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wounded Parthian falling from his horse. Nevertheless you may describe him just and brave, as the wise Lucilius did Scipio. I will not be wanting to myself, when an opportunity presents itself: no verses of Horace's, unless well-timed, will gain the attention of Cæsar; whom, [like a generous steed,] if you stroke awkwardly, he will kick back upon you, being at all quarters on his guard. How much better would this be, than to wound with severe satire Pantolabus the buffoon, and the rake Nomentanus ! when every body is afraid for himself, [lest he should be the next,] and hates you, though he is not meddled with. What shall I do? Milonius falls a dancing the moment he becomes light-headed and warm, and the candles appear multiplied. Castor delights in horsemanship: and he, who sprang from the same egg, in boxing. As many thousands of people [as there are in the world), so many different inclinations are there. It delights me to combine words in meter, after the manner of Lucilius, a better man than both of us." He long ago communicated his secrets to his books, as to faithful friends : never having recourse elsewhere, whether things went well or ill with him : whence it happens, that the whole life of this old (poet] is as open to the view, as if it had been painted on a votive tablet. His example I follow, though in doubt whether I am a Lucanian or an Apulian; for the Venusinian farmers plow upon the boundaries of both countries, who (as the ancient tradition has it) were sent, on the expulsion of the Samnites, for this purpose, that the enemy might not make incursions on the Romans, through a vacant [unguarded frontier]: or lest the Apulian nation, or the fierce Lucanian, should make an invasion. But this


of mine shall not willfully attack any man breathing, and shall defend me like a sword that is sheathed in the scabbard: which why should I attempt to draw, [while I am] safe from hostile villains ? O Jupiter, father and sovereign, may my weapon laid aside wear away with rust, and may no one injure me, who am desirous of peace ? But that


with the title of governor of the province, to reduce them to his obedi

He conquered them in the year following, and had the honor of a triumph the 25th of September. SAN.

* When the Romans mentioned a man of great reputation, and whose example had a sort of authority, their usual expression in conversation. was, Who is far better, and more valuable than you or me. RUTGERS.


How every

man who shall provoke me (I give notice, that it is better not to touch me) shall weep [his folly], and as a notorious character shall be sung through all the streets of Rome.

Cervius,' when he is offended, threatens one with the laws and the [judiciary] urn; Canidia, Albutius' poison to those with whom she is at enmity; Turius [threatens] great damages, if you contest any thing while he is judge. animalo terrifies those whom he suspects, with that in which he is most powerful, and how strong natural instinct commands this, thus infer with me.—The wolf attacks with his teeth, the bull with his horns. From what principle is this, if not a suggestion from within? Intrust that debauchee Scæva with the custody of his ancient mother; his pious hand will commit no outrage. A wonder indeed! just as the wolf does not attack any one with his hoof, nor the bull with his teeth ; but the deadly hemlock in the poisoned honey will take off the old dame.

That I may not be tedious, whether a placid old age awaits me, or whether death now hovers about me with his sable wings; rich or poor, at Rome or (if fortune should so order it) an exile abroad ; whatever be the complexion of my life, I will write. O my child, I fear you can not be long-lived ; and that some creature of the great ones will strike you with the cold of death. What? when Lucilius had the courage to be the first in composing verses after this manner, and to pull

5 A criminal was acquitted or condemned by the number of votes, which the judges threw into a judiciary urn. Virgil tells us this custom was observed among the dead, “ quæsitor Minos urnam movet." TORR.

6 Horace's weapon is satire. This he will use against his enemies, just as every one, quo valet, suspectos terret, and according to the dictates of nature, which prompt her creatures to make use of the arms which she has given them, i. e. ne longum faciam, he will write. ED. DUBL.

Mirum, etc. Ironically said, for it is not mirum ut neque calce lupus quenquam neque dente petat bos, for dente lupus, cornu taurus petit. Horace means that Scæva's not polluting his right hand with the blood of his mother is no more wonderful than that a wolf does not attack a person calce, or an ox, dente. Bentley's conjecture mirum si is specious. Similarly we have Terent. Andr. iv. 4, 16; Mirum vero, impudentur mulier si facit meretrix. M'CAUL.

? i. e. “lest some one of your powerful friends conceive a coldness toward you, and deprive you of his friendship.” So Persius i. 107, “ Sed quid opus teneras mordaci radere vero Auriculas? Vide sis ne majorum tibi forte Limina et rigescunt.” ORELLI.

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off that mask,' by means of which each man strutted in public view with a fair outside, though foul within; was Lælius, and he who derived a well-deserved title from the destruction of Carthage, offended at his wit, or were they hurt at Metellus being lashed, or Lupus covered over with his lampoons ! But he took to task the heads of the people, and the people themselves, class by class ;9 in short, he spared none but virtue and her friends. Yet, when the valorous Scipio, and the mild philosophical Lælius, had withdrawn themselves from the crowd and the public scene, they used to divert theinselves with him, and joke in a free manner, while a few vegetables were boiled (for supper). Of whatever rank I am, though below the estate and wit of Lucilius, yet envy must be obliged to own that I have lived well with great men; and, wanting to fasten her tooth upon some weak part, will strike it against the solid :"0 unless you, learned Trebatius, disapprove of any thing [I have said]. For my part, I can not make any objection to this. But however, that forewarned you may be upon your guard, lest an ignorance of our sacred laws should bring you into trouble, [be sure of this :) if any person" shall make scandalous verses against a particular man, an action lies, and a sentence. Granted, if they are scandalous : but if a man composes good ones, and is praised by such a judge as Cæsar? If a man barks only at him who deserves his invectives, while he himself is unblamable ?

8 Detrahere pellem. A figurative expression taken from the stage. The ancient masks were of skins. DAC.

9 The great men, and people of whatever tribe. It is plain from what remains to us of Lucilius, that he did not spare the great. Besides Metellus and Lupus already mentioned, he attacked also Mutius Scævola, Titus Albutius, Torquatus, Marcus Carbo, Lucius Tubulus, Publius Gallonius, Caius Cassius, Lucius Cotta, Clodius Asellus, Quintus Opi. mius, Nomentanus, Caius Cecilius Index, Trebellius, Publius Pavus Tuditannis. And not satisfied with this, he run through all the thirtyfive tribes, one after another. WATSON.

10 In allusion to the fable of the serpent and the file. ". Si mala condiderit. Trebatius with much solemnity cites the laws of the twelve tables as his last argument. A lawyer could produce nothing more strong, and Horace being unable to defend himself by a direct answer. finds a way of getting out of the difficulty by playing on the words malum carmen, and giving them a different sense from what they bad in the text of tho law. ED. DUBL.

The process will be canceled" with laughter: and you, being dismissed, may depart in peace.


On Frugality.


What and how great is the virtue to live on a little (this is no doctrine of mine, but what Ofellus the peasant, a philoso pher without rules and of a home-spun" wit, taught me), learn, my good friends, not among dishes and splendid tables ; when the eye is dazzled with the vain glare, and the mind, intent upon false appearances, refuses [to admit] better things; but here, before dinner, discuss this point with me. Why so ? I will inform you, if I can. Every corrupted judge examines badly the truth. After hunting the hare, or being wearied by an unruly horse, or (if the Roman exercise fatigues you, accustomed to act the Greek) whether the swift ball

, while eagerness softens and prevents your perceiving the severity of the game, or quoits (smite the yielding air with the quoit) when exercise has worked off squeamishness, dry and hungry, [then let me see you] despise mean viands; and don't drink any thing but Hymettian honey qualified" with Falernian

12 Tabulæ are the process and information laid before the judge, which, says the poet, shall be torn in pieces. Dacier observes, that this line is an imitation of Aristophanes, where a father dissuades his son from an excess of wine, by representing to him a thousand disorders which it occasions ; quarreling, breaking houses open. No, says the son, this never happens when we converse with men of honor; for either they will satisfy the people whom they have offended, or turn the affair into ridicule, and by some happy jest make the judges, and even the prosecutors, laugh. The process is dismissed, and you escape without being punished. ED. DUBL.

13 Abnormis. “A philosopher without rules.” Ofellus was an Epicurean without knowing it, but his morality was in a medium between the very rigid and very dissolute followers of that sect.

Dac. 14 Minerva presides over spinning, hence this proverbial expression for “of a thick tbread," i. e. of a coarse texture. This Cic. Ep. Fam. ix. 12, Crasso filo. M'Caul.

15 Diluta. This mixture was called mulsum, mead. Don't drink any thing but mead made of the best honey and the best

Ofella says:



wine. Your butler is abroad, and the tempestuous sea preserves the fish by its wintery storms: bread and salt will sufficiently appease an importunate stomach. Whence do you think this happens ? and how is it obtained? The consummate pleasure is not in the costly flavor, but in yourself. Do you seek for sauce by sweating. Neither oysters, nor scar, nor the far-fetched lagois,'can give any pleasure to one bloated and pale through intemperance. Nevertheless, if a peacock" were served up, I should hardly be able to prevent your gratifying the palate with that, rather than a pullet, since you are prejudiced by the vanities of things; because the scarce bird is bought with gold, and displays a fine sight with its painted tail: as if that were any thing to the purpose. What, do you eat that plumage, which you extol ? or has the bird the same beauty when dressed? Since however there is no difference in the meat, in one preferably to the other; it is manifest that you are imposed upon by the disparity of their appearances.


Be it sc.


By what gift are you able to distinguish, whether this lupus, that now opens its jaws before us, was taken in the Tiber, or in the sea ? whether it was tossed between the bridges, or at the mouth of the Tuscan river? Fool, you praise a mullet, that weighs three pounds; which you are obliged to cut into small pieces. Outward appearances lead you, I see. To what intent then do you contemn large lupuses?. Because truly these are by nature bulky, and those very light. A hunwine. Diluere is applied to those things which are melted by the addi. tion of Auid. Thus Virg. Geor. i. 341,

Cui tu lacte favos et miti dilue Baccho. And Sat. ii. 3, 214,

- aceto Diluit insignem baccam.

M'CAUL. 16 Lagois. We do not find this word in any other author. It was probably a foreign bird, whose flesh tasted and looked like that of a hare; a favorite dish among the Romans. Ostrea is of two syllables, as in Virgil, “Bis patriæ cecidere manus: quin protenus omnia.

17 Quintus Hortensius was the first who gave the Romans a taste for peacocks, and it soon became so fashionable a dish, that all the people of fortune had it at their tables. Cicero very pleasantly says, he had the boldness to invite Hirtius to sup with him, even without a peacock. “Sed vide audaciam, etiam Hirtio cænam dedi sine pavone.” M. Aufidius Latro made a prodigious fortune by fattening them for sale ED DUBL.

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