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ment?" the answer would either be in the affirmative, or there would be an immediate resolution formed-to go and do what ought to have been done long ago. All the world, of course, will go and see Mont Blanc, and -Albert Smith; the "two inseparables."
But as there may, perchance, be some few among our readers who are prevented the pleasure we speak of, let such hear the account of what they cannot see. We will be as concise as possible. And first for the grand start. Albert Smith loq.
About half-past seven we started; and as we left the inn, and traversed the narrow ill-paved streets of Chamouni towards the bridge, I believe we formed the largest caravan that had ever gone off together. Each of us had four guides, making twenty in all; and the porters and volunteers I may reckon at another score; besides which, there was a rabble rout of friends, and relations, and sweethearts, and boys, some of whom came a considerable distance with us. I had a mule waiting for me at the bridle-road that runs through the fields towards the dirty little village of Les Pélerins-for I wished to keep myself as fresh as I could for the real work. I do not think I gained anything by this, for the brute was exceedingly troublesome to manage up the rude steep path and amongst the trees. I expect my active young companions had the best of it on their own good legs. Dressed, at present, in light boating attire, they were types of fellows in first-rate fibrous muscular condition; and their sunry good temper, never once clouded during the journey, made everything bright and cheering.
Let us follow our leader in his description of the bivouac on the Grand Mulets :
As soon as we had arranged our packs and bundles we began to change our clothes, which were tolerably well wet through with trudging and tumbling about among the snow; and cutting a number of pegs, we strewed our garments about the crannies of the rocks to dry. I put on two shirts, two pairs of lamb's-wool socks, a thick pair of Scotch plaid trousers, a "Templar worsted headpiece, and a common blouse; and my companions were attired in a similar manner.
There was now great activity in the camp. Some of the guides ranged the wine bottles side by side in the snow; others unpacked the refreshment knapsacks; others, again, made a rude fireplace, and filled a stew-pan with snow to melt. All this time it was so hot, and the sun was so bright, that I began to think the guide who told De Saussure he should take a parasol up with him, did not deserve to have been laughed at. As soon as our wild bivouac assumed a little appearance of order, two of the guides were sent up the glacier to go a great way ahead, and then return and report upon the state of the snow on the plateaux. When they had started, we perched ourselves about on the comparatively level spaces of the rock, and with knife and fingers began our dinner. We kept high festival that afternoon on the Grand Mulets.
One stage of our journey-and that one by no means the easiest--had been achieved without the
slightest hurt or harm. The consciousness of success thus far, the pure transparent air, the excitement attached to the very position in which we found ourselves, and the strange bewildering novelty of the surrounding scenery, produced a flowing exhilaration of spirits that I had never before experienced. The feeling was shared by all; and we laughed and sang, and made the guides contribute whatever they could to the general amusement, and told them such stories as would translate well in return; until, I believe, that dinner will never be forgotten by
A fine diversion was afforded by racing the empty bottles down the glacier. We flung them off from the rock as far as we were able, and then watched their course. Whenever they chanced to point neck first down the slope, they started off with inconceivable velocity, leaping the crevices by their own impetus, until they were lost in the distance. The excitement of the guides during this amusement was very remarkable: a stand of betting men could not have betrayed more at the Derby. Their anxiety when one of the bottles approached a crevice was intense; and if the gulf was cleared they perfectly screamed with delight, "Voici un bon coureur!" or, "Tiens! comme il saute bien!" burst from them; and "Le grand s'arrête!" "Il est perdu-quel dommage!' "Non-il marche encore!" could not have been uttered with more earnestness had they been watching a herd of chamois.
The sun at length went down behind the Aiguille du Goûté; and then, for two hours, a scene of such wild and wondrous beauty-of such inconceivable and unearthly splendor-burst upon me, that, spell-bound, and almost trembling with the emotion its magnificence called forthwith every sense, and feeling, and thought absorbed by its brilliancy, I saw far more than the realisation of the most gorgeous visions that opium or hasheesh could evoke, accomplished. At first, everything about us, above, around, below-the sky, the mountain, and the lower peaks-appeared one uniform creation of burnished gold, so brightly dazzling that, now our veils were removed, the eye could scarcely bear the splendor.
As the twilight gradually crept over the lower world, the glow became still more vivid; and presently, as the blue mists rose in the valleys, the tops of the higher mountains looked like islands rising from a filmy ocean-an archipelago of gold. By degrees this metallic lustre was softened into tints,—first orange, and then bright, transparent crimson, along the horizon, rising through the different hues with prismatic regularity, until, immediately above us, the sky was a deep pure blue, merging towards the east into glowing violet. The snow took its color from these changes; and every portion on which the light fell was soon tinged with pale carmine, of a shade similar to that which snow at times assumes, from some imperfectly-explained cause, at high elevations-such, indeed, as I had seen, in early summer, upon the Furka and Faulhorn.
These beautiful hues grew brighter as the twilight below increased in depth; and it now came marching up the valley of the glaciers, until it reached our resting-place. Higher and higher
still it drove the lovely glory of the sun-light before it, until at last the vast Dome de Gouté and the summit itself stood out, icelike and grim, in the cold evening air, although the horizon still gleamed with a belt of rosy light. Although this superb spectacle had faded away, the scene was still even more than striking. The fire which the guides had made, and which was now burning and crackling on a ledge of rock a little below us, threw its flickering light, with admirable effect, upon our band. The men had collected round the blaze, and were making some chocolate, as they sang patois ballads and choruses; they were all evidently as completely at home as they would have been in their chalets.
We had arranged ourselves as conveniently as we could, so as not to inconvenience one another, and had still nothing more than an ordinary wrapper over us; there had been no attempt to build the tent with batons and canvass, as I had read in some of the Mont Blanc narratives-the starry Heaven was our only roofing. Mr. Floyd and Mr. Philips were already fast asleep. Mr. West was still awake, and I was too excited even to close my eyes in the attempt to get a little repose. We talked for awhile, and then he also was silent. The stars had come out, and, looking over the plateau, I soon saw the moonlight lying cold and silvery on the summit, stealing slowly down the very track by which the sunset glories had passed upward and away. But it came so tardily, that I knew it would be hours before we derived any actual benefit from the light.
One after another the guides fell asleep, until only three or four remained round the embers of the fire, thoughtfully smoking their pipes. And then silence, impressive beyond expression, reigned over our isolated world. Often and often, from Chamouni, I had looked up at evening towards the darkening position of the Grand Mulets, and thought, almost with shuddering, how awful it must be for men to pass the night in such a remote, eternal, and frozen wilderness. And now I was lying there-in the very heart of its icebound and appalling solitude. In such close communion with nature in her grandest aspect, with no trace of the actual living world beyond the mere speck that our little party formed, the mind was carried far away from its ordinary train of thought a solemn emotion of mingled awe and delight, and yet self-perception of abject nothingness, alone rose above every other feeling. A vast untrodden region of cold, and silence, and death, stretched out far and away from us on every side; but above, Heaven, with its countless watchful eyes, was over all!
Having got thus far, it would be sad indeed to leave our travellers in the lurch. Let us drag on, then, with them, till they reach the summit :
For upwards of half an hour we kept on slowly mounting this iceberg, until we reached the foot of the last ascent-the calotte, as it is called the "cap" of Mont Blanc. The danger was now over, but not the labor, for this dome of ice was difficult to mount. The axe was again in requisition; and everybody was so "blown" (in common parlance) that we had to stop every three or four minutes. My young companions kept
bravely on, like fine fellows as they were, getting ahead even of some of the guides; but I was perfectly done up. Honest Tiarraz had no sinecure to pull me after him; for I was stumbling about, as though completely intoxicated. I could not keep my eyes open, and planted my feet anywhere but in the right place. I know I was exceedingly cross. I have even a recollection of having scolded my "team," because they did not go quicker; and I was excessively indignant when one of them dared to call my attention to Monte Rosa.
At last, one or two went in front, and thus somewhat quickened our progress. Gradually our speed increased, until I was scrambling almost on my hands and knees; and then, as I found myself on a level, it suddenly stopped. I looked round, and saw there was nothing higher. The batons were stuck in the snow, and the guides were grouped about; some lying down, and others standing in little parties. I was on the top of Mont Blanc ! The ardent wish of years was gratified; but I was so completely exhausted, that, without looking round me, I fell down upon the snow, and was asleep in an instant. I never knew the charm before of that mysterious and brief repose which ancient people term "forty winks." Six or seven minutes of dead slumber, was enough to restore the balance of my ideas; and when Tiarraz awoke me, I was once more perfectly myself.
And now I entered into the full delight that the consciousness of our success brought with it. It was a little time before I could look at anything steadily. I wanted the whole panorama condensed into one point; for, gazing at Geneva and the Jura, I thought of the plains of Lombardy behind me; and turning round towards them, my eye immediately wandered away to the Oberland, with its hundred peaks, glittering in the bright morning sun.
Who, after reading all that we have here set before them, will rest satisfied without seeing it realised? Not one person, we hope, who is possessed of a spare shilling.
Success to Albert Smith! say we. He has made loads of money, and he deserves it. He once "cut us up" in print, and made fun of us for being such a devoted "lover of nature," or what he called "nonsense." We glory in taking our revenge in a different
All "lovers of nature' can afford to be good-tempered. No ill-feeling can linger in their breast. Let us therefore ery quits," good Mr. Albert Smith. A long and merry reign to you and your clever Book!
To those who would attempt the hybridising or cross breeding of plants, I will now offer some suggestions for their guidance. It is an essential element to success that the operator be possessed of indomitable patience, watchfulness, and perseverance. Having determined on the subjects on which he is to operate, if the plants are in the open ground, he will have them put into pots, and removed under glass, so as to escape the accidents of variable temperature of wind, rain, and dust, and above all, of insects.
most cases safe from their contact. It will be some days-probably a week or more, if the weather be not sunny-ere the stigma is in a fit condition for fertilisation. This is indicated in many families, such as Ericace, Rosacea, Scrophularineæ, Aurantiaceæ, &c., by a viscous exudation in the sutures (where these exist) of the stigma, but generally covering the entire surface of that organ. In this condition the stigma may remain many days, during which fertilisation may be performed; and this period will be longer or shorter as the weather is sunny, or damp, or overcast. In certain families, such as the Malvaceae, Geraniaceæ, &c., where the stigma divides itself into feathery parts, and where the viscous process is either absent or inappreciable by the eye, the separation of these parts, the bursting of the pollen, the maturity of the stigma, and all which a little experience will detect, indicate the proper time for the operation— sunny or cloudy weather always affecting the duration of the period during which it may be successfully performed.
As to the proper time and season best adapted for such experiments, a treatise might be written; but here a few remarks must suffice. As for the season of the year, from early spring to midsummer I would account the best period; but, as I have just observed, I regard all cold, damp, cloudy, and ungenial weather as unfavorable. On the other hand, when the weather is genial not so much from sun heat as at times occurs from the atmosphere being moderately charged with electricity, when there is an elasticity, so to speak, in the balmy air, and all nature seems joyous and instinct with life-this, of all others, is the season which the hybridist should improve, and above all if he attempt muling.
The hybridist should be provided with a pocket lens, a pair of wire pincers, and varions colored silk threads. With the lens he will observe the maturity of the pollen and the condition of the stigma, whether the former has attained its powdery, and the latter (if such is its nature) its viscous condition. If he find both the pollen and the stigma in a fit state, he will, with the pincers, apply an anther with ripened pollen, and by the gentlest touch distribute it very thinly over the summit of the stigma. The operation performed, he will mark it by tying round the flower stalk a bit of that particular colored silk thread which he wishes to indicate the particular plant which bore the pollen; and at the same time tie a bit of the same silk round the stem of the latter, which will serve till
A greenhouse fully exposed to the sun is best adapted for the purpose, at least as regards hardy and proper greenhouse plants. Having got them housed, secure a corner where they are least likely to be visited by bees or other insects. The plants which are to yield the pollen, and the plants which are to bear the seed, should be both kept in the same temperature; but where this cannot be managed, pollen from an outside plant, in genial summer weather, may be used, provided it can be got; for there is a class of insects which live exclusively on pollen, and devour it so fast after the pollen vessels open, that, unless the plant is under a hand-glass (which I would recommend), it is scarcely possible to get any pollen for the required purpose.
To secure against chances of this nature, a sprig with opening bloom may be taken and kept in a phial and water inside, where it will get sufficient sun to ripen the pollen. But here, too, insects must be watched, and destroyed if they intrude. An insect like, but smaller than, the common hive bee, which flits about by fits and starts, on expanded wings, after the manner of the dragon-fly, is the greatest pest, and seems to feed exclusively on pollen. The hive bee, the humble bee, and wasp give the next greatest annoyance. All these may be excluded by netting, fixed over apertures from open sashes or the like. Too much care cannot be bestowed on excluding these intruders, whose single touch, in many cases, might neutralise the intended result; for the slightest application of pollen native to the parent plantis said by physiologists to supersede all foreign agency, unless, perhaps, in the crossing of mere varieties; and the truth of this observation consists with my own experience. Without due pre-recorded in a note-book, which should be kept caution now, the labor, anxiety, and watchfulness by every one trying experiments on a large of years may issue in vexation and disappointment. As a further precaution still, and to prevent selffertilisation, divest the blooms to be operated on not only of their anthers but also of their corollas. Remove, also, all contiguous blooms upon the plant, lest the syringe, incautiously directed, or some sudden draft of air, convey the native pollen, and anticipate the intended operation.
The corolla appears to be the means by which in sects are attracted; and though when it is removed the honey on which they feed is still present, they seem puzzled, or indifferent about collecting it; or if haply they should alight on the dismantled flower (which I never have detected), the stigma is in
It is quite unnecessary to offer any directions as to the results to be effected. If it is desired to reproduce the larger, finer formed, or higher colored bloom of a plant having a tall, straggling, or too robust a growth, or having too large or too coarse foliage in a plant without these drawbacks, I need not suggest to select, in another species of the same family a plant of an opposite character and properties-say of dwarf compact growth, handsome foliage, and free flowering habit; and if such can be obtained, work with it, making the latter the seed bearer. Or, if it be desirable to impart the fragrance of a less handsome kind to
KIDD'S OWN JOURNAL.
another more handsome, I would make the cross upon the latter. I cannot speak with certainty from my own experiments how far perfume may be so communicated; but I have some things far advanced to maturity to test it; and I entertain the hope that fragrance may not only be so imparted, but even heightened, varied, and improved. Or if it be desired to transfer all, or any valuable property or quality, from a tender exotic species to a native or hardy kind, work upon the latter; for so far as constitution goes, I agree with those who hold that the female overrules in this particular. I would offer this caution to those who wish to preserve the purity of certain flowers for exhibition, especially those having white grounds, not to cross such with high colored sorts.
produce between two members of allied but
Nature, in producing, as it sometimes does,
I once spoiled a pure white bloomed Calceolaria for exhibition, by crossing it with a crimson sort; all the blooms on those branches where the operation had been performed, being stained red, and not the few flowers merely on which the cross was effected. In this note, already too long, I cannot further illustrate my remarks, by recorded experiments in the various tribes upon which I have tried my hand; but I cannot leave the subject without inculcating, in the strongest manner, the observance of the rules I have laid down to prevent vexatious disappointments. If any doubts arise about the cross being genuine or effectually secured, let not the seeds be sown. Three, four, five, and even six years, must oftentimes elapse with trees and shrubby things, ere the result can be judged of; and if eventually it prove a failure, or even doubtful, it is worse than labor lost, inasmuch as it may mislead. If there is no great departure from the female parent, the issue is to be mistrusted. It is singular, if well accomplished, how much of both parents is blended in the progeny.
We shall not attempt to offer any apology for the length of this article. It demands, from its importance, all the space it occupies.
Gentlemen eminent as physiologists have read nature's laws in these matters a little differently from what my own humble experience has taught me, and assigned to the progeny the constitution and general aspect of the one parent; while they gave the inflorescence and fruit to the other. I have crossed and inverted the cross, and can venture to give no evidence on the point, except, perhaps, as to constitution, to which the seedA wellbearer, I think, contributes most. managed hybrid should and will blend both parents into a distinct intermediate, insomuch as to produce often what might pass for a new species. If the leaning be to one more than another, it is probably to the female, though this will not always be the case. Again, it is asserted that a proper hybrid-i.e., one species which is crossed with another species, which is separate and distinct from it-will produce no fertile seeds. This does not accord with my observations. My hybrid, Veronica Balfouriana (an intermediate between V. saxatilis and V. fruticulosa), seeds, I would say, more abundantly than either parent; and the progeny from its self-sown seeds I find to be of various shades of blue, violet, and red, rising in my garden-some having actually larger, finer, and higher-colored blooms than the parent bearing the seed; and I am familiar with the same result in other things.
Yet I am far from asserting fertility in the
A CYCLOPEDIA OF POETICAL QUOTATIONS. Edited by H. G. ADAMS. 12mo. Groom. bridge and Sons.
This little volume may be regarded as a valuable addition to our existing works of poetical entertainment and instructive knowledge. In alphabetical arrangement we have choice passages, on a multitude of subjects, selected from the poets of every age and country; the whole presenting a poetical dictionary, aptly constructed for ready and constant reference.
The taste of the selector is unquestionably good; and we envy him much the sweetsmelling groves of poesy through which he must have wandered, whilst culling so many and such elegant blossoms. Turn where you will, each page is set with a profusion of literary gems.
We are glad to hear that the success of this work has been great; and that, in con sequence, a similar Cyclopædia of Sacred Poetical Quotations is about to be published in 12 monthly Parts. We have seen the first part; and it gives excellent promise for the
"USE IS SECOND NATURE."
How often do we see the truth of this wellknown adage confirmed in practices and habits that are evil! Why should it extend so far only? Surely this is wrong.
We cannot help enforcing upon the minds of GOOD soon becomes all our readers-a most choice company trulythat a habit of DOING natural"--and what pleasure it does bring with it! Try it.
And "Monsal," thou mine of Arcadian treasure,
May be found in our own native Derbyshire
ANOTHER NEW FASHION!
FASHION's the word which knaves and Fools do use,
And when I shall count o'er the bliss that's de-
And Old Age be telling its garrulous tales,
hard work to perform.
A new game is "up." Now strenuous efforts are being put forth, to convert men who already closely resemble monkeys, into the actual monkey itself. Some wiseacre, an outcast we imagine from female society, has discovered that the filthy appendage of hair, in the form of lots of beard and moustache (a foreign fashion "of course"), is not only ornamental to a man's face, but abridged extract is going the rounds of the a preservative of health! The subjoined papers; and it is treated, not as a joke, but as a fact. Listen, loveliest of your sex, what is preparing for you to be "fond of." Where will you ever find room to impress the "tribute of affection," if this Esau-rian project be carried out? Why, it will take a little month to discover the smallest spot on the human frontispiece that is clear of weeds!
When in London, I occasionally meet a most singular specimen of the genus homo, who cultivates the moustache and whiskers. He moves in high society; is only recently out of his teens,
The purest and rarest in odor and bloom; There are beings and breathings, and places and hours,
Still trailing in roses o'er Memory's tomb.
There is much in my past bearing way-marks of and exhales the odor of a civet cat. When he salutes any of his family or relatives, he approaches their face on tip-toe, and deposits the 'salute" with a degree of careful foresight perfectly astounding. If but one single hair were deranged by the operation, he would be cross all that day. When he is "prepared" for going out to dinner, catch him saluting" if His face is then sacred-unapproachable. A curious specimen of humanity is this budding youth-well educated indeed, and of a good family, but so steeped in vanity, and so shackled by fashion's trammels, that one must pity him.-W.
A fine flowing beard, bushy whiskers, and a well-trained moustache protect the opening of the mouth, and filter the air. They also act as a respirator, and prevent the inhalation into the lungs of air that is too frosty. In the case of blacksmiths who wear beards and moustaches, the hair about the mouth is discolored by the iron dust caught on its way into the mouth and lungs. Travellers often wait until their moustaches have grown, before they brave the sandy air of deserts.
Men who retain the hair about the mouth, are less liable to decay or achings of the teeth. Both dust and smoke get into the lungs, and only in a small degree is it possible for them to be decomposed and removed by processes of life. The air