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cried he, of Trebonius, who was caught in the fact, is by no means creditable. The philosopher may tell


the reasons for what is better to be avoided, and what to be pursued. It is sufficient for me, if I can preserve the morality traditional from my forefathers, and keep your life and reputation inviolate, so long as you stand in need of a guardian: so soon as age shall have strengthened your limbs and mind, you will swim without cork. In this manner he formed me, as yet a boy: and whether he ordered me to do any particular thing: You have an authority for doing this : [then] he instanced some one out of the select magistrates :** or did he forbid me (any thing]; can you doubt, [says he] whether this thing be dishonorable, and against your interest to be done, when this person and the other is become such a burning shame for his bad character [on these accounts] ? As a neighboring funeral dispirits sick gluttor.s, and through fear of death forces them to have mercy upon themselves; so other men's disgraces often deter tender minds from vices. From this [method of education] I am clear from all such vices, as bring destruction along with them : by lighter foibles, and such as you may excuse, I am possessed. And even from these, perhaps, a maturer age, the sincerity of a friend, or my own judgment, may make great reductions. For neither when I am in bed, or in the piazzas, am I wanting to myself: this way


proceeding is better ; by doing such a thing I shall live more comfortably; by this means I shall render myself agreeable to my friends ; such a transaction was not clever; what, shall I, at any time, imprudently commit any thing like it? These things I resolve in silence by myself. When I have any leisure, I amuse myself with my papers. This is one of those lighter foibles [I was speaking of ]: to which if you do not grant your indulgerice, a numerous band of poets shall come, which will take my part (for we are many more in number), ** and, like the Jews, we will force you to come over to our numerous party.

43 Unum ex judicibus selectis. The most eminent, and of greatest authority, among the senatorial order; an order called Sanctissimus. Tor. rentius thinks the poet means the judges, whom the prætor chose out of all degrees of the magistracy, to relieve and assist him in his office. But this good father would probably have taken his examples out of a more numerous, yet not less venerable order. DAC.

44 Seo Orelli.



He describes a certain journey of his from Rome io Brundusium with

great pleasantry.

“ You

Having left mighty Rome, Aricia received me in but a middling inn : Heliodorus the rhetorician, most learned in the Greek language, was my fellow-traveler: thence we proceeded to Forum-Appi, stuffed with sailors and surly landlords. This stage, but one for better travelers than we, being laggard we divided into two; the Appian way is less tiresome to bad travelers. Here I, on account of the water, which was most vile, proclaim war against my belly, waiting not without impatience for my companions while at supper. Now the night was preparing to spread her shadows upon the earth, and to display the constellations in the heavens. Then our slaves began to be liberal of their abuse to the watermen, and the watermen to our slaves. “ Here bring to." are stowing in hundreds ; hold, now sure there is enough." Thus while the fare is paid, and the mule fastened, a whole hour is passed away. The cursed gnats, and frogs of the fens, drive off repose.

While the waterman and a passenger, well-soaked with plenty of thick wine, vie with one another in singing the praises of their absent mistresses : at length the passenger being fatigued, begins to sleep; and the lazy waterman ties the halter of the mule, turned out a-grazing, to a stone, and snores, lying flat on his back. And now the day approached, when we saw the boat made no way; until å choleric fellow, one of the passengers, leaps out of the boat, and drubs the head and sides of both mule and waterman with a willow cudgel. At last we were scarcely set ashore at the fourth hour.“ We wash our faces and hands in thy water, O Feronia. Then, having dined, we crawled on three miles ; and arrive under Anxur, which is built upon rocks that look white to a great distance. Mæcenas was to come here, as was the excellent Cocceius, both sent embassadors on matters of great importance; having been accustomed to reconcile friends at variance. Here, having got sore eyes, I was obliged to use the black ointment. In the mean time came Mæcenas, and Cocceius, and Fonteius Capito" along with them, a man of perfect polish, and intimate with Mark Antony, no man

45 Octavius and Antony, both aspiring to the sovereign power, must necessarily have had frequent quarrels and dissensions. Their reconciliations were of short continuance, because they were insincere. Among many negotiations, undertaken by their common friends to reconcile them, history mentions two more particularly. The first in the year 714, the other in 717, which was concluded by the mediation of Octavia, and to which our poet was carried by Mæcenas. SAN.

46 Præcinctis. Prepared for traveling, i. e. altius præcinctis, "to those who were better travelers than we were.” Præcinctus means baving the dress tucked up, that it may not prevent exertion. Hence used for diligent,”

," "active.” Compare Sat. ii. 8, 10. M'Caul.




more so.



Without regret we passed Fundi, where Aufidius Luscus was prætor,“ laughing at the honors of that crazy scribe, 6*

47 Quartâ horâ. The Romans during more than four hundred and fifty years never had names for the hours of the day. The twelve tables divided it into three parts; the rising sun, the setting sun, and d-day The hours of night and day were equal in number through the year; but from spring to autumn, those of the day, were longer than those of the night, and from September to March the hours of night were longest. San.

48 Three particulars demonstrate that this journey was to the second conference at Brundusium. Fonteius is here joined with Mæcenas and Cocceius, but was not engaged in the first. The poet says, that Mæcenas and Cocceius had been before employed to reconcile Octavius and Antony, soliti, which must necessarily suppose the first congress in 714, when Horace had not been introduced to Mæcenas. MASSON.

49 Fonteius Capito. Probably the father of him who was consul two years before the death of Augustus. He was here of the party of Antony, and Mæcenas on the side of Augustus. Cocceius was by way of an arbitrator between them, to settle their differences. Homo factus ad unguem, a complete man, every way accomplished. WATSON.

50 Ad unguem factus homo. This figurative expression is taken from. engravers in wood or marble, who used to pass their nail over the work, to know whether it were well polished. ERASMUS.

51 Prætore. The colonies and municipal towns had the same dignities and magistracies as the city of Rome; senators, prætors, quæstors, and ædiles. It is difficult to know whether Fundi had a prætor chosen out of her

own citizens, or whether he was sent from Rome. TORR. 52 Proemia scribce. Horace calls these robes præmia scribo, because the secretaries in colonies and municipal towns were frequently raised to the dignity of the prætorship. The toga prætexta was a robe bordered with purple. Tunica clavata was a vest with two borders of purple laid like a lace upon the middle or opening of it, down to the bottom; in such a manner as that when the vest was drawn close or buttoned, the two purple borders joined and seemed to be but one. If these borders were large, the vest was called latus clavus, or tunica laticlavia; if they were narrow, then it was named angustus clavus, tunica angusticlavia. These two sorts of tunics were worn to distinguish the magistrates in their em53 Prunæque batillum. A pan for incense, frequently carried before the emperors, of those possessed of the sovereign authority. ED. DUBL.



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his prætexta, laticlave, and pan of incense.58 At our next stage, being weary, we tarry in the city of the Mamurræ, Murena complimenting us with his house,sø and Capito with his kitchen.

The next day arises, by much the most agreeable to all : for Plotius, and Varius, and Virgil met us at Sipuessa ; souls more candid ones than which the world never produced, nor is there a person in the world more bound to them than myself. Oh what embraces, and what transports were there! While I am in my senses, nothing can I prefer to a pleasant friend. The village, which is next adjoining to the bridge of Campania, accommodated us with lodging [at night]; and the public officers with such a quantity of fuel and salt as they are obliged to [by law). From this place the mules de

] posited their pack-saddles at Capua betimes [in the morning]. Mæcenas goes to play [at tennis]; but I and Virgil to our repose : for to play at tennis is hurtful to weak eyes and feeble constitutions.

From this place the villa of Cocceius, situated above the Caudian inns, which abounds with plenty, receives us. Now, my muse, I beg of you briefly to relate the engagement between the buffoon Sarmentus and Messius Cicirrus; and from ployments, and were very different from those worn by the common people, tunicato popello, which were closed before, and without any purple border. They were called tunico rectoe. San.

54 The stroke of satire here is of a delicate and almost imperceptible malignity. Formiæ, the city which Horace means, belonged to the Lamian family, whose antiquity was a great honor to it.

But our poet paraphrases it by the name of a person, who was born there, and who has made his country famous in a very different manner. Mamurra was a Roman knight, who was infamous for his rapine, luxury and debauchery. Catullus calls him Decoctor Formianus. TORR.

55 Murena was brother of Licymnia, married afterward to Mæcenas. He was condemned to death for conspiring against Augustus. Varius and Plotius Tucca were the persons to whom Augustus intrusted the correction of the Æneid, after Virgil's death, but with an order not to make any additions to it. FRAN.

56 Parochi. Before the consulship of Lucius Posthumius, the magis. trates of Rome traveled at the public charge, without being burthensome to the provinces. Afterward commissaries were appointed in all the great roads to defray all expenses of those who were employed in the business of the state. They were obliged, by the Lex Julia de provincóir, to provide lodging, fire, salt, hay, straw, etc. ED. DUBL.



what ancestry descended each began the contest. The illustrious race of Messius-Oscan :57 Sarmentus's mistress is still alive. Sprung from such families as these, they came to the combat. First, Sarmentus: “I pronounce thee to have the look of a mad horse.” We laugh; and Messius himself [says], “I accept your challenge:” and wags his head. "0! cries

" he,“ if the horn were not cut off your forehead, what would you not do; since, maimed as you are, you bully at such a rate ?" For a foul scar has disgraoed the left part of Messius's bristly forehead. Cutting many jokes upon his Campanian disease, and upon his face, he desired him to exhibit Polyphemus's dance : 8 that he had no occasion for a mask, or the tragic buskins. Cicirrus [retorted] largely to these : he asked, whether he had consecrated his chain to the household gods according to his vow; though he was a scribe, [he told him] his mistress's property in him was not the less. Lastly, he asked, how he ever came to run away; such a lank meager fellow, for whom a pound of corn [a-day] would be ample. We were so diverted, that we continued that supper to an unusual length.

Hence we proceed straight on for Beneventum; where the bustling landlord almost burned himself, in roasting some lean

57 Osci is a nominative case, and we must construe it, Osci sunt clarum genus Messiä. The Oscans gave to Messius his illustrious birth, a sufficient proof that he was an infamous scoundrel. The people who inhabited this part of Campania were guilty of execrable debaucheries. SAN.

58 Saltaret utì Cyclopa. The raillery is founded on his gigantic size, and the villainous gash that Messius had on his forehead, which made him look so like a Polyphemus, that he might dance the part without buskins or a mask. To dance a Cyclops, a Glaucus, a Ganymede, a Leda, was an expression for representing their story by dancing. ED. DUBL.

59 Donâsset jamne catenam. Only the vilest slaves, or those who worked in the country, were chained. It appears by an epigram of Martial, that when they were set at liberty, they consecrated their chains to Saturn, because slavery was unknown under his reign. But when Messius asks Sarmentus whether he had dedicated his chain to the Dii Lares, he would reproach him with being a fugitive. These gods were invoked by travelers, because they presided over highways, from whence they were called viales. They themselves were always represented like travelers, as if they were ready to leave the house ; succincti. Or Sarmentus was a slave so vile that he knew no other gods, but those who stood on the hearth, and which it was his employment to keep clean. DAC.

60 By the laws of the twelve tables, a slave was allowed a pound of corn a day. Qui eum vinctum habebit, libras farris in dies dato." TURNEBUS.


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