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on which account, it soon after received the name, which it still so honorably bears, of Yale College.
In the concluding part of the sentence above quoted, there is a reference to Mather's alleged attempt to turn a way the bounty of Mr. Hollis from Cambridge, and direct it to New Haven; -a charge which has before been shown to rest entirely on suspicion, there being not a particle of evidence for its support.
At a later period, President Quincy recurs to his favorite idea, that Yale College“ had been founded under the auspices of persons discontented with the religious state of Harvard, and adds:
“After the lapse of half a century, it was again regarded as the place of refuge, in the impending dangers of the Calvinistic faith. Accordingly, in the year 1752, the clergy of Connecticut, with the co-operation of the Calvinistic sect in Massachusetts, sedulously began the task of settling and securing orthodoxy in the college at New Haven. In November, 1753, the president and fellows of that seminary passed votes, declaring that the students should be established in the principles of religion, according to the Assembly's Catechism, Dr. Ames's Medulla, and Cases of Conscience, and should not be suffered to be instructed in any different principles or doctrines.” Vol. II. p. 70.
In the statements here made, President Quincy is scarcely more accurate, than in those which have been already examined. In the year 1753, the president and fellows of Yale College did indeed pass an act, with the design“ to preserve and secure the religion of the college upon its original foundation and constitution ;” in which they declare, that “the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament are the only rule of faith and practice, in all matters of religion;" that “the Assembly's Catechism and Confession of Faith contain a true and just summary of the most important doctrines of the Christian religion;" that“ every person who shall hereafter be chosen a president, fellow, professor of divinity, or tutor, shall publicly give his consent to the said Catechism and Confession of Faith, and renounce all doctrines or principles contrary thereto;" but that “ Protestants of all denominations may send their children to receive the advantages of college," provided they will conform to its laws and orders.* It does not appear, however, that" the Calvinistic sect in Massachusetts," or even“ the clergy of Connecticut,” taken as a body, exerted the slightest influence in procuring this act; or that it grew out of any suspicions of heresy as at that time prevailing
* See Baldwin's Annals of Yale College, p. 68.
in and around Boston. On “the New Light” question, which at that period was the one of principal interest, the college at New Haren bad taken much the same ground as that at Cambridge. Both opposed Whitefield and the other Revivalists, and sided rather with Chauncy than with Edwards, in point of religious feeling and views. But a professorship of divinity was now to be founded in Yale College. An individual was to be set apart to preach to the students, and instruct them in the doctrines and duties of religion. And by President Clap and others, the opportunity was thought to be a favorable one, for providing against those perversions to which public institutions are always exposed, and “ securing the religion of the college upon its original foundation and constitution.” There is nothing, however, in the act passed at this time, requiring that “the students should be established in the principles of religion, according to the Assembly's Catechism, Dr. Ames's Medulla, and Cases of Conscience, and should not be suffered to be instructed in any different principles or doctrines.” The preamble states, that formerly there had been a regulation of this nature; but the act itself lays no such injunction for the time to come.
The latter part of President Leverett's administration was far from being peaceful or happy. He was exceedingly straitened for the means of subsistence, and there seemed little disposition on the part of the representatives of people to support him. There were various embarrassing difficulties, also, in connection with college. We have mentioned already the case of Pierpont, who was refused his second degree, on the ground of allegations brought against him by one of the tutors. This circumstance, small in itself, was the means of dividing the corporation and the overseers, and was thought, for a time, to threaten the dissolution of the college itself.
This difficulty was scarcely settled, when another of a still more formidable character arose. In 1721, two of the tutors, Messrs. Sever and Welsteed, presented to the overseers a memorial, claiming seats at the board of the corporation, by virtue of being fellows and actual residents at the college. This claim, being favored by the overseers and resisted by the corporation, was carried, at length, into the legislature, and would probably have been successful, but for the firmness of Governor Shute. It was sufficient to disturb and distract the government of the college, for more than two years.
In this difficulty, as in nearly all others, “ the strict Calvinists” are represented by President Quincy as the prime agents. These
Calvinists, like some evil genius, seem to haunt the brain of the honorable president, and are sure to be lugged in on all occasions of difficulty. The division among Christians, which his language indicates, had no existence, however, out of his brain. That there were parties in that day, and parties more or less connected with religion, there can be no doubt; but that these were based on theological peculiarities on the reception by some, and rejection by others, of the several points of Calvinism we have shown already was not the fact. The differences had respect rather to measures than doctrines rather to points of ecclesiastical order and usage than to those of theological speca ulation. It is not certain, however, that even these questions had much to do with the agitations in the college government, to which we have referred. Mr. Peirce gives quite a different view of the matter from President Quincy, and one, it has seemed to us, altogether more probable. “For a long period, the number of tutors had been only two, and till the year 1720, had never exceeded three. It appears that, till then, the tutors had generally formed a part of the corporation, and had been styled Resident Fellows, or Fellows of the House. The growth of the college having rendered it necessary to increase the number of tutors to four, it was judged” inexpedient to elect them all into the corporation, and tutors Sever and Welsteed were excluded, They became dissatisfied on this account, and presented a memorial to the overseers on the subject.* We have here a very natural account of the origin of the difficulty, without the intera vention of any of those religious prejudices, which President Quincy supposes were so deeply concerned in it.
The BOUNTY OF Hollis To Harvard COLLEGE. It was during the presidency of Leverett that the bounty of Hollis first began to flow towards Harvard College. As there are some points connected with his donations, which have long been matter of dispute, and to which President Quincy has thought proper to devote a considerable space, it will be neces, sary to examine them with special care,
A primary question may be, who first conferred with Hollis respecting the claims of Harvard College, and led him to make it the object of his munificence? We believe all credible history and testimony, down to the date of the History before us,
* Hist. of Harvard University, p. 117.
have ascribed this honor (if it be one) to Increase Mather. In the life of President Mather by his son, it is said: “It was his acquaintance with, and his proposal to, that good spirited man, and lover of all good men, Mr. Thomas Hollis, that introduced his benefactions into Harvard College; to which his incomparable bounty has anon flowed to such a degree, as to render him the greatest benefactor it ever had in the world.” p. 170. Also, in a vote of the corporation, passed in 1719, it is said expressly, that Increase Mather“ was instrumental in procuring these donations.” Vol. I. p. 235. But President Quincy, who seems determined that no credit shall be given to the Mathers, of which they can possibly be divested, disputes this testimony, and represents the account given by Cotton Mather, in the life of his father, as “ wholly gratuitous, but in character with his self-glorifying spirit.” In other words, he charges Cotton Mather, or his father, or both of them, with wilful misrepresentation, and that too for the base purpose of glorifying themselves. And on what foundation does this so severe a charge rest? Absolutely none at all. It appears from the documents, that an uncle of Mr. Hollis had before bequeathed a legacy to Harvard College, and appointed him to be one of his trustees; and Hollis says: “I have had many thoughts of showing some liberality to the college, ever since the death of my honored uncle.” He does not say that he had purposed to do it, or had taken any measures towards it; but only that he had had thoughts of the thing. When President Mather was in England, on his agency for the province, Mr. Hollis met him, told him of his uncle's will, and mentioned the thoughts which he had himself entertained, in regard to the same subject. And what more natural, than that President Mather should encourage him in his good designs, press home the subject upon his attention, and do what he could to persuade him to adopt the college as one of the objects of his bounty? A supposition such as this, is not only natural and reasonable, but in the circumstances of the case almost necessary. Nor is it contradicted by aught that Mr. Hollis ever did, or by a word that he ever said or wrote on the subject. So far from this, it is the rather confirmed; for it was known, shortly after, that Mr. Hollis had remembered the college in his will; and in a few years, he concluded to become his own executor, and sent over his first donation to the college. This he accompanied with a letter to his old friend and acquaintance, 6 Mr. Increase Mather, formerly president of Harvard College, or to the gentleman who is now president thereof." The income of this first donation being designed for the assistance of some pious young man, Increase Mather requested that it might be given to his grandson, who was then a member of college. It was given to him (as the corporation express it) “at the desire of his grandfather, who was instrumental in procuring these donations." Mr. Hollis was soon informed of the appropriation of his bounty, and of the reason of it. In reply, he expresses his surprise and sorrow, that Dr. Mather's grandson should need his bounty ; but adds: “I have nothing to object ; am rather glad that he is first preferred.” And now what is there in all this, to contradict the account, which President Mather, in all probability, gave of the matter, and which his son published to the world ? And what is there on which to rest the charge, against one or the other, or both of these venerable men, of a base, and selfish, and wilful perversion of the truth? As I said before, nothing at all. The documents are perfectly consistent with the account of the Mathers. Indeed, they are more than consistent. They rather imply the correctness of this account, than contradict it.
The bounty of Hollis, after it had begun to flow, was like a perennial stream. As President Quincy remarks: “Scarcely a ship sailed from London, during the last ten years of his life, without bearing some evidence of his affection and liberality.” The particular objects of his bounty were, first, the library, to the enlargement of which he devoted much time and care, as well as money ; secondly, “the maintenance and education of pious young men for the ministry, who are poor in this world;" and thirdly, the endowment of professorships. He endowed a professorship of divinity, in 1721, and a professorship of mathematics, in 1726. He also sent over a philosophical apparatus, worth one hundred and fifty pounds sterling; and founts of Greek and Hebrew types.
The Hollis PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY,
The endowment which, from the first, has excited the deepest interest, and led to the most frequent discussion, was that of the professorship of divinity. President Quinoy devotes almost an entire chapter to the consideration of this subject, and not a few of his statements require to be examined. One would think, from his representations, that Hollis had fallen into the hands of a class of rogues and jockeys, who were determined to get his