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No. 1.-Hanging of English La-
bourers, at Kent and Essex;
Treatment of the Labourers.-
Chelmsford Sessions.-Bloody-
minded. Confession of Goodman;
Cobbett's Lectures.-To the La-
bourers of England; on the mea-
sures which ought to be adopted
with regard to Church Property.
-W. Collett, Vicar of Surlingham,
Norfolk.-Preston Election.-The
Ballot. The Prayer.-Trevor and
Potatoes. General Fast.- Ire-
land; Letter of Mr. O'Connell to
the Trades of Dublin-Foreign
Affairs; France.-Tithes.


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VOL. 71.-No. 1.]



HANGING OF ENGLISH LABOURERS. ~ I SHALL, under this head, put upon record the hangings that are now going on. I shall not, except in the way of explanation, make any remark, or state any fact, from myself, and shall not venture on the insertion of any private, or written commanication; but shall put on record merely what I find in the public papers. The trials are taking place by SPECIAL COMMISSIONS; and a Proclamation was issued before the trials began, offer ing a reward of a hundred pounds to any one who should cause any one to be convicted of some of the acts of violence; and FIVE HUNDRED POUNDS in the case of SETTING FIRE. But the best way is to insert the Proclamation itself.

WILLIAM R.-Whereas great multitudes of lawless and disorderly persons have, for some time past, assembled themselves together in a riotous and tumultuous manner, in the Counties of Wilts, Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants, and Berks; and for the purposes of compelling their employers to comply with certain regulations prescribed by themselves, with respect to wages, have had recourse to measures of force and violence, and have actually committed various acts of outrage in different parts of the counties above-mentioned, whereby the property of many of our good subjects has, in several instances, been wholly destroyed, and their lives and properties are still greatly endangered:

[Price 1s.

fires), in case the person making such discovery shall be liable to be prosecuted for the same.

And the Lords Commissioners of our Treasury are hereby required to make payment accordingly of the said re wards.

Given at our Court at St. James's, this twenty-third day of November, one thousand eight hundred and thirty, in the first year of our reign. God save the King.

Here, in the case of the setting fire, is a freehold estate worth twenty-five pounds a year; or, an annuity for life of about fortyfive pounds a-year, though the informer be be from forty to fifty years of age, here is only twenty-one years of age; and, if he the worth of an annuity of a hundred pounds Chelmsford, in Essex. a year for life. The hanging began at


AT CHELMSFORD, FRIDAY, CHRISTMAS EVE. JAMES EWEN, a young man, having a wife and two small children.

Bateman, for highway robbery, accompanied with eirOn Friday James Ewen, convicted of arson, and Thos cumstances of savage barbarity, underwent the extreme will be recollected, had been found guilty of setting fire penalty of the law in front of Springfield Gaol. Ewen, it to the barn and stack of Mr. Sach, farmer, at Rayleigh. The circumstantial evidence to connect him with the fact Richardson, who had been imprisoned as an accessary to was very slight, but the principal witness, a man named the crime, swore that the prisoner had, unsolicited, told bim at the same time to join him in firing another stack him, after the fire, that he was the perpetrator, and urged belonging to Mr. Blewett, the next evening. Richardson stances subsequently transpiring to cast suspicion upon was known to be a notoriously bad character, and circumhis evidence, the most strenuous exertions were made, by a number of the most respectable_inhabitants, to save Ewen's life, but without success. Ewen protested his innocence, in the most earnest manner, up to the last moment, though he freely confessed that in his life he had been guilty of many offences. His wife and two children took their farewell of the unfortunate man a few days previous, and his brother was admitted to him on the morning of his execution. No commiseration was excited for Bateman, who had robbed and cruelly ill-used an old man, upwards of 70, by stamping his head into a ditch, inches in the mud. About nine o'clock, after leaving the and crushing his ear off which was found buried six chapel, the culprits ascended the platform, Ewen with great firmness, and Bateman discovering much agitation. Upon placing the rope round Ewen's neck, it was found to be too short, upon which he observed, "It's rather a tight fit." The halter was obliged to be spliced, and while this was accomplishing, Ewen remarked to a person who stood near," It's rather cold standing up here." The ropes being adjusted, the bolts were withdrawn, and the prisoners were launched into eternity. They struggled very much.-The general impression amongst the Magistrates was, that Ewen was innocent.—London Morning Advertiser of 87th Dee.

We, therefore, being duly sensible of the mischievous consequences which must inevitably ensue, as well to the peace of the kingdom as to the lives and properties of our subjects from such wicked and illegal practices, if they go unpunished; and being firmly resolved to cause the laws to be put into execution for the punishment of such offenders, have thought fit by the advice of our Privy Council, to issue this Proclamation, hereby strictly commanding all Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, Under-Sheriffs, and all other Civil Officers whatsoever, within the said counties of Wilts, Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants, and Berks, that they do use their utmost endeavours to discover, apprehend, and bring to justice, the persons concerned in the riotous proceedings above-mentioned.

And as a further inducement to discover the said offenders, we do hereby promise and declare that any person or persons who shall discover and apprehend, or cause to be discovered and apprehended, the authors, abettors, or perpetrators of any of the outrages above-mentioned, so that they, or any of them, may be duly convicted thereof, shall be entitled to the sum of Fifty Pounds for each and every person who shall be convicted, and shall also receive our most gracious pardon for the said offence, in case the person making such discovery as aforesaid shall be liable to be prosecuted for the same.

And whereas certain wicked incendiaries have secretly by fire, in many parts of the said counties, destroyed the corn, hay, buildings, and other property of our subjects, we do hereby promise and declare, that any person or persons who shall discover and apprehend, or cause to be dis-Morning Chronicle of 28th Dec. covered and apprehended, the authors of the said fires, so

that they or any one of them may be duly convicted I shall, by and by, collect all these trials thereof, shall be entitled to the sum of Five Hun- together, with as full an account as I can red Pounds for each and every person who shall be get of all the circumstances relating to

so convicted, and shall also receive our most gracious




WM. PACKMAN, Brothers.

John Dyke, otherwise Field, and William and Henry EXECUTION OF THREE INCENDIARIES AT MAIDSTONE. Packman, brothers, were executed on Penenden Heath, on Friday. The first had protested his innocence of being concerned in the fires; but the two latter, who are quite tended, for fear that any disturbance should take place. boys, confessed their guilt. A troop of Scotch Greys atHenry Packman addressed the crowd, and accused Bishop, who gave evidence against him, of having instigated him to burn the ricks, &c. No disturbance took place.-London


TREATMENT OF THE ENGLISH | from my petition to the two Houses of LABOURERS. Parliament, dated 4th December. The following I take from the Morning Chronicle of 29th Dec., and it will show that a change has now taken place in the treatment of the labourers. Pray, reader, attend to the whole of it; mark it well; and then I leave you to make your own remarks.


"THAT it has been proved before com"mittees of the House of Commons, that the allowance for the subsistence "of a labouring man,including his earnings, has been, as fixed by the magis"trates in Wiltshire, no more than one "pound and a quarter of bread and one "half-penny in money per day for food "and clothes, with nothing for drink, "fuel, or bedding; that it has been


proved before the said committees, "that formerly the labourers all brewed "their own beer, and that now they "never do it; that formerly they ate "meat, cheese, butter, and bread, and they now live almost wholly on pota"toes, which they carry cold to the "fields when at work there; that it has "been proved before the said commit tees, that the honest, hard-working "labourer is not allowed more than "about half as much food as is allowed "the convicted felons in the jails and


LABOURERS' WAGES.-The Surveyor and Overseer of Great Waltham appeared upon a summons to answer the complaint of three for not paying them sufficient for their labour labourers, named Tilly, Smith, and Gentry, in the gravel-pits to procure them the common necessaries of life. The case has been several times before the Bench. On the first occasion a summons was issued against the defendants, who, on its being served upon them, went to Mr. Tufnell, and upon their promising to comply with his directions and reasonably increase the wages, the summons was dismissed without a hearing. The SurMr. Tufnell's order, thinking that as the sumveyor, however, instead of complying with mons was dismissed he should not be called on to answer for his conduct, refused to give the complainants any more for their labour, Bench, a second summons was issued; a letand they again coming to complain to the ter was also written by the Chairman to Mr. Tufnell, informing him of the reprehensible conduct of the Surveyor. The complainants in the gravel-pit by the Surveyor, who renow stated that they were employed to work fused to pay them more than 4s. 6d. a-week each. They were all single men, and had to pay Is. each for lodging and 6d. for washing, after which they had only 3s. left for seven days' subsistence. Chairman: How could you manage to keep


hulks; that it has been proved be"fore the said committees, that the labourers commit crimes in order to get fed and clothed as well as the "convicts are fed and clothed; that the "Magistrates of Warwickshire have "declared in resolutions at their Quarter "Sessions, that the labourers commit "crimes in order to get into jail, the

jail being a more happy place than "their own homes; that it has been "proved before the said committees, that the young women are, now-a-alive-did you live upon sticks and stones ? "days, almost all pregnant before mar- The Surveyor, in his defence, said he asked the Surveyor last year; they told him 9d. athe complainants how much they had from

riage, owing to fathers and them"selves being too poor to pay the ex-day, and he gave them that sum. penses of the wedding; that it has "been proved before the said commit66 tees, that the labourers, having an "assistant overseer for a driver, are compelled to draw carts and wagons like beasts of burden; and that it has long been a general practice to put "them up at auction, and to sell them ❝for certain lengths of time, as is the "custom with regard to the negroes in "the slave colonies: that all these things have been proved to commit"tees of the House of Commons." The above paragraph is an extract


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Chairman: And so you really and seriously thought that sufficient for a poor man to live upon, did you?

The Surveyor said that he never served the office before, and did not understand it.

Mr. Tufnell said he felt satisfied that so

Chairman: That is no defence at all; you knew a man could not live upon 3s. a week. far as the overseer was concerned, no blame attached to him. He had always fulfilled the duties of his office to the perfect satisfaction of the parishioners; at the same time he did full justice to the poor.

would give them 1s. a-day for their work, The complainants said, if the Surveyor they should be well satisfied.

The Bench said that was the lowest sum

which they ought to have. In fact, they did not see how a man could subsist upon less.

The Surveyor was reprimanded for his conduet, and ordered to pay the men in future 1s. a-day, and also for the time they had lost in coming to make the complaint.-Essex Herald.

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Bravo! good, Mr. Tufnell! What a

"Sir,-In The Times [the Bloody "Old Times] newspaper of this mornpity it was that the men did not complaining, I read the following paragraph, "which I beg you to insert, along with "the comment that I have subjoined "to it :•



Ah! LAST YEAR! let us proceed. Now, it was proved by their published scale, that the magistrates of Dorsetshire allowed 2s. 7d. a week for a working man when bread was The unfortunate young man, Thomas 10d. the quartern loaf (as it is now); it was Goodman, who was convicted of setting fire proved before a Committee of the House to the barn of Mr. Alderton, at Battle, and of Commons, on the evidence of BENETT sentenced to death, has made a full confession (now a member for the county), that the of his guilt, and attributes his untimely end to that notorious demagogue, William Cobbett, magistrates of Wiltshire allowed a gal-who, you may remember, delivered a public lon loaf and three-pence a week to each lecture at Battle some time ago, in which he member of a labourer's family for food told his auditors that unless the farmers would and clothing; that is, at this time, 2s. 1d. consent to pay better wages to their labourers, for each, and nothing for drink, washing the fires which were then going on in Kent might also take place in this county, and that or lodging, or fuel or bedding. If, then, the boundary between the counties was but 4s. 6d. a week to these Essex men was imaginary. It is a singular fact that in less cruelty, what was the treatment of the than a fortnight after the delivery of this leclabourers of Dorsetshire and Wiltshire!ture, the first fire-namely, that which broke out on the night of the 3d of November, took place in the parish of Battle; and it is still more singular, that the property destroyed on that occasion belonged to Mr. Charles Emery, landlord of the George Inn, at Battle, who had refused Cobbett the use of his principal room for the purpose of delivering his lecture. The unfortunate young man, who is only 18 years of age, confesses that he was so stirred up by the words of Cobbett, that his brain was nearly turned; and that he was under the impression that nothing but the destruction of property by fire at night would effect that species of revolution, the necessity of which was so strongly enforced by the arch lecturer. Of the eight fires which took place in the parish of Battle, within one month, the unfortunate convict has confessed that five of them were occasioned by his own hand. The following are the words of the culprit with reference to Cobbett, as taken down this morning, in the presence of the Rev. Henry John Rush, Curate of Crowhurst, Sussex :

If 6s a week is the "lowest sum that a single man ought to have," what was the treatment of the men in these Western counties? If it was cruelly to give them a farthing less than 6s. a week, what was it to give a working man 2s. 7d. when bread was at the same price? It is said that William Packman, who, as we have seen, was hanged on PENENDEN HEATH, on Christmas Eve, said to one of his old companions, who was crying: "Never mind, Dick, you'll have your belly full now." Though mere boys, these Packmans are said to have died with the greatest composure. This Essex justice is to be applauded for his conduct, and I hope his example will be followed all over the country; for that is the effectual way of putting an end to 'I, Thomas Goodman, never should af these horrible scenes, the like of which thought of douing aney sutch thing if Mr. Cobhave not been beheld for ages, and, I bett Cobet had never given aney lactures i believe that their never would bean any fires or trust, never will be beheld again. Imob in Battle nor maney others places if he trust that all men are now convinced, never had given aney lactures at all.”” with this worthy magistrate of Essex, that 6s. a week is the very lowest that a single man ought to have to live upon; and if all the magistrates act on the same rule, there will once more be peace.


THE following letter was publishes in the Morning Chronicle on Christma Day:


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Now, Sir, in the first place, the reporter is a FARSON; and that is quite enough with regard to the truth of the report. In the next place, as to the pretended statement of Goodman, please to observe these facts:-1. That the

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