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Hutfondly overcome with Female charm.
Earth trembledfrom her Entrails, as again
In pangs, and nature gave a second groan,
Sky lowred and muttering thunder, some sad drops
Wept at compleating of the mortal Sin

As all Nature suffer'd by the guilt of our first Parents, these Symptoms of Trouble and Consternation are wondersully imagin'd, not only as Prodigies, but as Marks of her Sympathizing in the Fall of Man.

Adam's Converse with Eve, after having eaten the forbidden Fruit, is an exact Copy of that between fupiter and Juno, in the Fourteenth Iliad. Juno there approaches Jupiter with the Girdle which she had received from Venus, upon which he tells her, that she appeared more charming and desirable than she ever had done before, even when their Loves were at the highest. The Poet afterwards describes them as reposing on a Summet of Mount Ida, which produced under them a Bed of Flowers, the Lotus, the Crocus, and the Hyacinth, and concludes his Description with their salling a-sleep.

Let the Reader compare this with the following Passage in Milton, which begins with Adam's Speech to Eve.

For never did thy Beauty since the Day
Isaw thee sirst and wedded thee, adorn'd
With all Perfections so inflame my Sense
With ardor to enjoy thee, fairer now
Than ever, bounty of this virtuous Tree.

So said he, andforbore not glance or toy
Of amorous intent, well understood
Of Eve, whose Eye darted contagious fire.
Her hand he seised, and to a shady bank
Thick over-head with verdant roof embowr'd
He led her nothing loth: Flow'rs were the Coucht
Panfies, and Violets, and Asphodel,
And Hyacinth, Earth's freshest softest lap.
There they their fill of Love, and Loves disport

Took largely, of their mutual guilt the Seal,
The Solace of their Sin, 'till dewy sleep
Opprefs'd them

As no Poet seems ever to have studied Homer more, or to have resembled him in the greatness of Genius than Milton, I think I shou'd have given but a very imperfect Account of his Beauties, if I had not observed the most remarkable Passages which look like Parallels in these two great Authors. I might, in the Course of these Criticisms, have taken notice of manyparticular Lines and Expressions which are translated from the Greek Poet, but as I thought this would have appeared too minute and over-curious, I have purposely omitted them. The greater Incidents, however, are not only set off by being shown in the fame Light, with several of the fame Nature in Homer, but by that means may be also guarded against the Cavils of the Tasteless or Ignorant.



\ Reddereperfonæscit convenientia cuique. Hor. {He knows what best befits each charatler.)

[ quis talia fando

Temperet a lachrymis 1 Virg.]

{ Who can relate such Woes without a Tear 1] Saturday, April 19. 1712.


[HE Tenth Book of Paradise Lost has a greater variety of Persons in it than any other in the whole Poem. The Author upon the winding up of his Action introduces all those who had any Concern in it, and shews with great Beauty the influence which it had upon each of them. It is like the last Act of a well written Tragedy, in which all who had a part in it are generally drawn up before the Audience, and represented under those Circumstances in which the determination of the Action places them.

I shall therefore consider this Book under four Heads, in relation to the Celestial, the Insernal, the Human, and the Imaginary Persons, who have their respective Parts allotted in it.

To begin with the Celestial Persons: The Guardian Angels of Paradise are described as returning to Heaven upon the Fall of Man, in orderto approve their Vigilance; their Arrival, their manner of Reception, with the Sorrow which appeared in themselves, and in those Spirits who are said to Rejoice at the Conversion of a Sinner, are very finely laid together in the following Lines.

Up into Heav'n from Paradise in haste
Th' angelick guards ascended, mute and sad
For man, for of his state by this they knew
Much wond'ring how the subtle Fiend hadstoln

t This motto was changed in second edition for the one helow it*

Entrance unseen. Soon as th' unwelcome news
From earth arriv'd at Heaven Gate, difpleas'd
AU were who heard, dim sadness did not spare
That time Celestial visages, yet mixt
With pity, violated not their bliss.
About the new-arriv'd, in multitudes
Th' Æthereal people ran, to hear and know
How all befell; They tow'rds the thronesupreame
Accountable made haste to make appear
With righteous plea, their utmost vigilance,
And easily approv'd; when the most High
Eternalfather from his secret cloud,
Amidst in thunder utter'd thus his voice.

The same Divine Person who in the foregoing parts of this Poem interceded for our first Parents before their Fall, overthrew the rebel Angels, and created the World, is now represented as descending to Paradise, and pronouncing Sentence upon the three Offenders. The cool of the Evening, being a Circumstance with which Holy Writ introduces this great Scene, it is Poetically described by our Author, who has also kept religiously to the form of Words, in which the three several Sentences were passed upon Adam, Eve, and the Serpent. He has rather chosen to neglect the numerousness of his Verse, than to deviate from those Speeches which are recorded on this great occasion. The Guilt and Consusion of our first Parents standing naked before their Judge, is touch'd with great Beauty. Upon the Arrival of Sin and Death into the Works of the Creation, the Almighty is again introduced as speaking to his Angels that surrounded him.

See with what heat these Dogs of Hell advance
To waste and havock yonder world, which I
So fair and good created, &c.

The following Passage is formed upon that glorious Image in Holy Writ which compares the Voice of an innumerable Host of Angels, uttering Hallelujahs, to the Voice of mighty Thunderings, or of many Waters,


He ended, and the Heav'nly Audience loud
Sung Hallelujah, as the sound of Seas,
Through multitude that fung: Just are thy ways,
Righteous are thy Decrees in all thy Works,
Who can extenuate thee 1

Though the Author in the whole course of his Poem, and particularly in the Book we are now examining, has infinite Allusions to places of Scripture, I have only taken notice in my Remarks of such as are of a Poetical Nature, and which are woven with great Beauty into the Body of his [this] Fable. Of this kind is that Passage in the present Book, where describing Sin [and Death] as marching through the Works of Nature, he adds,

Behind her Death

Close following pace for pace, not mounted yd
On his pale horse:

Which alludes to that Passage in Scripture so wonderfully Poetical, and terrifying to the Imagination. And J looked, and behold, a pale Horse, and his Name that fat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him: and power was given unto them over the fourth part of- the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with sickness, and with the beasts of the earth. Under this first head of Celestial Persons we must likewise take notice of the Command which the Angels received, to produce [the] several Changes in Nature, and fully the Beauty of the Creation. Accordingly they are represented as insecting the Stars and Planets with malignant Influences, weakning the Light of the Sun, bringing down the Winter into the milder Regions of Nature, planting Winds and Storms in several Quarters of the Sky, storing the Clouds with Thunder, and in short, perverting the whole frame of the Universe to the condition of its Criminal inhabitants. As this is a noble Incident in the Poem, the following Lines, in which we see the Angels heaving up the Earth, and

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