promenades or walks. ferved for himself the most fingular and The different square divisions thus curious. formed, are used for plantations, and “ The gallery is open to the public are at present all enclosed with rail- the first, fourth, and seventh days of work. The green-house and orangerie every decade, when it is crowded by were formerly in pretty good order, all sorts of people, who come there. and separated into rooms and spaces: not for instruction, but merely to view but a new green-house and orangerie the place, by way of amusement. A are now additionally erected, and they certain number of veterans and invalids are very conveniently disposed. Here are then stationed in different places is a great abundance of foreign plants about the rooms, in order to see that and trees, and from hence all the bo- the drawers are not broke open, or tanic gardens of the Central Schools the curiofities in any manner injured are fupplied with feeds and with trees or destroyed. Before this regulation as soon as they can be transplanted. took place, a diamond was stolen from From the fame highly cultivated spot, thence, in the time of the revolution. thať cultivators of land can procure Every second, third, fifth, fixth, eighth,