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in regard to the geography of this province, to state, that upon the map in Col. Leake's Asia Minor, which was the highest authority, Tlos, which Mr. Fellowes found to be just above the valley of the Xanthus, on the east side of the stream, appears beyond the Xanthus, and twenty miles to the north of it; while Pinaza is put by Leake at the head of the same river, though, in reality, it is situated on its west bank some six miles below Tlos. Most of the places discovered by Fellowes, Col. Leake does not venture to introduce into his map; and his Lycia looks like a desert, inhabited only on the coast, which had been sur. veyed with care by Capt. Beaufort of the British Navy. So entirely unknown was the modern geography of this country, that a very considerable Turkish town, containing, according to Mr. Fellowes, 25,000 inhabitants, and situated on a very lofty plain in the northeastern part of Lycia, is as much one of his discoveries as are the ruins of the ancient cities.
The whole of Lycia, including also Milyas and Cibyratis, seems to consist of spurs from the main ridge of Mt. Taurus, which here runs very near the sea, of very lofty plains, and of the narrow valleys of short streams. One of the most exten. sive plains is estimated by Mr. Fellowes to be 4,000 feet above the sea,and the highest mountain of Lycia to attain an ele. vation of7,800.
The architectural remains of Lycia, as discovered by Mr. Fel. lowes, though only tombs, possess great interest. Some of them are of forms somewhat peculiar to the country, and others appear to us to possess great merit for the excellence of their proportions. Others still are adorned with bas reliefs, in an early style, and show that the art of building had made great progress in this district. The most remarkable of all the bas reliefs are upon an obelisk tomb at Xanthus, and are thought by Mr. Gibson, an eminent English statuary at Rome, to have a reference to the story, told in the Odyssey, of the Harpies flying away with the daughters of Pandarus, king of Lycia.
A great part of the inscriptions copied by Mr. Fellowes are of the Roman times, and possess but little interest. Those of Aphrodisias in Caria, unnecessarily swell the size of the book, having been nearly all transcribed before. But the curiosity of the scholar is greatly aroused by those in the native lan. guage of the province, of which description some two or three and twenty are given by Mr. Fellowes, besides the legends on a number of coins. Four inscriptions in this enchorial lan. guage had been previously known, and one had furnished some clue to its alphabet by being accompanied with a Greek
translation. But, on an obelisk at Xanthus, which was the ancient capital of the country, Mr. Fellowes found a very long inscription tolerably well preserved, in letters more than an inch and a half tall, and covering, in nearly 250 lines, the four sides of the monument. What adds to the interest of this inscription is that ten lines of it on one of the sides are in Greek, inserted between lines in the native alphabet. Unhappily the Greek lay at a distance from the eye of the traveller, in a bad light, and, being cut more imperfectly than the rest, are not well deciphered. It is impossible, therefore, without the aid of frequent conjecture, to make any continuous sense of them. They seem to be of funereal import, and we judge from the forms of several letters that the inscription is not of a very early date.
The appendix to Mr. Fellowes' work, contains an attempt by Mr. Daniel Sharpe, to ascertain the alphabet and the mean. ings of some of the words of this new language. The alphabet is in the main the same with the Greek, but more limited in its number of consonants, while, if Mr. Sharpe has reached the truth, which in some cases may well be doubted,-it abounds with short and long vowels. To one of these vowels, ov or w, Mr. Sharpe is obliged to give three distinct forms. As for the words, the investigations are entirely unsatisfactory, with the exception of a few continually recurring, some of which are explained by a Greek translation. Mr. Sharpe resorts to the Zend for most of his explanations, without having a thorough knowledge of that language. One of the commonest words, translated by noiew, make, probably in the Greek part of one inscription, appears in various forms, showing that the language was inflected in a way something like the Greek, but the word has no known cognate in any other language.
12.- Rost's Greek Lexicon. Fasciculus I.
Passow having left his plan of a Greek Lexicon imperfect at his decease, it became desirable to provide another for the student, which should be an equal aid in reading the epic poets and Herodotus, (below which writers Passow's thorough examinations did not descend,) and in studying the remains of the Attic and later writers. This task has been undertaken by Dr. Rost of Gotha, who is favorably known by his Grammar and other works, as well as by his superintendence of the Gotha editions of the Greek classics. His task is no less than to give the significations and the use of every Greek
word from Homer to the beginning of the Byzantine period. Hitherto no approach has been made in modern times, to the completion of such a task, if we except Schneider's lexicon, and the reprints of Henry Stephens' (Etienne) Thesaurus. The latter coming from many hands is a complete chaos, ill-di. gested and disproportioned: the former is excellent in some respects, and indeed is the basis of Passow's work; but it is by no means extensive and particular enough, nor is it on a level with the present state of learning, especially as it regards the more classical writers of Greece. The call for a new lexicon, therefore, is great; and Rost's qualifications are such in the estimation of his countrymen, that at the meeting of philologists (we believe in 1839), before whom he laid his project, he was warmly encouraged to persevere. He has received also more substantial demonstrations of good-will in the lexi. cal collections of Frederick Jacobs, Kaltwasser, Berzk, Spitzner and others.
The first fasciculus of this work appeared more than a year ago, and reaches to duqiuvxóouai. It contains 264 pages, whereas Passow arrives at the same point in 124. As eight of Rost's lines are equal to twelve of Passow's, and the number of lines on a page is the same in both, our readers will see that the new lexicon, if the proportion is continued, must contain three times the amount of matter of the old.
We are sorry to say, that like many excellent German works, this will move forwards very slowly. Mr. Rost thinks that if his health is sound, he can furnish one fasciculus yearly. Now as there are to be 16 parts at least, each of about the size of the first, which lies before us, we have little expectation either that the author or that we ourselves will live to hail the completion. How much better that the public should not be apprised of such a work until the long incuba. tion of the author should have ended, and the brood of fasci. culi be ready at very short intervals with little more than the delay required in printing, to come out into the world.
So far as we have examined this specimen of Mr. Rost's labors, we find a decided improvement upon Passow, both as it regards the number of words and the fullness of remarks upon the more important ones. Much is introduced from Passow, but we believe without acknowledgment. This seems to be fair enough, as far as the bookseller is concerned, since the same person owns both works. But all such proceedings ought to be openly acknowledged, whether occurring in a lexicon like the one before us, or in a classical dictionary, or
anywhere else. Very much, however, is Mr. Rost's own; and the most important parts of the work,—the arrangements of meanings and the remarks upon construction, proceed plainly from the author's own careful study and laborious col. lections.
A comparison of the way in which single words are handled by the two lexicographers would here find its appropriate place. But as our limits forbid us to enter into this comparison at any length, and as one or two words would hardly serve as samples of the general execution, we will forbear to add any examples, and only assure our readers that we have made such a comparison in a number of instances, and have arisen from it with great satisfaction as to the results of Mr. Rost's labors.
In the etymological part, where Passow is far behind the present state of learning, Rost has not advanced much beyond him. We are sorry for this, and it seems quite unnecessary : for if Mr. Rost has not given his attention to the light thrown upon the roots of the Greek by those who have studied San. scrit, the Teutonic and other kindred dialects in the present age, such as Bopp, Grimm, Eichhoff and Schlegel, surely some one of his friends might have furnished him with the necessary information. Another defect we find, in the trifling way, in which the New Testament significations are disposed of. Under öyyɛlos the author remarks, the prophets and apos. tles,” and in general the teachers of the church, are so called in the New Testament and in ecclesiastical writers, as announcing the divine word : in Philo, and ecclesiastical writers es. pecially, the angels.” As though the meaning angels were not found in the New Testament, where it is by far the commonest of all, whilst the word there assumes, also, in several places, the ordinary sense of a messenger, and scarcely ever adopts the only meaning which Rost mentions, viz. that of a religious messenger. It were better to confine the Lexicon to the heathen writers than to treat the words of the New Testament in this perfunctory manner.
13.—Tecumseh, or the West Thirty years Since. A Poem, by
George H. Colton. New-York: Wiley & Putnam, 1842. We are sorry to be called on to express an opinion of this Poem before it is fully published. It is to be comprised in a single volume, of about 300 pages. Only 175 pages have been handed us, in sheets. The balance is yet in the press, to be brought out in a few days. The whole is to consist of eight cantos. What we have in hand we have read, every word of it,-five cantos and a part of the sixth-and it has whetted our appetite for the rest. It is an epic, the design of which is to set forth the almost universal rallying of the North Ameri. can Indians, by one united and desperate onset, to avenge upon the white men the injuries they had inflicted upon the aboriginal race. Tecumseh is represented as the master spirit of his age, with indomitable zeal, courage and perseverance, rousing the different and distant tribes to a sense of their wrongs, and urging them, one and all,
by their fathers slain,
Battles are described as moved and energized by this spirit of revenge, and the whole is intermingled with glowing descriptions of natural scenery and incidents of the most touching character. As these sheets are accompanied with no explanatory notes, and as we cannot see the end from the beginning, we can only say of the concealed plan of the poem, that it develops handsomely thus far, and gives promise of a catastrophe, of no ordinary interest and magnitude. The theme is purely American and of great historical interest. It is well worthy of the highest effort of poetic genius; and the author, though young and “unknown to fame,” has certainly exhibited an elevation and strength of conception, and a boldness and beauty of imagery, which would do honor to a much more practised hand.
14.—Meditations and Addresses on the subject of Prayer. By
the Rev. Hugh White, A. M., Curate of St. Mary's Pa
rish, Dublin. New York: Robert Carter, 1842. 237 pp. This is the first American, from the tenth Dublin edition. It is the result of the author's pious reflections in a state of health which compelled him to suspend, for a season, his active labors, as a pastor. It breathes a deeply evangelical spirit, and exhibits enlightened and practical views of a duty in respect to which, as its obligations are universal, “men ought always” and evermore to be instructed. It discusses the subject under the following heads; “Importance of prayer,” “ Nature of prayer,” “Caution on the subject of prayer,”-“Reverence and freedom in prayer,”—“Humility and confidence in prayer,"