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SECT.

1. Particles connect parts, or whole sentences together.

2. In them consists the art of well speaking.

3, 4. They show what relation the mind gives to its own thoughts.

5. Instance in But.

6. This matter but lightly touched here.

OF ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE TERMS.

SECT.

1. Abstract terms not predicable one of another, and why.
2. They show the difference of our ideas.

CHAPTER IX.

OF THE IMPERFECTION OF WORDS.

SECT.

1. Words are used for recording and communicating our

thoughts.

2. Any words will serve for recording.

3. Communication by words, civil or philosophical.

4. The imperfection of words, is the doubtfulness of their

signification.

5. Causes of their imperfection.
6. The names of mixed modes doubtful: first, because the ideas

they stand for are so complex.

7. Secondly, because they have no standards.

8. Propriety not a sufficient remedy.

9. The way of learning these names contributes also to their

doubtfulness.

10. Hence unavoidable obscurity in ancient authors.

11. Names of substances of doubtful signification.
12. Names of substances referred, first, to real essences, that

cannot be known.
13, 14. Secondly, to co-existing qualities, which are known but

imperfectly.
15. With this imperfection they may serve for civil, but not

well for philosophical use.
16. Instance, liquor of the nerves.
17. Instance, gold.
18. The names of simple ideas the least doubtful.
19. And, next to them, simple modes.
20. The most doubtful are the names of very compounded

mixed modes and substances.
21. Why this imperfection charged upon words.
22, 23. This should teach us moderation in imposing our own sense

of old authors.

BOOK IV.

OF THE DEGREES OF OUR KNOWLEDGE.

SECT.

1. Intuitive.

2. Demonstrative.

3. Depends on proofs.

4. But not so easy.

5. Not without precedent doubt.

6. Not so clear.

7. Each step must have intuitive evidence.
8. Hence the mistake ex præcognitis et præconcessis.

9. Demonstration not limited to quantity.
10-13. Why it has been so thought.

14. Sensitive knowledge of particular existence.
15. Knowledge not always clear, where the ideas are so.

OF THE EXTENT OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.

SECT.

1. First, no farther than we have ideas.

2. Secondly, no farther than we can perceive their agreement

or disagreement.

3. Thirdly, intuitive knowledge extends itself not to all the

relations of all our ideas.
4. Fourthly, not demonstrative knowledge.

demonstration. Their complexedness, and want of sen-

sible representations.

20. Remedies of those difficulties.

21. Fourthly, of real existence; we have an intuitive know-

ledge of our own, demonstrative of God's, sensitive of

some few other things.

22. Our ignorance great.

23. First, one cause of it, want of ideas, either such as we have

no conception of, or such as particularly we have not.

24. Because of their remoteness, or,

25. Because of their minuteness.

26. Hence no science of bodies.

27. Much less of spirits.

28. Secondly, want of a discoverable connexion between ideas

we have.

29. Instances.

30. Thirdly, want of tracing our ideas.

31. Extent in respect of universality.

CHAPTER IV.

OF THE REALITY OF OUR KNOWLEDGE.

SECT.

1. Objection, knowledge placed in ideas, may be all bare

vision.

2, 3. Answer, not so, where ideas

agree

with things.

4. As, first, all simple ideas do.

5. Secondly, all complex ideas, except of substances.

6. Hence the reality of mathematical knowledge.

7. And of moral,

8. Existence not required to make it real.

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