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PHRENOLOGY FOR THE MILLION, may be conceived that no exercise of a faculty

is possible without an organ, but that the organ No. XLVII.-PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN.

may exist without the faculty to which it belongs, BY F. J. GALL, M.D.

being put in exercise. (Continued from Page 106.)

Professor Ackermann will have it, that men

cannot refrain from doing things, for which they LET US NOW PROCEED with another branch of have received material conditions or organs. our interesting Inquiry :

He does not perceive that he contradicts himself.

According to him, the cochlea of the ear is the ARE OUR ACTIONS UNCONTROLLABLE BY REASON organ of music; according to him, too, the

OF OUR PROPENSITIES AND OUR FACULTIES thalami nervorum opticorum (couches optiques,) BEING INNATE ?

and well-organised senses are the organs of the What I have now said on moral liberty, proves

imitative arts; he likewise maintains that the how far I am from maintaining the uncontrol organ of painting is a practised eye. Now, if it able character of our actions. It is not because be true that no organ" can exist without action those who accuse me of this absurdity do not and exercise, it follows that every nian and every

animal which has the cochlea in the ear, must understand my principles; neither will I say that it is through ignorance, or through piety, perform or compose music; that every man and that they have assumed so litterly the character every animal possessing the thalami, and senses of censors of my doctrine. No; let us leave it to well organised, niust be skilful in the invitative arts, posterity to do justice to their motives and in- and that every man and every animal having a tentions, and let us pursue our own task of recti- practised eye, must constantly be engaged in fying erroneous ileas.

painting. I shall not remark how singular it is, Professor Ackermann of Heidelburg, whom my

to hear it said that we can acquire an organ, to adversaries in Germany have adopted as their those who pretend to understand thoroughly the leader, and whom my a-iversaries in France have true principles of the physical organisation. faithfully copied, has directed himself with a sus

OBJECTION. picious animosity against the innateness of the

2 77. “When the organ becomes atrophous, moral qualities and intellectual faculties. If these the faculty of the aptitude which has existed by dispositions are innate, said he we have done with this organ, immediately ceases. This, experience moral liberty; our actions are inevitable, and teaches us. A musician of the greatest powers, malefactors of all kinds have gained their cause. if he does not cultivate music, loses the faculty of Observe to what means he has recourse to prove perceiving and producing tones ; the painter this consequence.

foses his talent when he no longer exercises it. OBJECTION

This is what will hold true of all the organs of

the animal body. The muscles of an individual, “ An organ is the real representation of the obliged by disease to remain a long time stretched faculty itself. The organ being given, its action on the bed, become atrophous, and the faculty of is so likewise.

A muscle which contracts is a motion diminishes in the same proportion. Tho different muscle from one which is extended. eye becomes atrophous in the darkness of the This is the true definition of an organ; but it prison, and the faculty of seeing is proportionally cannot be adapted to the trash of Dr. Gall, since diminished. What need we more to prove, that he would be obliged to say, that the organs being without a manifestation of the faculty, no new given, their peculiar action is so likewise, which organ is produced or exists, and that the dimiannihilates the liberty of man.'

nution and cessation of activity, involve the REPLY.

wasting and gradual disappearance of the organ ?" All the objections of Ackermann turn upon the

ANSWER. same false definition of organ, and I should be I have several times repeated my confession of almost ashamed to regard them as worthy of the faith; it is, that the want of exercise may retard least attention, if they had not found so many the activity and the development of an organ. It partisans.

is on this that I found the advice to control as If the organ and the manifestation of its much as possible, in children, the exercise of functions are the same thing, the organ cannot organs which may become dangerous ; to prevent, exist, unless its function takes place, and the by this means, the facility of action which would agent must disappear every time the function be the consequence, and to favor, on the contrary,

consequences which Professor Acker- the action of organs whose tendency is advantamann himself derives immediately from his defi- geous; but I have never inferred from this, that nition. Thus, not to lose an organ, we must without some manifestation of the faculty, any keep them all in eternal activity, together; we organ can be produced, or can exist. Men and must always, and at the same time, taste, smell, animals bring with them, in coming into the hear, look, touch, run, sing, dance, speak, eat, world, all the organs of the functions of the think, learn by heart, judge, will, &c. In sleep, senses, and even the internal organs which all the organs of animal life would disappear. Ackermann supposes, such as the organ of will, Who does not see the absurdity of Ackermann's of comparison, of abstraction. It would be diffidefinition, and, consequently, the absurdity of his cult for him to call in question that we are born whole argument ?

with eyes and their nerves, with the tongue, nose, I call an organ, tho material condition which ears, hands, and with the nerves of all these renders possible the exercise or the manifestation parts, with the great cerebral ganglion, heretofore of a faculty. According to this definition, it I called the thalami; in fine, with the two heinis.

ceases

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pheres of the brain. These parts, therefore, laws of a blind necessity, and not by those of
exist, and are born previous to all exercise, before reason. But, fortunately, Dr. Gall's doctrine of
any manifestation of faculty; and though so organs is worth no more than his logic, and his
many animals remain deaf and blind for several observations of nature taken in a mass. It is
days, and new-born infants can neither compare evident, that there are not, and cannot be any
nor abstract, yet all their parts tend, by degrees, organs like those which Dr. Gall has invented."
to their perfection, and become successively capa-
ble of exercising their functions.
For the rest,

ANSWER.
one hardly knows how to answer the metaphysics I have combined these three paragraphs, in
of Professor Ackermann. It would follow, by order to comprehend them in a single answer.
taking his opinions literally, that the atrophy of Why do my adversaries, when they pretend that
organs is impossible; for if it be true, as he often I teach the uncontrollable character of actions,
repeats, that the existence of the organ coincides always speak of the propensity to theft and the
necessarily with the manifestation of the faculty, propensity to murder ? They know, in the first
it ought to result that the organs, so long as they place, that by the expression, propensity to mur-
are not violently destroyed by death, are con- der, I by no means design an organ which leads
tinually exercised, and thus preserve their exis- immediately to homicide, but simply the natural
tence and integrity.

propensity to killing other animals, a propensity

which belongs to every carnivorous animal, and, OBJECTION.

consequently, to man; they know that it is only 278. " The beautiful hypothesis by which the degeneration and abuse of this propensity Dr. Gall, in the exposition of his doctrine, thinks which lead to homicide ; they know, also, that to secure the freedom of man, falls of itself; for, we admit organs of goodness, as well as moral as soon as he shows an organ of theft, the being and religious sentiments; why, then, do they not in whom he observes it, must be a robber; and say that men are irresistibly led to commit good, not only has an assassin the organ of murder, but moral, and religious acts ? whosoever has on his cranium the organ of Professor Ackermann cannot admit what I murler, must be an assassin. If he says that have always publicly professed, and what I have one may have the organ of murder without being now established in this treatise, on the free use an assassin, I deny this proposition, because no of innate qualities, because then, his objections organ can exist without its faculty being mani. would reduce themselves to nothing. I am, fested ; if he objects that the manifestation of the therefore, going to prove to him, by arguments faculty may be arrested by other organs and drawn from his own principles of physiology, the other actions, I say that in this case the organ truth of what I have advanced above. Though ought also to waste, and that, consequently, the the will lias no immediate influence on the vere organ of murder should be wanting in him who table or automatic life, or on the organs of this in fact is no assassin."

life, such as the heart, liver, kidneysmstill Pro2 79. “It must be confessed that the idea of fessor Ackermann acknowledges, with all physioadmitting organs without the presence of the logists, that animal life, and the action of its faculties which they ought to represent, is an organs in a state of health, are almost entirely excellent subterfuge, to escape and to answer all subject to the will. Now, as he establishes the the reproaches and all the objections which can principle, that there exists an organ of will he made to organology. For, if any one whose in the brain, it would result from his own skull is examined, has the organ of theft, and avowal, not only that all the actions of animal yet is not a robber, it will be said that the organ life ought to take place necessarily and always, only indicates the disposition, and that the man, but also, that by a singular contradiction, will in not robbing, proves that he has had a good and irresistibility would exist together! education, which has given him the means of As Professor Ackermann always continues to resisting a violent propensity. arrant repeat these game objections, I am obliged to hold knave has not the organ of theft, the difficulty to the same answers. All his arguments have will be got rid of by showing, that respect for no other basis than this false detinition: the another's property has been somewhat set aside organ is the true representative of the faculty. by the preponderating action of tho other organs, If the organ and the manifestation of its faculty but that one cannot impute this act to the organ were the same thing, and their co-existence of theft, which is entirely wanting.".

were necessary, all the organs of animals and 80. “Dr. Gall has a vast tiold opon before of man, those of automatic as well as those of him; he may traverse it with short-sighted animal life, would have to be continually and people, and set aside their objections with extreme simultaneously in action, or an instant of cessafacility. But he is overpowered in presence of tion of the action would cause them to disappear. the true observer of nature, whom he resembles Whore do we see any example of this in nature ? only by his mask. He must of necessity confess Does a muscle disappear because it is inactive ? that, if there were organs such as he imagines, Ackermann answers, that a muscle in motion these organs could not exist without a manifesta- is quito another muscle from that at rest. It tion of the faculties; and that whoever has the would result from this reasoning that the same organ of murder must be an assassin, in the foot, according as it walks or remains immovesame way as whoever never has committed able, would be quite a different foot. murder, cannot have this organ. He must con- Let us again reason on the other avowals fess, that such a doctrine, if it could subsist, which Ackermann makes. He admits the brain annihilates the freedom of man, and that then as the organ of the soul in general; he estabhuman society could only be governed by the lishes, besides this, some peculiar organs in the

If an

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brain, for comparison, judgment, and will; he of the functions which are proper to them. The
regards the combination of solid and liquid parts, muscles of the external ear are found in almost
the nervous plexuses and the ganglions of the all men; but since the creation, there have been
chest and abdomen, as being the organs of the but a small number of individuals in whom they
affections and passions. Now, if the objections have been exercised. It is commonly by chance,
which he makes to me had any foundation, would and after having lived thirty or forty years,
not these objections be common to his system without using this faculty, that one finds that he
with mine? Would it not follow, from his can move the muscles of the external ear, or the
own confessions, that man ought without ceas- skin on the top of the head. Thus, there is
ing to compare and judge, to wish, without nothing but error and contradiction in all the
cessation, good and evil, truth and falsehood; objections of Professor Ackermann and his parti-
to be unceasingly a prey to all affections, and to sans, M. Moreau de la Sarthe, M. Tupper, &c.
all passions ; and that, when in sleep, in fainting, M. Kurt Sprengel, eminent for the services
in apparent death, these organs cease to act, all which he has rendered to science, has addressed
should immediately disappear?

some objections to us on the irresistibility of The idea which Ackermann conceives of an

actions. I sincerely wish, for the honor of organ, is so contrary to good sense, that he has German literature, that so distinguished a not been able to keep himself invariably to the scholar had not spoken of my doctrine, till after same language. He says expressly, in parag.

he had been led to understand its spirit and pur77: The organ and the manifestation of the port, otherwise than by rumors. That has natufaculty belonging to it, are the same thing; rally happened to M. Sprengel, which happens to without exercise, no organ can exist, or be pro- every learned man, who wishes to attack a doc

tho cessation of action of an organ in- trine before understanding it in its whole extent. volves' its diminution, and finally its disap- thinks must flow from this doctrine, he cannot re

Even while urging the consequences which he pearance." He also says, in parag. 78, that no organ can exist without manifesting its faculty; frain from rendering homage to the truths which that the man who has the organ of murder form its basis. must be a murderer, as he who has never M. Sprengel makes the faculties of the soul and killed cannot have this organ. Now, what I mind depend in part on the brain, in part on the am going to cite, is in direct contradiction with temperament. He extols the advantages of the what precedes. Professor Ackermann says, in mind, when it inhabits a bealthy body. He acparag. 73 : "The manifestation of the facultios knowledges, as we all do, that health is necessary, depends solely, or in a great degree, on perfectly in order that the functions of the mind may be duly developed organs : when the manifestation of the performed. Too great irritability, he says, has for faculties does not take place for a long time, the its consequences erroneous judgments, an ardent organs or the dispositions must successively dimi- imagination, a faithful memory, a refining spirit, nish, and in fine, disappear altogether.” Ho irresolution, inconstancy, profound sadness, and inadmits then here, that the birth of organs, their ordinate gaiety. The voluptuous character of the existence, and their perfection, are anterior to the fair sex depends on the delicacy of their plıysical manifestation of their faculties. He does not, constitution : the soft temperament produces a then, regard the organ and the manifestation of feeble but sure memory, an indolent conception for the faculty as being the same thing. It is no love and hatred ; a dry temperament gives, on the longer on single organs that he makes the contrary, many errors, a durable memory, attention faculties to depend—he makes them thus depen- to a single object, an imagination often overflowdent only in a great degree ; and in order that ing, and very lively affections of the soul. the action may be effected, he admits likewise, This last and ancient error has maintained itself other conditions. In fine, he confesses that the till now, among all the physiologists: all continue organs diminish gradually, only when they have to speak of the different qualities of the mind and been a long time inactive.

soul which must result from such or such a temperaAckermann does not content himself with con

The most recent physiologists have no founding every moment, the total disappearance scruples in advancing that the man endowed with of organs with this diminution; he also regards a sanguine temperament may in vain wish to resimple alterations and maladies of organs, such nounce the pleasures of the senses, to have fixed as hardening, and paralysis, as being the same and durable tastes, to obtain by profound meditathing with the complete annihilation of an organ, tion the most abstract truths: controlled by his phyand takes the effect for the cause ; for in these sical propensities, he will incess be brought cases the cessation of the functions is a conse-back to the pleasures he avoide, and the inconstancy quence, and not the cause of the malady,

to which he is destined. In fine, all the statements given by Acker- These assertions are repeated from one age to mann are false. Without exercise, says he, no another, without ever asking orexamining whether organ could exist or be produced ; although they are proved by constant experience. What is just before, he bal said, that they are produced certain, is, that this doctrine establishes at once and exist a long time without exercise. Are the innateness of the faculties of the soul and not all animals and all children born with mind, and the dependence of their exercise on maseveral organs and senses, though they may not terial conditions. Whether these conditions all have been able to exercise them in the womb of reside in the brain, or whether they are dispersed the mother. At all periods of life, the organs through the whole body, in the viscera, in the are perfected before they can fulfil their functions nervous plexuses, in the blood, or in a nervous or be exercised. They exist, then, very well, luid,---they are, nevertheless, material conditions, without any exercise, and without fulfilling any ! which hold the manifestation of the moral qua

ment.

WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.

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lities and intellectual faculties in their depen- AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF A DOG.–NC. XVII. dence. Yet, though M. Sprengel regards the properties

(Continued from Page 109.) of the soul and mind, as consequences of the harmony of the solids, and the combination of LET me begi

to-day, my good friend, by the fluids, he nevertheless accords to man a free asking you, confidentially—" Do you love roast will, and says expressly that one need only blame pork ? [Alas, no! or rather, good Fino, it bimself

, if he be led away by his temperament. liketh not us. We never eat it.) If Why, then, not be satisfied with my asserting also, don't 1! “I believe you, my boy ou don't,

It is a that man has only himself to blame if he follows delicious luxury either for dog or man.

A boiled the impulse of his organs; and that I believe with leg of pork and pease-pudding, toothat is not to St. Augustin, that God, in giving the power, does be sneezed at, at least not by me. not impose any necessity.*

But I am not at all particular; and as for vege

talles, I like them passingly well. I should not * It is a scriptural as well as a philosophical object to dine any day upon a neat little bit of doctrine, that man possesses no power of his own streaky bacon and some tender Windsor beans; creation ; that he is dependent for all power upon nor have I any disrelish for a little morceau of the Deity. If man received from the Deity only fat, more or less. Indeed, I think every part of the power to act, and not the power to will

, the the flesh of that very improperly despised animal power of divine origin is made subservient to the pig, is delicious. human power. Infinite wisdom and power are In my country, Mr. Editor, we call this animal absolute causes; and we can as readily conceive a “ Cayon ;” and what better sport than hunting of an effect without a cause, as we can understand a pig? especially if you meet with a long, lanky a cause as not necessarily producing its legitimate animal that can run well. How many have I effect.-En. K. J.

chased in my time! Sometimes I have really mistaken them for a “ gazelle ;

50 sleek and TO MY SOUL'S IDOL,

graceful are they! We do not, in my country,

admire the fat, round, plump, comfortable-looking I need not token-flowers to tell

Chinese breed, but we prize those most which How deeply dear thou art ;

nearest approach the tournure of a greyhound Still on mine ear thine accents dwell,

(mind, I speak generally, Mr. Editor). I grant Thy virtues in my heart;

the Chinese breed is occasionally met with, and Thy beauty floats before mine eyes,

that it is also much valued by its owner; but our În soft, celestial light; Alike at orient day's uprise

bon paysan prefers his " Cayon of the lanky

breed. I don't refuse a bit of pork, even though And pensive shut of night.

it has never been cooked at all. I think it excel'Twas autumn-and the redbreast lulled

lent when raw.

It was my greedy brother Carlo With song the fading bowers,

who first gave me this taste. He had a wonderful When for my hand thy fingers culled

fancy for uncooked pork, and he did not care how These wan and withered flowers.

he got it. Entre nous, he was a sad thief; and Fresh were they then; but, as I gaze

at the risk of my life I was obliged to accompany The shrivelled blossom's o'er,

him on his foraging expeditions. I blush to say The mountain peaks are grey with haze,

it, but having once yielded to temptation, I soon And gleams the snowy moor.

became as great an adept as himself !

But these are sins of my youth, Mr. Editor ; The clouds of doubt between us rolled,

and therefore must not be handled with too much In shadows passed the day ;

severity--especially as I am now an old dog, and But, like a star, thy love consoled

could look at a leg of pork with the greatest My spirit with its ray ;

complacency. It would be unwise, however, to For through the tempest and the night tempt any other dog but myself too much.

But That beam was duly sbed,

now to my story. I forget now what brought it To cherish with its steadfast light

back to my memory; but it made me laugh so The hope which else had fled.

much, that I determined to brush up my memory Oh ! hallowed, Heavenly to my view

and send it to our JOURNAL. Is every gentle scene

You must know that my brother was never Where thy fair foot hath brushed the dew

happy unless he was in mischief. The scrapes he From off the daisied green!

sometimes got me into are quite shameful to think Thy love, thy loveliness, thy worth,

of. I have often thought, if it had not been for To me seem blessings given,

his bad example, and his irresistible comic ways To show my soul how things of earth

in persuading me to join him in all his mad pranks

(to say nothing of his catching me by the Can raise its thoughts to Heaven !

and

making his teeth gradually meet, in case I took Farewell I thou shalt not be forgot,

too long a time to deliberato before deciding), that My beautiful, MINE Own!

I should have been a perfect model of politesse Oh ! may the sorrows of our lot

and elegance. However, I am again digressing; Bow down my head alone!

and that will not do. It so chanced that there And these dried flowers, which, given to me, was a worthy“ Vaudois "wine-merchant, by namo Were moist with morning rain,

G. His vaults and offices were on the Place St. Shall bloom of thee, and breathe of thee, François He had travelled a great deal over UNTIL WE MEET AGAIN!

Q.

Europe ; and he had also visited Egypt, Syria, &c.

ear,

He had been at Jerusalem as well as London. He are not the funniest dog I ever saw, Sare!” was also a very kind-hearted, liberal man ; indeed Sometimes we invited ourselves to breakfast with such a man as you seldom meet with. He was, him and his two dogs, and about fifteen cats. however, rather too fond of testing the quality of Yes, Sare. Hang me, Sare! I am very fond his own merchandise. He was married to an of cats, Sare!" One cat would jump on his English lady, now living; and having amassed a shoulder, another on his knee, and another on the considerable property (more than he required in table, with her pretty head in the milk-pot. his business), he purchased, many years ago, an Presently Mrs. G. would come in, with a nice extensive country-house and farm at Cour," little bit of cold pork ; and while G. was playing close by where my old master lived. This he with the cats, and his card sposa was goue to named after his "little wife," as he used (and fetch the mustard, “ Carlo" slipped off with the certainly very correctly) to call her. She was pork, and we would quietly enjoy it under a fine indeed a little body!

pomegranate tree in the garden. There were extensive fields, vineyard, gardens, On Mrs. Go's return--" Well, where's the farm-yard, every description of stabling and out- pork?" "I have no seen no pork, my dear; ” and houses, greenhouse, &c. Also two large dwelling- then, suspecting all was not right, he would look houses, one of which he occupied himself, and the about, and find myself and my brother, with other he used to let furnished, whenever he had scarcely anything the bone remaining. Inthe opportunity. Among the sundry appurto stead of a good sound thrashing, it was only, nances to this estate, was a capital range of pig. Hang me, Sare, you are two impudent dogs. sties, occupied by sundry fine porkers. I should What you mean, Sare, to come and eat my déjeune? say that, properly managed, the farming would I shan't stand it, Sare.” have been as profitable as the wine department; Another bit of pork was produced, and G. but my friend was too liberal, and perhaps the went back to his breakfast, as usual, full of good wine trade was too alluring. He also had it all humor. One day we played him a shameful trick; his own way; there being no rival nearer than but nothing put him out of his way. He had just Geneva, where resided a certain Mr. A. Now been killing a couple of fine porkers, and “Carlo" there was a certain tacit understanding between had seen them—50 plump, and white, and tempt. them that they should not poach upon each other's ing, there was no resisting it; and so we detergrounds. Moreover, Mr. G. could “spek won mined to have our share. Now this was an Leetle bit Anglish ; " and his favorite expression abominable shame on our part; for G. was was “Hang it, Sare!". Indeed he could scarcely a most excellent neighbor, and never killed utter a dozen words in English without the fuvo- a pig without bringing a small joint as a rite “Hang it, Sare!"

present to Bombyx, and some sausages that Mrs. At his well-stocked cellar at St. François, you G had made herself. But "Carlo” had resolved might procure every sort of wine ; including some to have a bit of this pork, and that coûte qu'il capital port, sherry, and Madeira (at least, so I coûte. I demurred, and refused to join in such a have heard old Bombyx say); also Barclay's and rascally adventure, whereupon he gave me a Guinness's stout, Scotch ale, &c. &c. Many a savage gripe on the hind leg; but I was as time I have been up into the little bureau at St. quick as he was, and catching him by his stump François, with my master, to order some stout (I can scarcely call it his tail, for from his battles and wine ; but Mr. G. would never let you go and squabbles with other dogs, his caudal appentill you had taken two or three glasses of sherry, dage was anything but a gentlemanly one, and I or else a refreshing glass of porter, which, to an should have been ashamed to own such a thing) I Englishman abroad, is really a treat. He had also soon made him loose his hold. After having a supply of Cheshire and North Wiltshire cheeses; allowed myself to be persuaded to“ let go," off we and in the winter, once a week, he received a sallied ; and having inspected the pork, decided supply of soles and oysters. So you may imagine upon a prime side which was evidently intended he was greatly patronised by the English. to appear at G.'s breakfast-table, (during the

If you said to this worthy on leaving his bureau, winter) in the shape of nice grilled bacon. So "Don't forget my stout, G.," he would reply,-- Carlo, seizing it by one corner, and I by the

“ No, Sare! Hang me, Sare, you shan't have other, we watched our opportunity; and dragging any, Sare. Hang it, Sare, -you shan't have it, it unpoticed through the farm-yard, got safely Sare, before you get home. I shan't send it, into the field. Here we rested awhile, and seeing Sare, directly. No, Sare."

the coast clear, we started again and got it safely Bon jour, G."

across two large fields, close up to the road. Here Bon jour, Sare. Let me give you one, two a very high close-set hedge stopped our further glass more ale, Sare; this warm weather, Sare. progress. Hang me, Sare,—it do you very much good, Sare!" • Bother it !” said Carlo," I think we must take

However, it was at his country-house that I was it through Père H.'s field. His gate is most familiar, and, as G. had a beautiful little usually open, and then we can get out. This was spaniel, called “ Jack," given to him by an luckily accomplished without a very great loss of English nobleman who once occupied his country time, and we now had only to drag it along the house (Lord D., now no more), and a large side of the hedge till we got opposite Bombyx's sporting dog, named “Nero," I and my brother residence. Here we also arrived safe and sound. were excellent friends there. Besides, the farm- Now came the difficult part-to land it safely yard and out-buildings were excellent places for inside. To ring at the bell and get the gate sport, and we were there quite “at home.” More opened, we dare not. over, do what we would there was never a cross I have it !" said Carlo. word; it was only :-" Hang me, Sare! if you the wall with it, but I see how it is to be done.'

“We can't leap up

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