Obrazy na stronie

twelve shillings. The duty aforesaid is to be furnished with a third eyelid, a fine membrane or paid by the person keeping a dog, or having the skin, which is constantly moved very rapidly over same in his custody or possession, whether the the eyeball by two muscles placed in the back same be his property or not, such person not dis- of the eyes. One of the muscles ends in a loop; covering the owner thereof, who shall have been the other in a string which goes through the loop, duly assessed for the same. No person is to be and is fixed in the corner of the membrane, to chargeable with duty to any greater amount than pull it backward and forward. If you wish to £39 12s. for any number of hounds, or £9 for any draw a thing towards any place with the least number of greyhounds kept by him in any one force, you must pull directly in the line between year. The only exemptions to the tax are, a dog the thing and the place; but if you wish to draw belonging to her Majesty,oranyofthe Royal Family, it as quickly as possible, and with the most conor a dog or whelp which at the time of returning venience, and do not regard the loss of force, you the lists of dogs as required by the Act, shall not must pull it obliquely, by drawing it in two direcactually be of the age of six calendar months, or tions at once. Tie a string to a stone, and draw any dog bona fide and wholly kept and used in it towards you with one hand; then make a loop the care of sheep or cattle, or removing the same, on another string, and running the first through provided that no such dog shall be a greyhound, it, draw one string in one hand, not towards you, hound, pointer, setting dog, spaniel, lurcher, or but sideways, till both strings are stretched in a terrier.-E. R.

straight line; you will see how much more easily [We sincerely hope that the tax upon people the stone moves quickly than it did before, when who keep dogs, will be rigorously enforced. The pulled straight forward.—WILLIAM P. number of snarling curs, (half starved, and more than half mad), that infest our streets, is perfectly The Advantages arising from the Admission of abominable.]

Air to the Roots of Plants.—The advantages of

the admission of the air about the roots of a plant Vegetable Life--As long as a plant continues are not, apparently, sufficiently appreciated in this to vegetate, we say it lives. When it ceases to country. In the south of France, when vegetation vegetate, we conclude that it is dead. The life of does not advance satisfactorily, a gardener will go vegetables, however, is not so intimately connected over his crops, stirring up the soil to a considerwith the phenomena of vegetation that they can able depth with some such tool as a little bigot. not be separated. Many seeds may be kept for Indeed, the free admission of air to the ground is years without giving any symptom of vegetation; considered of so much importance, that light rains yet, if they vegetate when put into the earth, we

are deprecated; hence, on an occasion when a say that they possess life ; and, if we would speak market-gardener was congratulated on the growaccurately, we must say also that they possessed ing, showers that had fallen in the night, be life even before they were put into the earth—for replied in a pet, Bah! La pluie ne vaut rien it would be absurd to suppose that the seed pour les jardins.” He added, that rain hardens obtained life merely by being put into the earth. the surface of ground without reaching to the roots In like manner, many plants decay, and give no of plants; but that when water is let into the symptoms of vegetation during winter; yet if channels between beds in ridges, it goes straight they vegetate when the mild temperature of to the roots of the plants on them without despring affects them, we consider them as having priving them of air. This observation may be lived all the winter. The life of plants then, and applicable to the practice of watering gardens the phenomena of vegetation, are not precisely with the rose watering-pot or engine.—B. the same thing, for the one may be separated from the other, and we can even suppose the one to Habits of the Ostrich-Knowing how indeexist without the other. Nay, what is more, we farigable you are in penning down all that becomes can in many cases decide, without hesitation, that known about that singular creature the ostrich, I a vegetable is not dead, even when no vegetation send you the subjoined, copied from “A Hunter's appears, and the proof which we have for its life Life in South Africa.”—“We fell in with several is, that it remains unaltered. For we know that nests of ostriches, and here I first ascertained a when a vegetable is dead, it soon changes its singular propensity peculiar to these birds. If a appearance, and falls into decay. Thus, it ap- person discovers the nest, and does not at once pears, that the life of a vegetable consists in two remove the eggs, on returning he will most prothings :-1. In remaining unaltered when circum- bably find them all smashed. This the old birds stances are unfavorable to vegetation. 2. In almost invariably do, even when the intruder has exhibiting the phenomena of vegetation, when not handled the eggs, or so much as ridden within circumstances are favorable. When neither of five yards of them. The nest is merely a hollow these two things happen, we may say that a scooped in the sandy soil, generally amongst heath vegetable is dead-R.

or other bushes ; its diameter is about seven feet.

It is believed that two hens often lay in one nest. The Eyes of Birds. I send you the following The hatching of the eggs is not left, as is genecurious particulars of the eye of a bird. They rally believed, to the heat of the sun, but on the are attributed to the observation of Lord contrary, the cock relieves the hen in her incuBrougham :-“A singular provision is made for bation. These eggs form a considerable item in keeping the surface of the bird's eye clean--for the bushman's cuisine, and the shells are converted wiping the glass of the instrument as it were, into water-flasks, cups, and dishes. I have often and also for protecting it, while rapidly flying seen Bush-girls and Bakalahari women, who through the air and through thickets, without belong to the wandering Bechuana tribes of the hindering the sight. Birds are for these purposes Kalahari desert, come down to the fountains from

their remote habitations, sometimes situated at an once or even twice. The easiest way of sowing it amazing distance, each carrying on her back a is to mix it with its bulk or twice its bulk of sand; kaross of network containing from twelve to it enables us to distribute it better. You may fifteen ostrich-eggshells, which had been emptied then sow or plant or do as you like with it; and by a small aperture at one end; these they fill there is the great advantage, that, besides with water, and cork up the hole with grass !- the peat charcoal, which in itself is always good The above, added to the valuable remarks you for the land, you have a strong and stimulating have before inserted with reference to this animal, dressing obtained from the sewage. Mix it with can hardly fail to prove interesting to your three times its bulk of sand, or light soil, and it readers.-C. A. T.

makes a first-rate top-dressing for anything.

There are other stimulants sold by all the seedsPeculiarities of Lightning.A very surprising men; but, rely on it, that if ground will not pay property of lightning of the zig-zag kind, especially for good dressing, it will never pay with starving. when near, is its seeming omnipresence. ' If two -GEORGE GLENNY. persons, standing in a room, looking different ways, and a loud clap of thunder, accompanied with zig- Questions about a Piping Bullfinch.-I bought zag lightening, happens—they will both distinctly this Spring, a Piping Bullfinch, my dear sir, for sec the flash at the same time. Not only the which I gave £3. 3s. He piped delightfully one illumination, but the very form of the lightning air; and all the household, I may say, have beitself

, and every angle it makes in its course, will come attached to the little fellow. Since he began be as distinctly perceptible as though they had moulting in the beginning of August, he has not both looked directly at the cloud from whence it piped a single note, and searcely chirped his own proceeded. If a person happened at that time to natural note. Still he eats well

, and looks fat and be looking on a book, or other object which he held saucy. Will he not sing the tune he has been in his hand, he would distinctly see the form of taught till next spring? And may I hope that he the lightning between him and the object at will certainly do so then?. According to your inwhich he looked. This property seems peculiar structions, which I carefully note, I give him very to lightning, and not to any other kind of fire little hempseed, but why ?—as he is so greedily whatever.-Rosa B.

fond of it, can it do him harm? I thought the

instinct of Nature was sufficient to guard all On the Manuring of Gardens.—There is animals from taking what would harm them. A scarcely any one operation so generally neglected paragraph on the subject, for the benefit of your in small gardens as manuring, and also too much subscribers, would do good to many as uninstructed avoided in many large ones. So long as the ground as myself. It is curious to observe the cunning will bring a flower or a vegetable, the gradual ness with which the little fellow eyes the hempdecline of quality of the productions is scarcely seed, and how instantaneously he selects it in seen until the soil is in its last stage of exhaus-preference to anything else given him. I feed tion. Now, let us strongly recommend everybody him almost entirely upon canary and flax sced, who has forgotten to feed the ground, to give it adding an occasional pinch of maw seed, and also some sort of dressing at once. If they can get plenty of groundsel and plantain. He likes the stable-dung, well rotted, be it so ; and, if they can- sow-thistle. Is this bad for him? [No.) Somenot get this, use cow-dung; and supposing neither times I give him a little scalded and bruised rape to be had, they must resort to artificial, or, at least, seed. He had lost one of his claw nails before I other manures. If stable-dung or cow-dung be used, bought him, and often looks gouty about the feet. lay it three inches thick all over the ground, and I try to wash them for him ; but he does not like dig it in as the soil is turned over; that is, lay it at being handled, and he resists all attempts pertinathe bottom of the trench, about a spade deep. They ciously. I now coax him into a little wooden cage, may not, with their light crops, have all the benefit by putting his favorite food into it, where, through the first year; but all cabbage, carrot, and crops the bars, I can brush his claws with a soft brush whose roots descend a few inches, will be better for and water. He does not relish this, however. it directly. If the dung be well rotted into mould, Can you tell me of a better way? Of course I or nearly so, it may be forked in, and mixed with clean his cage daily, and give him plenty of fresh the top spit, and the benefit will be felt directly. sand. You will believe I am anxious to preserve Artificial manure must be used according to these my pet, when I tell you I commonly rise and directions, but the most effective dressing is the attend to him and a mule canary at half past five peat charcoal, through which the sewerage of every morning: I am sorry to say we have not London is filtered at the works at Fulham, and found the Zollverein cages (answer as well as we which effects what some people wonld call a had expected from your report. My daughter miracle. The foulest filth of the sewers is put into bought one on yonr recommendation, and finds her the filter in a state the most offensive that can be birds scatter their seed from it more than they did imagined, and comes through as pure as from a from the old-fashioned cage. It is fair, however, fountain. It is drunk with impunity, and nobody that I should state it is not one of those that také could tell that it had not come pure from the off from the top,--but it opens with a drawer. spring: The charcoal stops and gets saturated Yet it is of zinc.-A Constant SUBSCRIBER, Frant, with the strong manure, and, when dried, is sold September 26. by the ton, the sack, or the basket ; and this must [Keep your bird warm till he has thoroughly first be sowed over the ground, at the rate of three moulted. He will not sing till next Spring. You pounds weight to a rod of ground, which should be may fully anticipate the pleasure of hearing your previously dug, and washed in a little way by a favorite sing again if he has been well taught. shower or two of rain, or by watering it well | Hempseed is not good for birds. It is heating,


at once ruining their plumage, and gradually con- pests, one of which contained four eggs. This suming their insides. Whilst they are moulting, last, our gardener believes to bave been destroyed it may be sparingly given. No doubt he does by a jay. I wish you had been here this morning! cunningly watch for In all other respects you We mustered nineteen birds on the wing,- all in treat him properly. Canary and fax should be splendid plumage, and flying about in every direchis general food. Hlis feet should certainly be kept tion. You really must come down oftener. If you clean, and his legs ought to be soaked in warm have not time, ---see if you cannot "make" it.

In the spring, he should have a square Henry Wollaston, Welling, Kent, Oct. 3. water-bath attached to the open door of his cage. [We really do take shame to ourself for having, He will then wash regularly. These birds should apparently, so neglected you. We can only plead not be unnecessarily handled. We still continue the multiplicity of our avocations and engageto recommend the Zollverein cages, which exclude ments, asa reasonable excuse for our prolonged vermin. They can be made so as to prevent the absence. Our pen is never slumbering; our body waste of seed which yon complain of. If we can knows but little rest; our mind is rarely at repose; aid you further, pray say so, We always take and as for our legsthey bid fair to discover “ the delight in giving advice to those who love their perpetual motion.” Our eyes are not short-sighted; pets.)

our tongue is not tied ; our hands are not idle.

We name this to you, my dear sir; but it is meant How to cure a Cold.-A cold, my dear Sir, is for many others also. We have no time to "write" an unpleasant companion; although, in a former formal excuses. We rejoice exceedingly at your number, you have sung so sweetly about being good fortune ; and hope next season will be a still "nursed by those one loves" during its continu- more prosperous one for you.] ance. That is “poetry; " but let us try“ prose." Hundreds of remedies are daily prescribed for a Fossil Turtle.—Mr. Geo. Fowlstone, lapidary, cold-many of very opposite tendencies; and as it in the Arcade, Ryde (formerly of Doncaster), has is the nature of the complaint to disappear of its lately procured from the quarries at Swanage, one own accord in a very few days, every remedy in of the largest and most entire fossil turtles ever succession has come in for a share of praise ! discovered. The top shell is quite perfect, and They may be all summed up, however, in water- measures 20 inches by 154 inches, and is 4 feet 9 gruel or spare living, moderate warmth and per- inches in circumference. The fossil is imbedded spiration, and one or two gentle purgatives. Sor in a block of stone, weighing 3 cwt. He has also not satisfied with this method of starving a cold, a portion of another fossil turtle of nearly the have maintained that quite an opposite plan of same dimensions, which was broken in quarrying. diet and treatment is the proper one.

A fit of -C. P. intoxication has, no doubt, sometimes cured a disagreeable cold, as well as plunging into a cold Are Variegated Leaves produced by Disease ?-bath, or a surfeit in a warm, crowded room. But If variegation proceeds from a disease in the plants, these are uncertain and doubtful expedients, and the following account of a variegated bolly shows their consequences may, in nine cases out of ten, that some plants fatten pretty well in their “illbe hurtful. Unquestionably, the most rational ness.” I cannot ascertain the age of the tree I plan is the starving system. For allaying the allude to; but the circumference of the stem (one tickling cough, an infusion of linseed may foot from the ground), is 5 feet 6 inches; and six be freely taken; infusion of quince feet from the ground, 4 feet 10 inches. The diseeds; or a solution of gum arabic in water. ameter of the branches is 30 feet; and the height

These are preferable to the sweet sirups in of the tree, 35 feet. It would have been larger if general use, as the former may be taken in large it had got fair play; but it is much injured by its quantities, and repeatedly, without loading the neighbors, which are two large trees,-namely, stomach. I throw these observations out now, as an ash, and an elm.-P. MACKENZIE. being “ seasonable." We, English, are seldom free from colds. You tell us very plainly why" Leaf Mould.— Now that the autumn, the season it is so !-Sarau R., Clifton.

of falling leaves, has arrived, I would make a few [Say, Miss Sarah, in your next, whether you brief observations on the subject of obtaining a follow our advice, and look well to your“ under supply of leaf-moull for the ensuing season. Every standing." Dry feet, obtainable only by wearing person is fully aware of the very beneficial results strong and reasonably thick boots, is the great of using this ingredient in the formation of comsecret of keeping free from colds. Your advice posts for numerous families of plants; and at this is how to cure a cold,-our's how to avoid its season every means should be resorted to for visitation. We shall be “at" your sex again on procuriog a sufficient quantity. Oak leaves are this matter, very shortly! We cannot, somehow, said to be the best for this purpose, from the help loving you,—with all your faults !)

presence of the substance known chemically as

tannin. I believe beech, chestnut, and various Canaries Living and Breeding in the Open other leaves are very little inferior to oak leaves. Air.-I send you special notice, my dear sir, of The leaves having been collected together, should mother interesting fact,—the more interesting as be thrown into a pit, and left there till fermenit occurs so late in the year (Oct. 3). One of my tation takes place. Frequent turning will be found pet canaries has this very morning presented me to greatly facilitate the decomposition of the leaves. with a nest of four young ones. It is her fifth In the spring, when dry, warm weather occurs, I brood this season,-making altogether twenty-one would advise the removal of the leaves from the birds hatched and reared by herself

. I may add, pit or heap in which they have been rotting during that she has, during the summer, abandoned two the wiuter, to an open, airy situation, where there


is a possibility of their becoming moderately dry. of the measure. There are two kinds of receipt I would recommend the mould to be spread out stamps for the choice of the public,-viz. the on a dry portion of the ground for this purpose ; stamped paper and an adhesive stamp, bearing the and when it has become sufficiently dry, it may Queen's head printed in blue, and somewhat larger be removed to a shed, or any other place where it in size than the postage stamp. One of these will be protected from heavy rains, and also be dry must be used for all payments amounting to 40s. enough for using at a moment's notice. At the and upwards. If the adhesive stamp be used," present time, all kinds of soil should, if practicable, it must be obliterated by the name or initials of be placed in shelter of some description ; as it the

person giving it, so that it may not be twice will be found much more useful in the winter and used. The penalty for not defacing a stamp is early spring than if allowed to become completely £10, and for using a stamp twice, £20.—Civis. soddened by incessant moisture.-W. B.

Habits of the Herring.–When a shoal of herrings Female Confidence and Reliance.—I send you swims near the surface of the water in calm the following, cut from a local newspaper. It is weather, the sound of their motion is audible at a an extract from some book, no doubt; but it is small distance, like rippling of water or the “the fashion," now-a-days, to "steal ” and never pattering of rain ; and when they move rapidly at acknowledge the obligations, even for an idea, night, they throw off a phosphorescence which one is under. However, here is the extract; and appears like a beautiful bright line or belt. But as it is full of poetical feeling, it will, I know, all the full-grown and healthy herrings generally please you


readers :- “There is no one swim at a considerable depth, and only the thing more lovely in this life, more full of the young, the full, and the sick, swim near the sur. divinest courage, than when a young maiden, from face; so that the indication waited for by the her past life--from her happy childhood, when she fishermen of the north-west Scotlsnd and other ramüled over every field and moor around her districts, of flocks of gulls, large fishes, and other home; when a mother anticipated her wants, and appearances of the pursuit of shoals, is exceedingly soothed her little cares; when brothers and sisters deceptive, and points only to small and worthless grew from merry playmates to loving, trustful detachments, at the expense of neglecting the friends; from Christmas gatherings and romps; main army of the herrings. Shoals are confrom summer festivals in lower or garden; from siderably controlled in their destination by comthe rooms sanctified by the death of relatives ; parative excess of light and heat, and spawn in from the secure backgrounds of her childhood, and much deeper water, and at a much greater girlhood, and maidenhood-looks out into the dark distance from the shore, in a summer of extraand unilluminated future, away from all that; and ordinary sunshine and warmth, than in an ordiyet,-unterrified undaunted, leans her fair cheek nary or especially a cloudy and coldish summer. upon her lover's breast, and whispers, “Dear Hence the deep-sea herring fishermen of Holheart! I cannot see- - but I believe. The past was land are sometimes eminently successful, when the beautiful, but the future I can trustwith thee !" | in-shore herring fishermen of Britain encounter It may be said, that this is very pretty to read, more or less failure.-ANGELINA. but that it never occurs in real life. Let us say * seldom," for I would fain hope we are not quite On the Feeding of Poultry.-In a little work all unnatural.-PuæBE, Brighton.

on the Domestic Management of Fowls, &c., I

observe the following, which is so much to the Birds Confired in Cages.— I wish you would point of properly feeding them, that I send it for raise

your voice against the cruel practice of con- insertion in Our JouknAL. “It cannot be too fining birds in cages. Some are incarcerated in strongly impressed on all feeders of stock, that euch small prisons of wire, that they can get no the food eaten has to serve several distinct purexercise whatever. Their feet too are clogged up poses when taken into the body. One portion is with dirt, and their food is very frequently musty consumed in supporting the natural warmth of How many thousands of innocent victims die the animal ; another set of substances supplies yearly from neglect! And yet people say they are the nourishment required for the growth of the * fond of birds !” Cruelty to dumb animals is all body, and replaces the general washing that the fashion. Birds are robled of their eggs, and occurs; a third yields the materials from which people buy them; of their young too, and people the bones are formed; and a fourth supplies the buy them. Aye, and they let their children tease fat: we may therefore speak of the following them from morning till night. Is not this too classes of food :- 1. Warmth-giving Food :-As bad ?-HELEN B., Mile End.

starch, which forms almost the entire bulk of [You are quite right, Helen. Confining birds rice and potatoes.—2. Flesh-forming Food :in cage is barbarous. But the public are as hard. Which exists in large proportions in wheat, oathearted as a flinty rock. Neither we nor yourself meal, peas, beans, middlings, and sharps, and in can make any impression on them.]

somewhat smaller quantity in barley, Indian corn,

&c.—3. Bone-making Food :-Which is found in The New Receipt Stamp.The new act relating larger proportion in the husk, or outer part of to the penny receipt stamps came into operation the grain, than in the inner part.–4. Fat-forming on the 11th ultimo; and as it has been officially Food :-Consisting of fatty or oily substances ; announced that the stamp office intend to proceed these occur to a considerable extent in Indian against all persons for giving receipts on unstamped corn (the yellow variety), middlings, bran, &c. paper, or for otherwise infringing the new law, and For eggs which have to travel, a Mr. Tegetmeier to give part of the penalty to the informers, it may recommends a packing of hay in preference to be useful to call attention to the leading features any other material. He says: “This seuson, I forwarded two sittings of eggs to the far north arned vessels a very hazardous undertaking. of England, one packed most carefully in bran, i The fortifications originally consisted of four the other in hay; of the first not one egg was castles; two on the European, and two on the hatched, whilst every one of the second produced Asiatic side. Of these, two stand at the southern a chick; and of a sitting that I received this extre nity, and two about eighteen miles further season, which was similarly packed, every egg up the strait. The name Dardanelles is now was fertile, although the basket had travelled especially applied to some fortifications erected in from the north, by coach, rail, and carrier.-Ann modern times between the new and the old castles, R., Halsted.

a short distance from the entrance of the straits.

The number of guns mounted on these fortifiThe Climate of England.-When we speak of cations, and some others of lesser importance, is the climate of England, we take in a very wide nearly seven hundred; besides eight large mortars range of temperature. The air on the south-west for throwing shells. Among them are several coast of England is, at an average, seven degrees immense guns, from which stone shot are dishigher at night than it is in London, and ten charged. The quantity of powder which these degrees higher than in the midland and eastern guns require is enormous; the largest is charged counties. The harvest of the south is always a with 330lbs of powder, and throws a stone shot month, and sometimes nearly two months, in ad-800 or 1000lbs weight. They are more forvance of the harvest of the north. The island of midable in appearance than reality, and the Great Britain is a little type of the world itself; firing of such large pieces of ordnance is not unand invalids, instead of travelling abroad for attended with danger to their own artillerymen.health, may easily find, within a few miles of PHEBE, Brighton. home, the species of climate which their disease requires. The heat may be less intense than it Bronchitis.- A writer in the Baltimore Sun, is in continental places of resort, but the cold is whose family has been severely afllicted with less intense also. The extremes of climate are bronchitis, recommends the following as a remedy both reduced and moderated in England in a most from which he experienced great relief :-" Take remarkable manner. The frosts of London are not honey in the comb. Squeeze it out, and dilute it so severe as those of Madrid, where the sentinels with a little water ; occasionally moistening the have been known to be frozen to death at their lips and mouth with it. It has never been known posts; neither are they so severe as they are in to fail; in cases even, where children had throats Rome, and many other cities which enjoy a much so swollen as to be unable to swallow.". This is higher temperature in the summer months. More- certainly a simple remedy; and it may be a very over, we are free in this country from the malaria efficacious one. The simplest remedies are almost which prevails almost everywhere else; so that, ever the best.–VIOLET, Worcester. with all our disadvantages, we have reason to congratulate ourselves upon the favorable position How to Protect Plants from Frost.—Great which we occupy on the globe. The uniform protection will be afforded to plants, if near a wall, temperature of the Atlantic ocean, which almost by the following very simple method. Tie together surrounds us, tends to preserve this uniformity, small handfuls of straw--say perhaps forty in each which so happily distinguishes even the changeable ,--suspend them on lines before the plants or trees, climate of England. If we may judge from the letting one line overlap the other. Small branches physical, intellectual, and moral character of the of birch, beech, or fir may be used instead, susEnglish, from the duration of life, and the progress pending it on cords in the same manner. A neater of civilisation, there is no country in the world practice is found in the use of the woollen net. which has more to boast of; yet many countries This article is woven for the purpose, with a mesh have mild evenings and warm nights, and long of from half an inch to an inch square. If a board seasous of cloudless skies, which we do not enjoy two feet wide be affixed to the top of the wall, in --they have vineyards also, and olive gardens, and a roof-like direction, and the net be fastened to its orange groves, of which we know nothing. But edge, and extended thence to the foot of the wall, they also have evils to counterbalance these bles- a neat and efficient protection will be afforded, and sings-evils of which we are ignorant. One thing no disfigurement to the most ornamental garden.is balanced with another in this world—blessings ANGELINA. and curses, like two hampers on an ass's back, go always together, and the weight of the one seems The Sun, glorious in his great Might.-The generally to correspond to that of the other.- action of the sun, says Dick, upon all

ings that LECTOR.

receive his rays is, in a general way, a matter of

common notoriety. But we suspect that few The Dardanelles.---Apropos des bottes. The persons are aware of the amount of that force, or strait of the Dardanelles, which divides Europe of the views of modern philosophers as to the from Asia, is upwards of fifty miles in length, manner in which it takes effect. We may view with an average breadth of two miles. The shore the surface of a lake exposed to the sun's rays on either side is fringed with cypress groves, and during a warm summer's day, whilst the whole the strait itself presents a very animated appear- scene may seem to be one of the utmost tranance; thousands of white-sailed caiques gliding quillity, so that we might naturally conclude that lightly over the waves, and coming and going no movement of any importance was then going incessantly from shore to shore. There is a strong on. It will be found, however, that such, in current setting constantly from the sea of Marmora reality is not the case; for the rays of the sun in the Archipelago, and this, added to the defences exert a force of which we can scarcely form any of the place, render the forcing of the passage by adequate idea. Supposing the lake is only two

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