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THE NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF PLANTS.
The change here produced is the fixation of
carbon and hydrogen, accompanied by the VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY.-No. III. liberation of pure oxygen. Descending to
the lower surface of the leaf, a further addition
of carbon is received, owing to the decomBEFORE PROCEEDING TO THE SUBJECT position of carbonic acid gas. The sap now of Nutrition and Growth, a few remarks on enters the vascular and cellular tissues of the the structure of the stem and root of plants bark, and commences a downward journey, are necessary.
nourishing the parts as it goes on. The stem, or ascending axis of the plant, This fluid is received by the woody fibres, is separated from the root by the collar or and leaves a thickening deposit on their neck, and is distinguished from it by having walls, which deposit afterwards obliterates a provision for the development of leaf-buds all passage, transforming them into tough on its surface. As a general rule, the former little rods. The same thickening process rises into the air, bearing leaves and flowers, goes on in cells, till they become, in like while the latter ramifies in the soil. Both manner, solid masses. In this manner, disorgans are composed of the two classes of tributing its benefits as it flows, the sap, tissue described in our last.
when comparatively exhausted, at length Taking the stem of a tree or shrub as an reaches the root, which, abstracting what is example, we find in the centre a quantity of necessary for its increasing vigor, rejects the soft matter, known as the pith ; composed worthless residue. This elaborated sap is entirely of cellular tissue, and occupying in sometimes clear and transparent, though the young stem a very great space. Next to oftentimes colored and milky. It is by no this is a ring of cells and vessels, --not quite means an easy matter to observe the flow of wood, and not altogether pith. Then a ring the sap, owing to the delicacy of the vegetable of wood, having very few cells, composed tissue, and the often colorless nature of the almost entirely of the spindle-shaped or fluid itself; but, in a few plants, it has been woody vessels, and outside this, the bark, noticed, and among these the Caoutchouc which is almost altogether cellular. We have tree, the Celandine, and the Euphorbia ; all supposed that the portion of the stem under of which have it more or less opaque and examination is only of one year's growth; for colored. It is between the newest layer of every year a fresh circle of wood is developed, wood, and the inside bark, that the formation giving that annulated appearance to a cross- of new wood takes place; and there we have section of timber, by which the age of the a quantity of fluid not unlike mucilage. A tree may be told by the merest tyro. This brief consideration of the important opera description applies to all British plants which tions carried on here, may prove not uninhave a woody stem,, -as trees and shrubs.
teresting In the palm and cane tribes, it is different. This thick mucilaginous fluid is made up No pith and concentric circles are visible, of the elaborated sap, or secretions from the but à confused mixture of cells and vessels adjacent cells. Under the force of one of throughout the whole stem. The root differs those inscrutable laws which regulate life,but little from the stem in structure, save vegetable as well as animal,- ,-a change takes that at the extreme point it is uncovered by place in the consistency of this fluid. It bark or membrane of any kind; presenting a becomes granular, each granule becomes a sponge-like mass of cells, whose office it is to cavity, each cavity gives birth to other take up the liquid nutriment in the soil. granules, and these secondary granules be
In order to have some idea of the mystery come in their turn cavities. Enlarging and of growth, let us trace the fluid from the roots, strengthening, they become covered with a in its progress up the stem, to the leaves, and proper membrane, and form regular woody down again, until it forms wood, bark, leaves, cells or vessels. At first they are rounded, and flowers.
and in that state carry on the functions of The plant being placed in favorable circum- nutrition and reproduction. But they gradustances as regards moisture in the soil, and ally lengthen into the spindle shape; after heat and light in the surrounding air, the which they become thickened by the deporoots take up the proper nutriment in the sition of a hard substance in their interior,form of a fluid, by means of their sponge-like ultimately obliterating all opening, and formextremities, and from thence they deliver it ing regular woody fibre. to the stem. In the present state the sap. is From what has now been stated, the reader thin, and untit for nourishment. Through the will have a slight notion of how wood is soft wood this crude sap proceeds to the leaves, developed; but as cellular tissue is of much and courses along their upper surface, where more frequent occurrence in the vegetable under the agency of heat and light it parts kingdom, than vascular-seeing that many with a considerable quantity of its moisture ; | plants are entirely without the latter, while becoming the thickened and elaborated sap. it is impossible for any to exist without the former :-we may pay a little attention to cell fluid which traverses the vegetable structure development.
passes through the cells. Now, as these The rapidity with which cells are formed seldom present any opening, it may be proper is truly surprising. A puff-ball which in the to inquire how it is that fluids can
from the evening was less than a pigeon's egg in size, one vesicle to the other? It is a known fact in the morning looks like a gigantic dumpling. that everything in nature tends to an equality. Lindley estimates that the cells must in this The light has scarcely left the god of day, instance have been produced at the rate of when it is diffused over our dark world,—the sixty millions per minute. Let us try to sound of Jove's artillery travels on the wind's understand how this is done,—but yet let us wings, until it is lost. The heat generated not be deceived; we are entering on an almost by combustion becomes actually lost in difhopeless task. Scarcely one among the array fusion; and the noxious vapors which rise, of learned physiologists who have investigated like a pestilence, from our manufacturing the subject, has been able to coincide with towns, are quickly spread from pole to pole. another, and
Heat, light, electricity, sound, and gases, all
tend to universal diffusion, i.e. equality, Who shall decide when doctors disagree? and this law holds good as well with liquids. The only safe way in a case like the present If two liquids, of different densities, say is to choose a middle path, and so escape the syrup and water, are separated by any animal quicksands in which so many investigators or vegetable membrane, a force comes into seem lost. Leaving Schleiden, Mohl, Henfrey, operation which compels the denser to pass and half-a-dozen more, to explain the by-no- to the rarer, and vice versa, until they have means evident peculiarities of their individual both reached the same density. theories, we adopt a little of what appertains Now the sap in the cells of the leaf has to all. We believe, then, that in cells, or in parted with a great portion of its moisture, spaces between cells, there exists a quantity of while that further down is still the same; the mucilaginous matter; at first thin and trans- result is that this force comes into play, parent, which at length assumes a firmer forcing the less dense sap up to that position consistency and exhibits in its mass a number where it is brought under the influence of of little spaces resembling air-bubbles; that solar heat and light, and rendered fit for the these gradually enlarge, and become enveloped nourishment of the vegetable structure. by a membrane formed from the thickened
D. mucilaginous fluid. We also believe that this is the perfect cell. This cell has generally in its interior a little transparent body known
FIRST LOVE. as a nucleus; but whether this internal body has any part to perform in the gathering of the cell wall , or is formed after its full develop
We find the following exquisite pencilling ment, is a knotty point. This development from a mucilaginous fluid, may take place in Collins's “ Basil.” There are some few within cells already formed, so that one may sketch from life.” We have ourself seen
of us who can recognise the picture as give birth to hundreds.
And this may account for the rapid growth of many plants, that "little rim of delicate white lace,” that eveu in our own country, as the hop; but lovely, dusky throat,” and those “simple more especially in the tropics. Another little ornaments,"--all so mutely, so sweetly means of cell-reproduction, is as follows :
eloquent to the loving heart ! The cell wall is internally lined by a mucila- She put down her veil again immediately. Her ginous covering; this inside wall, if we may lips moved involuntarily as she lowered it. I so term it, has the power of contracting in thought I could see, through the lace, that the the middle, and finally of separating, so as to slight movement ripened to a smile. Still there form two soft bladder-like bodies, which, like was enough left to look on,-enough to charm. the first, contract, and divide into two,
There was the little rim of delicate white lace, that we have within the fully-formed cell
, encircling the lovely, dusky throat. There was four partially developed. These gradually
the figure visible, where the shawl had fallen open increase in size and consistency, till they at derness, and exquisitely supple. There was the
---slender, but already well developed in its slenlength become too big for the distended walls waist, naturally low, and left to its natural place, of the parent, which they burst, and then and natural size. There were the little millinery assume the functions of cells proper; them- and jewellery ornaments that she wore-simple selves to produce others, which in their turn and common-place enough in themselves-yet each will destroy them.
a beauty, each a treasure, on her. There was all In connection with the growth of plants, this to behold, all this to dwell on, in spite of the there is yet another subject which claims a veil. little attention, viz., the rise of the sap. It The veil! how little of the woman does it hide, is well known that a great portion of the when the man really loves her!
THE “HAPPY FAMILY" OF SMILES.
THOUGHTS ON HABIT.
BY J. A. SYMONDS, M.D.
As TO HABITS OF ACTION, it is obvious How guileless is the heart within :
that the great use they serve is the economy O! how thy radiance, purely bright,
of time. What would man have accomplished Illumes the little cherub's eye,
by the end of his life, had it been needful for As if a ray of heavenly light
him to attend to his movements in standing, Had dropt upon it from the sky!
walking, and using his hands and fingers ?
What progress would thought make, were Fond smile! that o'er the mother's brow, Whilst gazing on her infant's face,
speakers to be thinking of the sounds they Kindles with rapture's purest glow,
utter, and to be consciously directing and The features of the sire to trace :
adjusting their vocal apparatus ? How dost thou light her lucid eye,
And where would be the literature of the Distilling fast the tender tear,
world, were the mind compelled to pass from With all a mother's ecstacy,
its sublime contemplations to the muscular And yet with all a mother's fear!
actions which guide the movements of the Dear smile! that round the husband's lip But the more we consider the subject, Curls into anxious tenderness,
whether as to the development of those Whilst from Joy's cup he seems to sip actions which characterise the species, or as Whate'er may charm, whate'er can bless; Whilst gazing on the loveliest thing
to those acquired accomplishments and dexHis heart adores beneath the skies,
terities which range from the humblest handiThou tell'st that woe's envenom'd sting
crafts to the loftiest triumphs of the imaginaHas not yet cursed his Paradise.
tive arts, the more we shall be struck by the
gradually increasing subordination and subSort smile! that when his growing boy
jugation of the mechanical processes to the Pursues his gambols at his side,
more exalted faculties of the mind. This Becomes the index of his joy,
view would at first, perhaps, make us inquire And beams with all the father's pride, - whether, as these volitional movements which 'Tis beautiful to see thee play
we have been considering ultimately become O'er his rough features bronzed and dun,
automatic, it would not have enlarged the Like light, ere yet the early day Has ushered up the brighter sun.
capacities of man, had they begun as instincts;
just as some of them really are found in the CHASTE smile! that o'er the kindling blush
lower animals, instead of going through so Of innocence so purely steals,
long a process of evolution and education ? Adding new graces to the flush,
A foolish question, as every question must Which all the guileless heart reveals, – be which proposes an arrangement of events How lovely to behold thee there,
from what is obviously a part of the O’er ev'ry feature brightly beaming,
plan of God's universe. Like meteor in the spring-tide air,
Take away the struggling, striving will, Around the moon's fair circle streaming! even from these corporeal actions; remove
effort, resolution, the conscious initiation of KIND smile! that kindles when the rod Of stern afffiction has been broken,
action, perseverance, training, and education,
and what is human life reduced to? Gigantic Irradiate from the throne of God, And of his love the purest token;
as man's powers become, he was not intended When round the lips thy beauties hover,
to spring from the earth in their full equipLike brightest stars in summer weather, ment. Survey him in his infancy, childhood, Thou dost the heart and soul discover, youth, adolescence, and manhood; and while And shed thy light on both together.
you become convinced that his gradual ac
quirements bring him a multitude of enjoyPURE smile! that innocently steals
ments, as well as difficulties and disasters, Over religion's lovely features,
you cannot but see that what is evolving in And to the guilty heart appeals
him bears a strict correlation to the powers, Of God's poor woe-benighted creatures, Thou, mutely eloquent, to all
emotions, sentiments, and virtuous actions of Tell'st of impieties forgiven,
those who, having arrived at the maturity of And from affliction's heavy thrall,
their powers, are to help him ; to whom he is Cheerest the struggling soul to Heaven,
bound, as they to him, by ties which make H. C. the affinities of the human family infinitely
transcend the transitory parental instincts HUMAN SORROW.
and gregarious associations of the lower
animals; for they live and grow up almost as The soul that hath not sorrow'd they were born, devoid of progress, not one Knows neither its own weakness nor its strength. whit wiser or more skilful than the first pair
BY ALLAN CUNNINGHAM.
that issued from Noah's ark,-living for vividly the express image of him who is themselves only, or only under a blind impulse endeared to us for his own individual sake. providing for another succession.
[We hardly need remark how cordially we But man, having consciously and with pain, coincide in sentiment with Dr. Symonds. It labor, and peril, acquired his endowments, is our peculiarities, our shades of character, lives them over again by teaching them to our habits, our ways, our sayings, and our his offspring; and apart from that happier manner of life--that endear us all so greatly existence to which he knows that he is des- the one to the other. tined in other worlds, feels that here too he But for these distinguishing characteristics, has a kind of immortality: that as he has we could not be valued for ourselves alone. inherited knowledge, and virtue, and power, They are a part and parcel of our very existhe too has to transmit them. That his life ence; and we prize them accordingly.] and its achievements have a mortal metempsychosis, a translation into the enlarging
THE MAIDEN'S DREAM. attributes and brightening destinies of his children, and of unborn generations, and in the production of works which, like Milton, he knows that posterity will not willingly let She slept; and there was visioned in her sleep die, and in the elaboration of systems which, | A hill: above its summit sang the larklike Bacon, he bequeaths with his fame to the She strove to climb it: ocean wide and deep next ages. In this realising anticipation of Gaped for her feet, where swam a sable bark,
Manned with dread shapes, whose aspects, doure a posthumous renown, he survives his own
and dark, death, passing by his living consciousness far Mocked God's bright image; huge and grim they beyond the narrow bounds affixed to his mere
Quenched all the lights of heaven, save one small But while habit, as we have seen, is so
spark, useful in abridging labor, in economising Then seized her-laughing to the bark they drew time, in preserving order, and method, and Her, shuddering, shrieking-ocean kindled as they
flew. coherence in our thoughts, and in making the practice of virtue and religion easier to And she was carried to a castle bright. us, -still it imposez upon us no inevitable A voice said, Sibyl, here's thy blithe bridecompulsion. It is not the blind necessity of
groom ! an instinct. It is our own fault if we are See shrieked-she prayed;--at once the bridal enslaved instead of being merely assisted by light habit. Human agency ought to be able to Was quench'd and chang'd to midnight's funeral assert its freedom in this as in every other gloom. department of thought and action. The She saw swords flash, and many a dancing plume habit should be like a steed--so well broken, Roll on before her; while around her fell that though the will may have thrown the Increase of darkness, like the hour of doom ; reins on its neck, while otherwise occupied, Lo! one to win her came she knew and loved
She felt herself as chained by charm and spell. it can in a moment gather them up, and come
right well. to a sudden halt.
Habit, we have seen at once, is the product Right through the darkness down to ocean-flood and the sign of previous volition. And though He bore her now; the deep and troubled sea in certain muscular actions belonging to the Rolled red before her like a surge of blood, species, it closely resembles instinct, yet, as
And wet her feet; she felt it touch her kneeto the thoughts and actions of individual She started—waking from her terrors, she men, it is widely different. For as the will The gentle air, so odorous, fresh, and free,
Let through the room the midnight's dewy airof every man has its own peculiar form and Her bosom cooled; she spread her palms, and color,-making an important part of his indi
there viduality, so his habits will have their own Knelt humble, and to God confessed herself in character and freedom of growth. Those
A moon-beam came, and on her glowing cheek
JUSTICE sometimes is slow to be matured.
PUFF-ING HUSBANDS AND PATIENT WIVES. about my having gloves always nice, and
scold me if I appear in the streets with a
shabby pair on.' ALL MEN HAVE THEIR "HOBBIES ;" and
Mr. Morris knew all this to be true, and they claim a right to them. We cannot felt still more ashamed of his conduct ; howhowever see why these “hobbies” should be ever, like inost men, he was too proud to cultivated at the expense of the women.
confess his error, except indirectly. He took Their right is just as inalienable; and we
out his pocket-book, and said, " How much love to see them stand upon their rights.
will satisfy you for a year; not for gloves The above remarks are called forth by a
only, but for all the other etceteras ? I will very interesting little tale, signed “J. W.,"
make you an allowance; and then you need which we have just read in our excellent and not ask me for money whenever you want a useful contemporary the Family Herald. It pair of gloves or a new handkerchief.” is headed “Gloves and Cigars ;" and contains
The wife's eyes glistened with delight. a moral which we should like to see stereo. She thought for a moment, and then said, typed on the heart of every smoking husband I will undertake, on ten pounds, to find myin the kingdom. We know many of these self in all these things." foul-mouthed fellows, whose consumption of
Mr. Morris dropped the newspaper as if it smoke is enormous. It is “ odd," but as
had been red-hot, and stared at his wife. certainly true, that smoking husbands are
" I believe," he said, “ you women think that always stingy, selfish hunxes. They live for
we men are made of money. I don't spend themselves only, and care not how their
ten pounds in gloves and handkerchiefs in
poor spouses fare. Nor is it at all uncommon for
half-a-dozen years." some of them to be largely in debt for their
Mrs. Morris did not reply instantly, for she filthy luxury-tobacco. On this matter we
was determined to keep her temper. But could speak oracularly. But let “a hint" the quickness with which the needle moved, suffice, while we tell our tale of smoke :
showed that she had some difficulty to be "I must really have a pair of new gloves, do you spend in cigars ?"
amiable. At last she said, “ But how much James," said Mrs. Morris to her husband, as they sat together after tea.
This was a home-thrust, for Mr. Morris Mr. Morris had been reading the evening was an inveterate smoker; and consumed paper, but he laid it down and looked crossly twice as much on this needless luxury as the up. Really," he said, “ you seem to me to
sum his wife asked. He picked up the paper waste more money on gloves than any woman
and made no reply. I ever knew. It was only last week I gave “I don't wish you to give up smoking, you money to buy a new pair."
since you enjoy it so much,” she said ; " but The wite colored, and was about to answer surely cigars are no more necessary to a gentartly; for she felt that her husband had no tleman, than are gloves and handkerchiefs to cause for his crossness; but remembering a lady; and if you expend twenty pounds in that " a soft answer turneth away wrath," the one, I don't see why you should complain she said, “Surely you have forgotten, James. of my wishing ten pounds for the other." It was more than a month since I bought my “Pshaw !" said her husband, finally ; “I last pair of gloves; and I have been out a don't spend twenty pounds a year in cigars. great deal, as you know, in that time." It can't be."
Humph !" said Mr. Morris, taking up “ You bring home a box every three weeks; the paper again.
and each box, you say, costs about twentyFor several minutes there was silence. four shillings, which, at the end of the year, The wife continued her sewing, and the hus- amounts to more than twenty pounds." band read sulkily on; at last, as if sensible Mr. Morris fidgeted on his seat. His wife that he had been unnecessarily harsh, he saw her advantage; and, smiling to herself, ventured a remark by way of indirect pursued it. “ If
you had counted up," she apology.
said, as I have, every shilling you have “ Business is very dull, Jane,” he said, given me for gloves, handkerchiefs, shoes, " and sometimes I do not know where to look and ribbons, during a year, you would find it
I can scarcely meet my ex- amounted to ten pounds; and if you had kept penses.'
a statement of what your cigars cost, you The wife looked up with tears in her eyes. would see that I am correct in my estimate 1
am sure, James," she said, "that I try to as to them." be as economical as possible. I went with- “Twenty pounds! It can't be," said the out a new silk dress this winter, because the husband, determined not to be convinced. one I got last spring would answer, I thought, "Let us make a bargain,” replied the wife. by having a new body made-to it. My old Put into my hands twenty pounds to buy bonnet, too, was re-trimmed. And as to the cigars for you, and ten pounds to purchase gloves, you know you are very particular gloves, &c., for me. I promise faithfully to