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in a different manner to the ova, and subseqnent ner, or from the egg directly. The latter mode tadpole. Mr. J. Higginl'ottom, of Nottingham, seems most likely ; owing to spawn having been who has paid great attention to this subject, has found previously to the young toads. Mr. Higginclearly proved the development of the tadpole to bottom tells me, that the same remark on the birth the perfect toad, in situations wholly deprived of of the Triton, without the stage of tadpole, bas light. This I have, through his kindness, several been mentioned to him.-E. J. LOWE. times witnessed. My present remarks are intended to show that, occasionally, frogs and toads are re- The Sole.-- The common sole, probably from proluced in localities where it would be impossible the comparative smallness of its size, is seldom, for the intermediate stage of tadpole to have any if ever, caught by bait; only by the trawling-net. existence. 1. Toads deposit spawn in cellars, and Soles are found in great abundance on the coast of young toads are afterwards observed. Last summer England, from Sussex to Devonshire, and on the several masses of spawn were procured from my shores of various counties of Ireland. The sole cellar, having been found deposited amongst de- is full of roe in February, and approaches the caying potatoes, &c., and, subsequently, young shore to spawn about the end of tbat month, or the toads were noticed. The cellar is free from water, beginning of March ; after which, it is extremely and at a considerable distance from any brook. - soft and watery, and unfit for use. After spawning, 2. Young toads are observed among hot-beds. In the sole retreats into deep water; and in the course the kitchen-garden at Highfield House (which is of six weeks or 'two months, recovers its strength. entirely walled round), young toads have been Like the rest of the finny tribe, its flavor is finest noticed round the cucumber and melon beds. The when caught in deep water; before the roe or gardeners have been in the habit of bringing toads milt is much developed. But in consequence of to these beds to destroy the insects; these have con- its being rather shy of bait of any kind, it is not tinued amongst the warm, damp straw, all summer. then easily taken. This fish, it is said, thrives in It is after these beds have remained three or four fresh water; where it will grow to double the size months, that the young ones have been noticed. of the salt-water sole. It is in good season throughToads would have to travel half-a-mile to reach out the entire year, with the exception of the this garden from the brook or lake ; and also to months of February, March, and April. mount a steep hill, besides taking the opportunity HENKY R. of coming through the door. Toads, so small, are not scen in any other part of the gardens.- Butter.-The largest quantity of butter from a 3 Young toads and frogs are observed in abundance given weight of food, and the richest milk, are at the summit of another hill, whilst quite small. yielded by the milk of the smaller races. The During the past summer, especially in the month small Aldemey, or Jersey, West Highland, and of July, very many young toads and frogs were seen Kerry cows, give a richer milk than even the small amongst the strawberry plants; apparently from Ayrshire. But the small Shetlander is said to a week to a month old. These might possibly have surpass them all. These breeds are all hardy, and travelled from a brook, a few hundred yarils dis- will pick up a subsistence from pastures on which tant; yet it is strange that, with the exception of other breeds would starve. The quantity of butter these beds, no young toads could be found elsewhere yielded by different cows in the same yard, and in the garden. A number of full-grown toads are eating the same food, is sometimes very different. mostly to be seen about these beds.--4. Young Some will yield only three or four pounds, a week; frogs, dug out of the ground in the month of while more will give eight or nine pounds, and a January. In digging in the garden amongst the few fifteen pounds a week. As a rare instance, I strawberry-beds (near where so many toads were may mention that a cow has been known in Lanobserved last summer), in the middle of January cashire to yield upwards of twenty-two pounds in the present year, a nest of about a score young in seven days.—PROFESSOR JOHNstone. frogs were upturned. These were apparently three or four weeks old. This ground had been previ- Average Duration of Life.- Professor Buously dug in the month of August, and many chanan makes the following observations upon
the strawberry plants buried. It was amongst a mass average duration of life—the effect, in part, of the of these plants, in a state of partial decomposition, improvements in medical science. He says that, that these young ones were observed.--5. Young in the latter part of the sixteenth century, onefrogs are bred in cellars, where there is no water half of all that were born died under five years of for tadpoles. In mentioning the subject to age, and that the average longevity of the whole Mr. Joseph Sidebotham, of Manchester (an active population was but eighteen years. In the sevenbotanist), he informed me that young frogs; and, teenth, one-half the population lived over twentyin fact, frogs of all sizes, wero' to be seen in his seven years. In the laiter forty years, one-half excellar, amongst decaying dahlia tubers. The ceeded thirty-two years of age. At the beginning smallest of them were only about half the ordinary of the present century, one-half exceeded forty size of the young frog, when newly-developed from years ; and from 1838 to 1845 one half exceeded the tadpole. He further stated, that there was no forty-three. The average longevity of these sucwater in the cellar ; and no means of young frogs cessive periods has been increased from cighteen entering, except by first coming into the kitchen, - years in the sixteenth century, up to forty-three # mode of entry, if not impossible, highly impro- and seven-tenths by our last reports.-D. Č. bable. Mr. Sidebotham never found any spawn. It seems probable from the above, that frogs are Reading at Dinner.--A very frequent cause of occasionally born alive in situations where no water nervous affections originates in intense or unseacan be found for the spawn to be deposited in; and sonable application of the mind-such as in reading that toads are either reproduced in the same man- / while at dinner. By this untimely exercise of the brain, the blood is diverted from its proper course, the banks of the Khabour were more than realised. viz., to the stomach, at the time when it is more The Arabs boast that its meadows bear three disparticularly required there to enable the viscus to tinct crops of grass during the year. On reaching secrete and supply a sufficiency of gastric juice. the Khabour, the travellers pitched their tents on Such patients cannot be benefited, except they alter the right bank, near Arban—an artificial mound their habits; because, so long as they force the cur- of irregular shape, from the summit of which “ the rent of blood towards the brain, when the vital fluid eye ranged over a level country bright with flowers, is required elsewhere for the purpose of digestion, and spotted with bright tents, and innumerable this function will be impaired, and but very imper- flocks of sheep and camels. During our stay at fectly performed. Consequently, nervous derange- Arban, the color of these great plains was underment will continue to result.-Dawson,
going a continual change. After being for some
days of a golden yellow, a new family of flowers Vocal Machinery of Birds. It is difficult to wonld spring up, and it would turn, almost in a account for so small a creature as a bird making a night, to bright scarlet, which would as suddenly tone as loud as some animals a thousand times its give way to the deepest blue. Then the meadows size. It has become known that in birds the lungs would be mottled with various hues, or would put have several openings, communicating with cor- on the emerald green of the most luxuriant pasresponding air bags or cells, which fill the whole tures." —Rosa B. cavity of the body, from the neck downwards, and into which the air passes and repasses in the pro- Compulsory Vaccination.-By the bill as gress of breathing. This is not all. The very amended, to extend and make compulsory the bones are hollow; and from these, air-pipes are practice of vaccination, it is very properly proconveyed to the most solid parts of the body, even posed to enact that the father or mother of every into the quills and feathers. This air being rarefied child born in England or Wales, after the 1st of by the heat of their body, adds to their levity. By August, 1853, shall, within three months after forcing the air out of the body, they cau dart down birth, cause it to be taken to the medical officer from the greatest height with astonishing velocity of the place and vaccinated; unless the same No doubt the same machinery forms the basis of shall have been previously vaccinated by sonie their vocal powers, and at once solves the mystery. qualified medical practitioner
. The Medical -Rosa B.
Times says—"The proportion of deaths from
small-pox in London is three times, and in Nature and Art;—or, How to Make Flowers Glasgow six times, what it is in Brussels, Berlin, Bloom.- Take of sulphate of ammonia, a quarter or Copenhagen. Of each thousand persons who of a pound ; nitrate of potash (common nitre), two die in England and Wales, twenty-two die of ounces; moist sugar, one ounce; boiling water, small-pox. Of each thousand persons who die one pint. Mix well together. All the ingredients in Ireland, forty-nine die of small-pox; while of are soluble in water, When cold, the mixture is each thousand persons who die in Lombardy, two ready for use. For plants near their flowering only die of small-pox. The proportionate time, either in pots or the open ground, add a few mortality, then, from small-pox, in England and drops to the water that is used to moisten them. Wales is eleven times, and in Ireland twenty-four For hyacinths in glasses, add from five to ten drops times greater than it is in Lombardy. Whence of the mixture to the water in which each bulb is comes this difference? In England those who growing; changing the water in the hyacinth- please take their children to be vaccinated; in glass about once a fortnight. It acts, of course, as Lombardy vaccination is compulsory. The proa stimulant to the plant, and, as such, care must portionate mortality from small-pox' in England be taken not to use too much of it; otherwise and Wales, is three times greater than what it is the flowers would be “cut off in their bloom."- in any country in which the inhabitants are comJANE E.
pelled, by law, to have their children vaccinaterl.
These are great facts. In our metropolis, one Bees on Laurels. My attention has been thousand persons die annually, of small-pox; if called to a subject on which I shall be very glad vaccination were compulsory, it is indisputable if some reader of our JOURNAL will give me a that the number of deaths from this disease, in little information. I have observed lately great London, would be reduced to two or three hundred numbers of bees flying round the laurel shrubs, per annum.
From six to eight hundred persons apparently to obtain from them some product or thus die yearly in the metropolis alone, whose other. Ön watching their movements, I dis- lives might be saved by an Act of the Legislature. covered that they invariably resort to three or That a Vaccination Extension Bill should be four small punctures on the under-surface of the before Parliament; that all should be agreed on leaf, near the base, from which they appear to the propriety of legislating anew on this imporextract something for their use. What I wish tant subject, is then, considered in the abstract, to find out is, what causes these punctures ?-they matter for rejoicing."—Robert M. may be found in every young leaf-and then, what is it which the bees obtain from them? If Are Cochin-China Heng good Mothers ?-It any one can answer these queries, he will greatly has been the fashion to run down the natural oblige-A Constant READER.
instinct of these good-tempered, affectionate
animals; and a report has gone abroad, that they Realisation of the Beauties of Arabian Scenery. desert their offspring when they are a week old, -Dr. Layard observes, in his new work, that the &c.! This is pure calumny. "I have a hen, sir, glowing descriptions he had so frequently received that hatched eleven chickens, more than three from the Bedouins of the beauty and fertility of months ago. These chickens are now fine, noble creatures; and to this very day their mother tries a certain article which appears in No. 638 of the to brood them. She never once deserted them, “Illustrated London News.” It is headed “A although she has now laid an egg daily for many Chapter on Cats.” I know not who the author is, weeks; and she is a living example that nature is but the paper is most charmingly written. It is not so unnatural as some people try to make out. also so truthful--so naturally truthful, throughout, To see this hen, and her over-grown children, that it really must be read by all who love animals crowding together on one perch, is a curiosity.- for their amiability, I know you are no friend W.J., Camden Town.
to cats (indeed you have given us good reasons
for your particular antipathy), but still I know A Word fitly Spoken.—You did quite right, you are not hard-hearted, and that you are ever my dear sir, to give your readers a hint that ready to give praise where praise is due. Can they ought to try and increase the circulation of you—and if so, will you print this article in our Our Journal. It is not correct that it should JOURNAL? Such a gem surely ought to be “set” be borrowed and lent out from family to family. in your pages. My own experience so fully verifies For my own part, I converse with you so naturally all the pretty facts that are adduced, that I feel and so delightfully once a month, that although I the more anxious to see them brought prominently have not yet had the pleasure of seeing you, I feel forward. The cat is a very ill-used animal— little we are quite "one." We seem to be old, familiar understood, but capable of great affection. A. B. friends; and why should it not be so? OUR R. (the writer of the article I allude to) is surely Journal was established for this very purpose.* one of us." May we live to see many more This induces me on principle,—to say nothing such papers from so graceful a band !-BOMBYX of interest, to exert myself for the good cause. Atlas, Tottenham, August 18. I am canvassing bravely among iny friends, and [Our good friend's wish has been anticipated hope that so good an example will be cheerfully in a former page. We have not thought it just followed by your other legion of friends. I can see to appropriate all the article that he alludes to; no reason--can you ?-why you should not have but we have made a few excerpts from it, adding ten thousand subscribers.--JOHN GARLAND, Dor- a little commentary of our own. A. B. R., if of chester.
the genus homo, is a "trump." If A. B. R. be a [No indeed! "The more the merrier," is an woman, she is an angel. There are few angels adage we are "naturally " anxious to keep up. amongst us ; let us prize them highly-and“ when It is this borrowing and lending system that does found, make a note of!''] all the injury: A kind young lady residing in Lancaster, writes us, that all the world in those A Hint about Standard Rose Trees. I offer parts are in love with Our Journal." She to the lovers of standard roses a little plan of my adds, we are ten in family; and when our own—it has succeeded admirably. An artificial copy is thoroughly read (we read every line of it), prop to standard roses is unsightly, and it is both we send it round during the month to at least a exposed to decay in the run of time, and to disdozen other families. So that you really are asters from the raging of the wintry blast. In appreciated. Have our readers ever heard of a order to do without this prop, plant three standard "mistaken kindness ? Surely this is one! roses (the longer the stem the better) in an equiWe cannot understand the extreme meanness of lateral triangle. If on a slope, one leg must be people who are in good circumstances. They longer than the other two. They may be from seem to enjoy everything with a rich gusto, that eight to fourteen inches apart. Bring the stems costs them nothing! Fie, upon such a principle together at the top, and bore a hole through each of action! We blush-yes, we blush to know of them, a little below where they have been that any person who " loves Our JOURNAL can budded. Then, through these holes, thread a be possessed of so paltry a spirit. We trust that copper wire, such as is used for soda-water bottles, such people will never publicly acknowledge that and bring the heads of the three plants quite they are of the "happy family” about whom we close together, making the ends of the wire fast. so frequently speak. Oh,-no! But let us thank This is all. You have here a group so firm and you, sir (which we do most heartily), for the strong, that it can never break down, or ever honest expression of feeling that marks the require an artificial support. I made four groups materiel of which you are made. For such last autumn. They are now in fine blow, and readers, we could write on for ever. We have are much admired. -CHARLES WATERTON, Walton your heart. Ere long (we hope) you shall have our Hall, Aug. 4. hand. Nous verrons.]
Benefits from Sprinkling Plants with Water.A Word in favor of the much-abused Race of I am very anxious to have the opinions and exCuts.- I really must bring under the notice of perience of the readers of our Journal on this your readers (and more particularly under the subject. I have always been accustomed to notice of your truly amiable correspondent Puss), sprinkle the floor of my greenhouse, and the
foliage of my plants with water, under the idea * By the way, on looking over our Note-Book that they were greatly benefited by the operation; the other day, we found a number of little com- and I cannot help fancying that I have seen good plimentary remarks touching Our Journal, cut, result from the practice. But I have been told at different times, from the public papers. An lately, that I am mistaken; that plants do not idea suggested itself
, that we should print them. absorb water by their leaves, in any quantitity at They will be found in our Advertising Columns. least; and that, moreover, when the external air They say far more for us than we dare say for is coller than the atmosphere of the house, the ourself.-Ev. K. J.
vapors produced will rise to the glass, and there
be condensed, not benefiting the plants at all. I without due qualification. In England, according should like to know what more experienced readers to the census, there was thus a practitioner to think of the matter.-E. H. C.
every 543 of the population ; in Wales, 1 to 822 ;
in London, 1 in every 272 ; in Scotland, 1 in First and Last Love :
593; and in the British Isles, 1 in 510; while, “ First love" is a pretty romance,
taking the numbers in the Medical Directory, Though not quite so lasting as reckoned ; the proportion of qualified men to population For when one awakes from its trance, was, in England, 1 in 1527 ; in Wales, 1 in
There's a great stock of bliss in a " second.” 2893 ; in London, 1 in 714; in Scotland, 1 in And e'en should the "second" subside,
1614; and in the British Isles, 1 in 2215. The A lover should never despair ;
following observations are abridged from an For the world is uncommonly wide,
article in the same periodical on this important And the women uncommonly fair.
subject :- In the table are included “Chemists
and Druggists,” and there is sufficient reason Those poets their rapture may tell,
on the face of it for so doing. It appears that, Who never were put to the test :
deducting the chemists and druggists from the A “first love" is all
grand total, it would leave 22,495 persons prncBut, believe me, the "last" love's the best! tising medicine according to the census, or 10,687
more than appear in the Medical Directories, [A wag, residing at Liverpool, has sent us the Thus there is 1 chemist and druggist in Great above, requesting to have our opinion of the senti- Britain to every medical practitioners. This
How shall we give it, so as to steer clear warrants the assumption that "chemists and of offence? Let us observe that the human heart druggists” are themselves practitioners to a is very capacious—so then, let every one of our great extent. Indeed, the experience at assizes loves (we will not say how many) be carefully and before coroners' juries, where detection and packed up in that heart, and lovingly tended, conviction are the exceptions, sufficiently attests There is no “ matrimonial question" raised; there the fact. We therefore include them in the fore we speak out “like a man!” When we walk
“Keepers of lunatic asylums" have in a garden filled with beautiful flowers, whose been omitted, though a large number of them aroma almost overpowers our senses with delight, would legitimately appear. It is worthy of obhow can we dare to give any decided preference ? servation that, under the head of "keepers of We love them all best-of course !)
lunatic asylums," 216 of them are females, and
many of these under 20 years of age. In Bir"Smoky London, "with a Gleam of " Aope."- mingham, there was 1“"herbalist " under 20 Your metropolitan readers, and those in the
years of age ; 2 keepers of lunatic asylums country also, who have any sympathy with us in under 20; 14 female leach-bleeders; and i femalo the privation of light and pure air (which in this physician. One female“ dentist" in Taunton; city of smoke we are called to endure), will be i physician” in Norwich under 20; 2 "medi. glad to hear that the House of Commons has cine vendors ” in the Tower Hamlets under 20 ; passed a bill which provides that, on and after the 1“ midwife” in Preston under 20; 1." phy, ist of August, 1854, all manufactories, and also sician" in Canterbury under 20; 2"physicians" all the steamers on the river, from London Bridge in Bristol under 20°; 1 female “chemist and to Richmond, shall consume their own smoke. druggist " in Colchester under 20; 1 " physician” “ The smoke-protectionists, however," the Times in Darlington under 20; and 1 female "surgeon"
are looking very black; they have a in Cornwall under 20.—Is not this, Mr. Editor, vested interest in compelling us to consumo their a very curious table ? We find no fower than smoke. It is true they do not like smoke them- | 216 females (under 20 years of age) keeping selves;
the brewer, whose lofty chimney is a "lunatic asylums ; one chemist and druggist volcano always in a state of eruption, lives twenty to every two medical practitioners !! The "bills miles out of town, where his moss-roses are not of mortality" are heavy. Is it to be wondered cankered, and where his gardener gets the prize at !-Amicus. for the best basket of pansies at the neighboring [" Where ignorance is bliss," &c. We must flower-show. Once a week he gets on the rail, not, my dear Sir, inquire too closely into matters and comes up to town just to see how the chimney of every-day life. If we did, we should (four-fifths draws, and how the till fills ; and then runs off, of us) die from fright !] thanking his stars that he lives where he cannot smell his own grains or swallow his own smoke." Boring Shells.-Several shells have the sinBut in spite of “vested interests,” the nuisance gular capability of boring the softer rocks of is doomed: twelve months more, and it will be marble, and limestone, and reefs of coral--for the in a great measure annihilated.-R. M.
purpose, it would seem, of eluding their natural
enemies. This habit is remarkablo in some species Unqualified Medical Practitioners. From a of mussels, such as the Mytilus lithophagus and tablo which has been compiled, in the Medical the M. rugosus.-W.
Times and Gazette, comparing the number of
a moderately-warm parlor. The seeds should be think it must be easy' to read. Did you ever picked off as soon as they are forined.—Hearts- plough, hoe corn, or plant cabbages? We have EASE, Hants.
been engaged in all these rural exercises ; and we
have also swung the scythe and cradle under the Remedy for Sprains.-Accidents of this sort sun of the hot south ; and we solemnly declare that are not unfrequent; and perhaps none are more the physical labors aforesaid are mere recreations, liable to them than the laboring class of people. in comparison with the exhausting toil of writing They happen most generally in the joints of either for the press, in a close office with a south-western the upper or lower limbs, accompanied with much aspect, when the thermometer is in the neighborpain and swelling, and inability to use the limb. hood of the nineties. The vigorous ideas that The remedy is simple, and within the reach of should find their way by electric telegraph from every one. Cloths, wet freely in a strong and cold the brain to the pen, liquify cn the road, and ooze solution of salt and water, applied and persevered out in big globules of perspiration ; while the more in, generally effect a speedy cure. If necessary delicate fancies evaporate by the “insensible' to make a shift
, and the part is very painful, apply process. Excuse, therefore, the shortcomings of the leaves of garden wormwood, wet in spirits. genius under the sudorific influence of the summer Should the part injured remain weak, as it some- solstice ; for be assured that the vertical sun, times does in severe sprains, a safe remedy is to however it may dulcify and mature cherries, pump, or pour on cold water freely for a fow plums, and other fruitful plumpitudes,' is by mornings.-ANGELINA.
no means favorable to the development of intel
lectual products."-I will not say the above is The Weeping Cypress.- I have a plant of this elegant, but it is "pithy."—WHIRLIGIG. celebrated Chinese tree in my garden, which is (We are as thoroughly fried as our brother growing very vigorously. It is now about 2 feet Editor, good Mr. Whirligig; but we defy any high, but as yet shows no disposition to weep-a amount of heat to keep us from our work. Nothing circumstance with which I am a littlo disap- but a special "invite" to superintend a pic-nic pointed. Can any reader inform me whether it party could do that; unless indeed it were a snug has been found to assume the weeping form in little projected water-party, to certain meadow's any garden in this country ?--E, H. c.
we wot of near Hampton Court. Such a temp.
tation might peril the interests of the JOURNAL Prolific Swarming of Bees.- I have lately for a single day-more especially if the gentle noticed in the newspapers some account of an ex- freight, borne by that gliding skiff, were of our traordinary hive of bees in the possession of R. own selecting.] Turner, of Fell House, near Whitton Gilbert, " which cast four times in fifteen days.” I am niost Oh, Tempora! Oh, Mores I–Did you ever see happy to inform you that not one of my hives has Venus in petticoats, my dear Sir; or the Greek performed such an extraordinary feat. I have no Şlave tucked up in flounces—wearing our national desire for such an increase in 'my hives; on the dorsal excrescence as a "support "-under her contrary, I try my utmost to prevent my bees sufferings? If not, go over in two ships" to from swarming at all, and have so far succeeded New York, and visit the “Great Exhibition " 28 not to get on an average more than one swarm there. An appeal has been made to the authofrom eight stocks of bees. The most prominent rities, by the delicate inhabitants of the city, to feature in my Temple Hive is the convenience for clothe in suitable apparel all the nude figures that giving the bees access to four glass surplus hives; have entered the building. This, they say, is thus enlarging the hive to double its size. These needful, lest the morals of the people should be glass hives may be removed as they are filled, defiled, and the rising youth "get used" to see and replaced by empty ones. Thus, by enlarging Nature in her own dress. Every leg is to be the parent hive, I prevent the necessity of swarın- covered, every neck to be cased, every body to be ing. It was on this same principle that I have swaddled. No arms are to be exposed. So averse taken seventy-four pounds of pure honey from one are the good citizens to nakedness in every form, stock in the same season, leaving the parent hive that the bare-headed busts (the originals having well stored with honey for winter consumption; had no hair) are to wear hats; and the worils and it is to this humane system of bee-culture that "naked fact” (used fifteen times in the printed I invite the attention of all lovers and admirers of Catalogue) are to be expunged forthwith. I am that truly interesting and valuable insect, the going over on purpose to see this funny sight. honey-bee.-W.J. PETTITT, Dover.
you go with me?-WALTER, Cambridge.
(WALTER! you must not go. We will give Surprising “ Effects” of the Heat in America. you a “retainer " of 100 guineas to remain where --I have heard you say, Mr. Editor, that your you are. We cannot do without you. That's mental workshop is at the extreme top of a lofty house, a fact!] in a private street. No doubt the sun, just now, streaming through your window, dries up your Thermometers.-Can you tell me the rule obbrain. Should then your forthcoming Journal served for the comparison of the three thermonot be so bright as usual, we can readily excuse meters? If so, will you oblige me by so doing ?you; and to help you out, I send you the follow. James H. ing, "cut and dried." It is copied from an [To reduce degrees Centigrade above zero to American paper, just received.-"Gentle readers ! | degrees Fahr., multiply by 1.8, and add 32. To As you sprawl on your sofa this pleasant forenoon, reduce degrees Cent. below zero to degrees Fahr., or make an inverted 2 of yourself by propping multiply by 1.8 and subtract from 32. To reduce your chair-back against the wall, you probably degrees Reaumur above zero to degrees Fahr.