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gaudy monarch of birds. On the roof-shaped hay. would say “Nature is the best teacher;"' rick, a whole flock of pigeons were dozing in a line, but be reasonable, my dear sir. Tell me what with their heads tucked comfortably under their sort of figure a natural (strictly natural) wings; and the noisy Guinea-fowls shrieked wildly below. What a snug picture of home comforts to young lady would cut in the world, in the excite all the enthusiasm of romantic young advo- present day. No, no; if we cannot have cates of " love in a village !"

them what we wish, it appears to me to be wiser to train them into that path which is

best calculated to carry them through the WOMEN AND NOVELS.

world with credit to themselves and advan

tage to those about them. 'Tis EDUCATION forms a Woman's mind, -

To do this satisfactorily, let the mind of Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.

the fair sex-and not their figure, be made

the first object of cultivation. I would try I DO NOT THINK, my dear sir, that any to make them believe that one will call YOU illiberal,” yet must I Comforts, yea ! joys ineffable, they find break a lance with you on the subject of Who seek the prouder pleasures of the mind." some remarks of yours, at page 190. You I would see them taught to "think;" then, there say, that the lamentable existing de- rely on it, their own judgment would very formities in the minds of females are in soon prevent them from reading any work great measure attributable to the unrestricted owing its origin to a mind less cultivated or perusal of Novels and Tales of Fiction." I less elevated than their own. They could really think this is an incorrect judgment of not enjoy such a work; nor need you fear yours; and it requires some explanation. turning them loose into any circulating

Had your remark been confined to the library. They would not be long in culling class of romances and similar masses of im- the flowers, and leaving the weeds. possible absurdities to be found in the CHEAP How this much-to-be-desired improvement PUBLICATIONS of the present day, your con- in education is to be attained, is, I admit, a demnation of them would have been more matter of no ordinary difficulty; for one evil deserved. In my opinion, you should blame- has grown upon another until it has become not the novels, but the style of education, almost insurmountable. The fact is, “accomwhich not merely permits but encourages plishments” are so much sought after, that their perusal. We should then arrive much even in the educatior. of those intended to nearer to a radical truth..

become “teachers," little else is thought of. The reading of the low class of books to Do we ever hear of a mother in want of a which I allude, is not the cause of the governess who troubles herself to ask any deformities of mind which you and all who thing of her qualifications - beyond music, love the sex so much condemn. It is merely French, and, perhaps, drawing ? All else is a one of the effects of the imperfect education matter of indifference; if not deemed absoof the female mind, so paramount in the lutely needless. Thus it may not be unfairly present day. A woman's mind would, if assumed, that by far too many of those who properly cultivated, soon discard every usurp the title of governess in the present species of common-place trash, sending it to day know little or nothing of the branches the tomb of all the Capulets.

of education which would assist their pupils I am not a novel reader, or a novel in the formation of their minds, --storing writer ; but I freely admit having oftentimes them with those rich fruits which would derived not only pleasure and amusement, tend to render them cultivated beings, but much valuable information and instruc- instead of, as now, mere dolls. tion from the perusal of some works of The desire on the part of the middle fiction. They are written by persons of no classes for “ private education" (so called), inconsiderable pretension to education and is one of England's besetting sins. We must talent; and amongst them, that great moral be “apeing our betters.” The value of emulaphilanthropist, Crabb, may be numbered. tion is lost sight of in the desire to be able to From such writers, nothing objectionable can repeat, after my Lady Noodle, "we have a well emanate; and their works cannot have the private governess.” But where, may I ask, is demoralizing effects you attribute to them. the value of emulation to be found, better

On the contrary, I feel sure that (as an than at a seminary ? Take any twenty of the auxiliary to education,) lessons of filial men who have become known in this country tenderness, and guides to the development for talent,-no consequence from what class of the human mind into channels that could you select them, whether in politics, medicine, not fail to lead to love and respect-are to law, or literature. Now, you will not find that be often found firmly portrayed in the any one of them owed the development and majority of good novels; when any such cultivation of his talent to a private tutor; lessons would be sought in vain elsewhere. but simply to that emulation which, whether You, natural philanthropist as you are, at asc hool or in a college, is unavoidable.

FRANKLIX.

excuse.

Who can doubt that the mind of a female

VULGAR ERRORS,—No. I. is open to the same influences, and that girls at school are just as susceptible of early

That man is a public benefactor, who dares to declare

"things as they are," and who seeks to set “crooked impressions as boys? Why, then, should a things straight.” different system be observed ? and why, in a family, should the boys be sent to school to IT IS CURIOUS TO OBSERVE, how Old become useful members of society, and the Wives' Fables and Sayings prevail throughgirls kept at home to be turned into pretty out succeeding generations. They become ornamental toys ?

household words; and are handed down I am aware that in thus discouraging the from family to family as truths which must "manufacture" of governesses, some other not be argued against or disputed. opening ought to be found for female occu- “Blind as a Mole,” is one of these vulgar pation: One great-perhaps the greatest errors of speech. We have exposed it at impediment to this, is the employment of men much length, in one of our earlier numbers; in situations which ought to be exclusively and now append a very interesting article, filled by women. This is in some measure bearing on the same question, which appears also the fault of the description of education in one of the better class of cheap periodiI have been condemning; for it is not easy cals.* We may observe, en passant, that to find women sufficiently grounded in rudi- we wish these said cheap periodicals were mental education to qualify them for such (all of them) more wholesome in their situations. If, however, an opening were tendency,--more impressed with the importafforded them for the exercise of such quali- ance of rightly directing the minds of our fications, their natural quickness would soon rising youth—more free from religious inprevent this from being an

But tolerance and sectarian taint. whilst so many thousands of young men are We understand that the aggregate number allowed to usurp situations which I have of “cheap" weekly periodicals sold, may always considered degrading to manhood be counted by millions. What a fearful (and which ought to be exclusively filled by power then rests in the hands of their refemales), so long will the present imperfect spective proprietors ! - Editors, of course, education of females continue.

there are none.

We very frequently glance In all our light businesses, young women at some of them; and amongst much that are far better adapted to officiate behind the is good, we find, invariably, that the EVIL counter than men. It is a most disgusting largely preponderates,--not overtly but anomaly to see (so called) men” measuring covertly. The poisoned barb lurks beneath yards of tape, and descanting upon the fall the tempting bait. Intolerance, intidelity, of a lady's dress !-over-grown fellows indelicacy, and grossness, are veiled by what (perhaps six feet high), who look as though, is called " innocent amusement.” nothing but their dainty fingers prevented The articles consist, for the most part, of them from lifting a plough ; but who lend love-tales, romances, Newgate Calendar themselves to the inculcation of lectures upon details of crime, seduction, murder, &c., &c. the "fascination of a Moire Antique, and The miscellanies are made up of good and the splendid effect of a French brocade."- bad; the latter are usually in the proportion of

C. GOODWYN.

at least two to one. Then, the * Notices to Correspondents,"--what tilthy, impure, and immodest"

are there given about TIME AND LOVE.

courtship, &c., to maids, wives, and widows! An artist painted Time and Love ;

This, every week, in one of the penny Time with two pinions spread above,

periodicals! Thus are our domestic servants And Love without a feather;

corrupted, our ladies'-maids irretrievably Sir Harry patronised the plan,

ruined in principle, and other members of And soon Sir Hail and Lady Ann

our household demoralised, --in thought, if In wedlock came together.

not in action. By the way, the Morning

Post has been lately very eloquent on this Copies of each the dame bespoke :

subject. The Artist, ere he drew a stroke,

Many a father, and many a mother, may Reversed his old opinions ; And straightway to the fair one brings

be heard in Manchester, Liverpool, and other Time in his turn devoid of wings,

large towns, cursing with a loud voice the And Cupid with two pinions.

proprietors of these cheap penny periodicals.

They have been the means of breaking What blunder's this?" the lady cries ; thousands of hearts, and of causing the “ No blunder, Madain," he replies,

transportation of children innumerable. At“I hope I'm not so stupid

tracted by the wood engravings-a deep lure Ench has his pinions in bis day, Time, before marriage, flies away; And-after marriage, Cupid.'

* The Leisure Hour.

answers

one

not.

these; and seduced by meretricious pictures was attracted by a rustling noise close under his artfully brought under the eye (these literary feet; and making a by no means graceful descent vampires go to work with an energy worthy to the spot wbence it proceeded, he noticed appearof a better cause),—the eye sees, the ing from a compact mass of stones and rubbish, passions become intlamed, the senses are

the hind quarters of a dark rat-looking animal, captivated. The victim reads, imbibes the which seemed violently convulsed by vain efforts poison; and perhaps, from that very hour

to pierce further into the ground. may be dated her (or his) ruin. The present and seizing the stumpy tail with as great glee,

To solve, if possible, his difficulty, I joined him; alarming state of society is attributable (if and almost with the same effect, as the malicious not solely, at all events to a frightful extent) "cutty-sark" did that of the poor “mare Maggy to the weekly issue of these cheap abomina- | ---pulled, from its dark and winding retreat, a tions. The letters we receive on the subject struggling mole. Many of our country readers, are heart-rending.

when boys, may have thoughtlessly caught such Whilst so much pelf is derivable from the by means of a trap—thoughtlessly we say, for the sale of this mental poison (whose proprietors mole is not an animal to be foolishly destroyed, as have but idea,-money), vain is it it often has been. As suddenly as a greasy-tailed for us, and for our respectable brethren of the pig the animal slipped from my fingers, and before

I could retake him, was half buried among the press, to raise our united voices. We are barking continually, as public watch-dogs; in a pocket handkerchief, escape was impossible,

roots of the grass : but when swung comfortably but people get used to the bark, and heed it and home we went with our prize, which puffed

Whilst therefore the vampires secure and snorted in the worst imaginable humor. the unthinking, easily-pleased' multitude, Anxious to watch the habits of our singular and live by preying upon their vitals (there friend, a temporary habitation was constructed for remains another account to be settled at a him, from an old tea chest; on which was fitted a future day),—WE are content to blow the glass lid with sufficient apertures to ailmit an trumpet and collect the mal-contents who abundant supply of air. A quantity of earth served may fly from the enemy's camp.

We

him for a bed; and worms, in dozens, constituted hardly need remark that our worthy little sire more ? And yet, on the third day from his

bis daily rations. Could any reasonable mole decontemporary, the Family Herald, is a most honorable exception among the cheap

capture, he was among the things which were !

Believing that some little interest may be taken weeklies. *

even in a humble mole, I purpose to detail our But let us now return from this digression, observations ; first, on his habits, and then on his --a digression which, at this season of the structure. Determined to decide for ourselves, if year, is called for most loudly; for pleasure possible, the much-vexed question of the mole's and excess will soon have undisputed sway. eyes, or no eyes," we set about a series of simple Our maxim is, “Be merry, and wise." experiments to test our friend's susceptibility to And now, we will pursue our inquiry into light. Of course we had the authority of many

naturalists in favor of his eyesight ; and, among the subject of “Blind as a Mole:

the rest, that of old Buffon. But, unfortunately On a bright sunshiny day, “in the merry month for the credibility of all his statements, we had of May," a few years ago, I found myself, in com- also read in the same gentleman's work, that four pany with an old schoolfellow, scrambling all-fours hundred men breakfasted on the egg of a dodo, and over an abrupt piece of rock, which looks up on

this dreadful swallow made us very suspicious. the one side to Edina's hoary-headed guardian,

As the box in which the mole resided was proArthur's Seat, and down on the other into the vided with a glass top, we could at pleasure keep placid face of Duddingston Loch. The spot is, to him in comparative darkness, or shower upon him a certain extent, historic ground, for along this a flood of light, by simply moving the gas flame little valley the young chevalier's army detiled, in so as to have it shaded by the side of the box, or 1745, on their way to the field of Preston Pans. placed in full blaze above the glass. I cannot exactly say what was the aim of our When in the former state, the little nibbler walk ; certainly my friend had an eye to the pic-devoured his supper of worms with great avidity; turesque, and inhaled many a good draught of seeming to be as comfortable on the surface of light and shade; while I picked up tiny morsels the mould as if in his subterranean burrow. of

grass and trashy-looking weeds, eyeing them But no sooner was the light brought to bear upon with greater glee than the Bathurst or San Fran- bim than he displayed the utmost uneasiness, and cisco pi grim fingers his jaundice-faced idol.

dived into the profundity of the soil. In his Having no exclusive object in our ramble, we marches also (which, by the way, though not so felt at liberty to draw amusement and instruction full of grace as a dancing-master's walk, were yet from anything, whether from the cirrus clouds, far from ungainly), he invariably appeared cognichasing each other across the clear blue field of sant of the presence of an opposing obstacle Heaven, or those noisy gentlemen the sable daws, without coming in actual contact with it; and careering round the distant towers of old Cruig- turned right or left, face about, in quite a dignified Millar Castle. The attention of my companion style. In some instances the smell of the obstacle

might have been the indicator of its presence; but

in order to overrule this objection, a variety of * We prove this, by so frequently extracting objects were employed, as the human hand, a from its stores of useful knowledge.

piece of wood, a table-knife, a bit of looking-glass,

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a tea-plate, and several other articles; and in- Nor is the difference in the skeleton less marked. variably with the same result. So that the next The bones of the hind leg exhibit no material time a man runs his head against a post, we will difference from the corresponding bones in higher try to forget the old saying, as blind as a mole.” animals, being elongated and cylindrical in shape,

In pursuit of his prey, we had another proof of as in the legs of a hare or rabbit. In the foreour frien:l's eyesight. "A few worms were dropped legs, however, we have a structure which almost quietly into the box, out of the mole's sight. deties description. Let us begin with the scapula, They speedily crept into the mould; but, in their or shoulder-blade, which, in man and most other perambulations again, saw light at intervals, not mammals, assumes a somewhat triangular fornı ; unfrequently a few inches before Mr. Mole's nose. having two flat faces, one of which is ornamented Woe betide the unhappy wight who did so! He with an upright ridge. This bone is familiar to was carefully watched until an opportunity every one who has picked the fiddle-bone of a occurred of getting him endwise into the sharp- rabbit. In the mole, the scapula loses its extoothed jaws of his destroyer; when he was panded form; and appears as a sprismatic club, quietly munched up, just as a child would munch with three sharp edges, and furrows between a stick of barley-sugar. This last fact was one

them. Collar-bones attach the shoulder-joint to of the most interesting which came under our the breast-bone, and are present only in a few of observation. Why, with his strong jaws and the lower animals, -as monkeys, kangaroos, bats, lancet teeth, he would not seize a worm by the and two or three others. In shape, it may be side (as I have seen a water-newt do scores of said generally to resemble Hogarth's line of times), and make his own of it, instead of allowing beauty ; being a long and beautifully curved bone. one after another to scamper off

' from between his Next let us look at the humerus. Instead of a very jaws,-I cannot understand; but that such fine long cylindrical bone, a shortened, flattened, is the case, I am well-assured. Our verdict on and sinuated piece of osseous matter is presented; the eyes of the mole amounts to this,—that the with curves and points, and flats, and depressions, mole does see, but that his range of vision is very sufficient to puzzle a mathematician. The aim of limited.

this wonderful formation of bone is the same as that Having thus declared that our friend has the of the large development of muscle; namely, to power of sight, it would be still more satisfactory give sufficient strength to enable the burrowing to find, if possible, his eyes. For this purpose a creature to overcome almost any difficulties, and party of young naturalists sat on his body; while resist impending dangers, which would inevitably one, with all the sage demonstrativeness of a destroy an animal of another organisation. Cuvier, proceeded with the work of dissection. It is impossible, in contemplating the anatomy As our observations on dissection of the head of such a creature, not to feel that it is as perfect entirely agree with those of H. K. Creed, Esq., in its kind as the gigantic elephant, or the wellof Christ's College, Cambridge, and published by proportioned horse; and that it is as forcibly dishim in the “ Naturalist,” February, 1852, it will, plays the power, wisdom, and goolness of the suffice to give his account. Having lately," he great and benevolent Maker of us all. says, been carefully examining the eyes of the

Subjects on natural history, treated thus common mole, I find that the little black tubercules which are seen, on turning aside the hair, on each popularly, and written in so amiable a spirit, side of the head, have each an optic nerve com

cannot but excite attention. How refreshing municating with the brain.” This is sufficient it would be to meet with many more such proof that the reviled little animal in question specimens; but alas ! they are rare indeed! enjoys the blessings of sight; for surely an Allwise Creator would never form an animal with all the apparatus for vision, and yet deny it the

CHILDHOOD. use of it.

Passing now from the eyes to the general struc- Our youth ! our childhood ! that spring of springs! ture of the mole, the first thing that strikes us on

'Tis surely one of the blessedest things removing his coat is the extraordinary develop

That nature ever invented! ment of the muscles on the forepart of his body, When the rich are wealthy beyond their wealth, in comparison with the binder quarter. The And the poor are rich in spirits and health, arms, or fore-legs, are short, stiff-looking append

And all with their lots contented ! ages, and covered with what would seem to be a There's little Phelim, he sings like a thrush, superabundance of flesh. This, however, is not in the seltsame pair of patchwork plush, the case ; large as the quantity is, it is firm, With the selfsame empty pockets, useful flesh, giving healthy strength to every ac- That tempted his dadily so often to cut tion of the body. The chest also is protected by a His throat, or jump in the water-buttthick and broal expansion of muscles. But, lack. But what cares Phelim? an empty nut a-day for the hind legs, they are as poor as a rat's. Would sooner bring tears to their sockets. Certain it is, that were the creature divided about the middle into two pieces, it would be difficult to

Give him a collar without a skirt, get over the impression that the one part belonged That's the Irish linen for shirt, to a larder resident, and the other to a poor half. And a slice of bread, with a taste of dirt, starved outcast. The aim in this unequal distri- That's Poverty's Irish butter, bution of flesh is very evident. From the nature And what does he lack to make him blest? of the mole's habits, it requites prodigious strength Some oyster-shells, or a sparrow's nest, in its fore-quarters, that it may overcome the many

A candle-end and a gutter. obstacles to its subterranean explorations.

T. Hoon.

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THOUGHTS ON SOMNAMBULISM. to talking and muttering in one's sleep,

which is not very uncommon. Shakspeare WHAT A REMARKABLE THING is som says—“ There are a kind of men so loose of nambulism! How mysterious in its opera- soul, that in their sleep will mutter their tions; how very singular in its effects! I affairs.". I am not enough of a physiologist have been led to notice this subject, from to explain the cause ; possibly, there is some having very recently had an opportunity of peculiarity in the conformation of the brain, making some observations on a case of the which induces this species of delirium; kind. The individual to whom I allude, had there is evidently an unequal effect on the been under my notice for five or six weeks. senses; for while part of them are in a state He was of the phlegmatic temperament, and of torpor the rest are unweariedly active. A about twenty years old. He had been phrenologist might perhaps ascribe it to an accustomed to the habit of walking in his undue excitement of the organ of ideality; sleep from childhood; though the habit had or probably the organ of memory may be increased with his age. One other member deficient. of the same family, I may remark, was also Somnambulism has very likely been the subject to it.

cause of many of the ghost stories which Its mode of manifestation was by midnight have been propagated in all ages. Let us wanderings, whilst in a state of sleep. The suppose a case as above; where an individual somnambule would go into nearly every is in the habit of promenading, dressed only room in the house which was accessible; in his robe de chambre. If seen by any there busying himself in moving about or person not acquainted with the circumstance, arranging various articles which were in the the latter imagines he beholds an apparition. way. These peregrinations took place nearly Too terrified to approach, and examine the every night; and everything that was cause, he becomes convinced of the reality “ remarkable generally commenced at a of “spiritual appearances ;” and spreads certain hour-.(between twelve and one). terror amongst his neighbors. Something

This person would sometimes do the most similar has been introduced by Shakspeare extraordinary things; things which would in his tragedy of Macbeth, where Lady Macappear almost incredible, although well- beth repeats the circumstances of the murder attested. He would go out of doors, and

committed. It is also the basis of the after crossing two or three fields, and a

popular opera La Sonnambula, wherein the narrow plank over a bridge, he would return, heroine, Amina is first disgraced but afterHe also performed various domestic duties, wards vindicated by means of a similar such as usually require some little skill; denouement. The doctor in Macbeth remarks, viz., lighting a fire, unlocking and unbarring “I have known those who have walked in a door, wrapping up parcels, &c.

their sleep, who have died holily in their When we remember that these things were

beds." May this prove true of all who are done without the assistance of the eyes, and

thus afflicted I–CERURA. by the sense of touch only,—does it not appear marvellous ? The individual referred

SUMMER-ADIEU! to was sometimes watched while in this state, and followed; when, if addressed, he Good bye to thee, Summer, I bid thee adieu ! would reply to any questions asked. The

For the leaves of the forest are faded and few ;

The breath of Old Winter hath silvered the spray, were, of course, frequently mal

And night is fast creeping on beautiful day. à propos ; and appeared to have reference to some imaginary circunstance that had taken Good bye to thee, Summer, in woodland and dell place.

The flowers have bade thce for ever farewell; Another remarkable peculiarity in this The smile of thy coming their race will restore, case was, that on the following morning But they, dearest Summer, will meet thee no there was a recollection of what had taken more! place the previous night, although it only Good bye to thee, Summer; our parting doth seem left the shadowy impress of a dream! In To me as the close of a heautiful dream, most cases I have read of, the persons which fancy hath wreathed in radiance so bright, affected were unconscious of it. It is very And broken her spell in the darkness of night. difficult, I should imagine, to cure their mania ; for, when the doors have been Farewell, oh farewell then, and thou wilt away: secured, certain somnambulists have been I ask not why hurry, nor bid thee to stay, known to make their exit from the windows. Nor vainly repine-chilly Winter must reignIt is just possible that constant watching of But hope, dearest Summer, to meet thee again. the person, and rousing him on any attempt Good bye to thee, Summer, I bid thee adieu ! to quit the apartment, might lessen its effect. For the leaves of the forest are faded and few; Somnambulism has excited many specula- The breath of Old Winter hath silvered the spray, tions. It is evidently of a different nature And night is fast creeping on beautiful day.

answers

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