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have covered two acres. The planting has been commenced some time, and the choicest plants had been collected. The building promised to stand a monument of architectural beauty: its destruction was occasioned by its immense weight of iron at top, which, unsupported by the scaffolding, folded in. Previous to its fall, a crackling noise admonished the workmen of approaching danger, and happily no life was lost.
WARWICKSHIRE. The shareholders of the Birmingham Bank, at their first annual meeting, divided a profit of 10 per cent., leaving, after this and all expenses, more than 50001, to carry over,
In 1831 and 1832, the British and Foreign trade of the port of Hull, entered inwards, is thus stated :-1831, British ships, 974, 187, 361 tons; Foreign ships, 725, 73,547 tons ; 1832, British ships, 762, 140,788 tons; Foreign ships, 454, 43,481 tons.
£656 5 0
£248 10 0
The foundation stone of the bridge of seven arches, erecting across the river Clyde, between Glasgow and Lauriestown, has been laid, with masonic honours, by the Hon. James Ewing, LL.D., F.R.S., Lord Provost, in presence of the Magistrates, the Grand Lodge of Scotland, &c.
IRELAND The sums paid for stamp duty and advertisement duty by the following Irish newspapers, for the quarter ending the 5th of July, 1833, are thus stated :
247 18 4
158 2 6 Evening Packet
484 17 11
16276 Freeman's Journal
401 0 10
106 2 6 Morning Register
141 10 0 Saunders' News Letter
965 17 6 Stewart's Despatch
231 5 6
208 10 0
226 0 10
114 12 6 Commercial Chronicle
224 11 7
131 17 6 Cork Southern Reporter
167 15 0 Constitution
262 10 0
164 100 Limerick Chronicle
288 15 0
73 7 6 Herald
138 10 10
34 17 6 The number of bushels of malt which were made and charged with duty in Ireland, from the 10th of October, 1832, to 5th of April, 1833, was 1,565,300 bushels ; of this quantity 42,736 bushels have been exported and 435,254 used by distillers.
The total present annual expenditure of Ireland, including debt, army, pensions, and all disbursements payable out of the public revenue, is 2,910,8081. 38. 10d.
The amount of registered tonnage of the Irish ports in 1832, was 108, 128 tons. The Marquis Wellesley has been appointed Viceroy of Ireland, in the room of the Marquis of Anglesey, who retires from ill health, and at the earnest recommendation of his physiciaus passes the winter in the South of Europe. The party journals in Ireland had anticipated the appointment, with various comments; but his Lordship's former administration (in 1822) of the same office is the standing commentary from which impartial people will be able to judge more correctly than from any speculations. The Marquis was Governor-General of India in 1795, and Ambassador to Spain in 1809. He is now 73 years of age.
Curious Cave.-The facts of the curious cave discovered between Cahir and Mitchelstown, in the county of Tipperary, in May last, are fully corroborated by recent explorers. The entrance is through an aperture not three feet wide, whence there is a descent of about twenty feet, and thence by a ladder to a further depth of fourteen feet. Passing through a narrow cliff, the spectator enters the Grand Hall, which is about one hundred feet across and twenty-one feet high, and of irregular form. This cave, like all the others, is of limestone, apparently supported by several crystallized pillars. There are several other caves of various sizes and dimensions ; that called the Long Cave is two hundred yards in length and twenty feet high ; the roof, like Gothic arches, springing from several handsome pillars with broad bases, some of which are thirty feet in circumference, and above these the pillars are about ten feet high and one foot in diameter ; they are all through white, shining, and transparent, like the crystal. In another cave is a stone table, covered with mimic drapery like a cloth, and surmounted by three lesser pillars like candlesticks. There are numerous handsome draperies of the same transparent substance through the several caves and passages; and at one place a petrifaction resembling a statue, the legs and drapery of which very closely approach to the labour of the chisel; the people of the neighbourhood call its Lot's Wife, because somewhat resembling a pillar of salt. Some of the caves are small, and entirely covered with the white transparent substance from the droppings from the roof, some of which form pillars and some very beautiful draperies and curtains, drawn up in the centre and flowing down at the sides most gracefully. When struck with a stone these crystallizations sound like bell-metal. At the end of one of the caves is a deep and clear stream of water. The several passages are very crooked and narrow; in many places the visiter is forced to crawl on his hands and feet, and sometimes quite fat on his face. Some of the floors are like crystallized snow, but for the most part they are strong and covered with yellow clay. In some places two or three pillars rise from one base, the effect of which is handsome. There are also several crystallizations like beehives. The floor of the Water Hall resembles a honeycomb, and is about nineteen feet in circumference at the base, forming a sort of irregular cone at the top; the pillars are solid at the bottom, but hollow in the centre. The material of the petrifications is crystallized stalactite of carbonate of lime, and polished both within and without by the attraction of the water. The Gothic Gallery is entered through a sort of crystal curtain suspended apparently on small Doric pillars, which, when touched with a cane, produced sounds like a number of bells of various sizes. This gallery is about twelve feet wide, and resembles the aisle or entrance to an ancient cathedral. The Upper or Garret Cave is about thirty feet square and twenty high, formed like the others, but surrounded with more fanciful drapery. The entrance to the Lower or Cellar Cave is difficult and dangerous ; the visiter creeps through a long avenue on all-fours until at the edge of a precipice, when the sound of a rivulet arrests his progress about twenty feet distant; hitherto no person has had sufficient hardihood to explore this Stygian river--whence it flows or where it vanishes. There is another called the Sand Hall, and another Kingsborough Hall, so called after the noble lord of that name, eldest son of Earl Kingston, on whose property it is situated, and who discovered it by breaking through a narrow partition of spar which intercepted his passage. In this hall there are springs, wells, and cataracts in miniature, which run through tubular spars, and at a distance make a very agreeable murmuring noise. The visiter feels no effluvia nor inconvenience, the first caves being apparently well ven. tilated, and the air perfectly wholesome. The whole is called “Kingston Cave." .
[The following are the thirty boroughs to which charters of incorporation are proposed to be given under the Lord Chancellor's Bill :--Birmingham, Blackburn, Bolton, Bradford, Brighton, Bury, Chatham, Cheltenham, Devonport, Dudley, Frome, Gateshead, Halifax, Huddersfield, Manchester, Merthyr Tydvil, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Sheffield, South Shields, Stoke-upon-Trent, Stroud, Sunderland, Tynemouth, Wakefield, Warrington, Whitby, Whitehaven, and Wolverhampton.]
[The Committee appointed to inquire into the state of agriculture have reported, as their opinion, that “the result of their careful observation is, that, during the last ten years especially, the tenants have become gradually more and more distressed, their live and dead stocks have been reduced lower and lower, their capital has been diminishing, and the land has been so rapidly deteriorating, that soils of inferior description have been taken out of cultivation altogether."]
NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE.
THE METROPOLITAN THEATRES. A Chronological History of their Origin and Progress. The only object of this sketch is to present the reader with a chrono-, logical arrangement of facts, (without entering into particular details) so as to offer a succinct account of the origin, growth, and progress of theatrical representations in this metropolis.
For this purpose it might be sufficient to commence this sketch with the reign of Charles II., at which period were granted the patents under which the two winter theatres for a long time claimed the exclusive privilege of amusing the town with dramatic performances of every class, —from stately tragedy to broad farce,-from gorgeous spectacle to comic pantomime. But it will be as well to premise that, previously at least to the reign of the first Charles, it does not appear that the monarch had any notion that the theatres were within the legitimate sphere of his prerogative, or that he had any right to interfere with the regulation of dramatic more than with any other species of amusement to which the people were for the time addicted : nor indeed, looking to the nature of the regal prerogative in England, does it seem that such matters are by law under its influence; for stage-plays in England, like the comedies and tragedies of Greece, had their rise from religious festivities --from the mysteries (rude dramatic representations of scriptural subjects) sprang the moralities, in which was wrought up something more of a mundane character. Of these, at least of the former of them, the monks and unbeneficed clergy were, for the most part, the actors and managers, —whether stimulated by the pure desire of thus giving popular notoriety to their doctrines, or by the less disinterested motive of rendering the amusement of the people subservient to their own gain, it would be useless to discuss : certain, however, it is, that the prerogative of the crown was never intended in any case to control such exhibitions.
In this rude and indigested state stood theatrical representations at the period of the Reformation in this country; about which time we perceive indications of the rise of a more legitimate species of drama, though still involved with much low buffoonery,--as the drama in all countries ever has been, both at its rise and decline. But as there is no evidence, and, indeed, from the nature of things, it seems impossible that, before this time, the kingly power was ever exercised in the regulation of theatrical affairs, so neither does it appear that, in its somewhat bettered state, they were as yet subjected to its influence. Henry VIII., who arrogated to himself no small share of temporal and spiritual authority, neither as hereditary monarch of the realm, por as assignee of the papal power, ever exercised this subsequently discovereel privilege. His daughter Elizabeth, who assuredly inherited a fair share of her
Nov.-Vol. XXXVIII, NO. CLV.
father's high notions of regal power, (witness her frequent declarations to her parliaments that “they ought not to deal, nor to judge, nor to meddle with her majesty's prerogative royal,") yet at a time when the English drama was too obviously at its most flourishing height to allow of a supposition that it could escape from its insignificance, neither did this Queen practise or assume any right of controlling the theatres. Nor is it alone from such negative premises that we are entitled to draw the conclusion that in law no such right ever did exist in the crown, for there are these positive facts-1st. That by far the greater portion (if not all) of the companies of players at this time formed each a portion of some nobleman's retinue, and they were, in fact, his hired servants, although their representations were chiefly for the public gratification and their own emolument. 2d. When, at length, it became the practice for bodies of players, together with minstrels, fencers, bear-wardens, &c. &c. to stroll about the country, giving out that they were the company of some nobleman, and, from their generally bad and dissolute character, it was considered advisable to put a stop to these proceedings, this was effected, not by exercise of the royal prerogative, (which, if constitutional and recognized, would have been the simplest and shortest method,) but by an act of the legislature itself, (39 Eliz., cap. 4,) which enacted that all such persons should be punished as vagrants and vagabonds, with the exception of such players as could authenticate their pretensions, by the production of an authority to act, under the hand and seal of their alleged patrons.
But although this royal privilege appears either not to have existed or to have been so long wholly unused, there is no doubt that it was soon exercised in a most vigorous manner; and though the courts of law have since decided that this prerogative could not legally be enforced to the full extent to which it had been attempted, in the very teeth, too, of an existing statute, (that of Monopolies, 21 Jac. I. cap. 3,) yet still the legislature has, in some measure, by a recent statute, (25 Geo. II. cap. 36,) sanctioned this branch of the prerogative; and, therefore, though it may not have been idle to have so far discussed this matter, it clearly would be so to deny that, at the present day, at least within the limits of Westminster, the crown has a regulating jurisdiction over theatres.
To return to the immediate subject of this sketch, the chronology of the two so-called patent theatres :
1638. (14 Car. I.)—It appears from the letters patent granted by King Charles II. to Sir William Davenant and Thomas Killigrew, bearing date the 15th of January, 1662, that his father, Charles I., “of glorious memory," on the 26th of March, in the fourteenth year of his reign, (1638,) had granted a patent to the said Sir William Davenant, (then simply gentleman,) his heirs, &c., a license to new build a theatre behind the Three Kings Ordinary, in Fleet-street, or elsewhere, “wherein plays, musical entertainments, scenes, or other the like presentments, might be presented." There was also a power to Sir William Davenant to collect and regulate a company for this purpose, and to receive money from the public.
Whether this was the first patent of the kind ever granted, or whether there is
copy of it extant beyond this recital, I am not aware: * In 1603, (1 Jac. I.,) a license was granted under the privy seal to Shakspeare, Fletcher, and others, to act plays at the Globe, in Bankside, as well as in any other part of the realm, during the King's pleasure.
it might be difficult, perhaps, to conjecture what the object was of this grant, as there is no indication of any intention to erect a monopoly upon it, nor anything from which it can be gathered that the new theatre was to be exclusively under his Majesty's protection. The probability is, that this was merely a license to the King's company to act for the public amusement, and receive money for their own private emolument.
This fact, however, matters but little; for during the immediately succeeding years of the commonwealth, theatrical amusements were wholly discountenanced, and fell into disuse, and almost oblivion.
1659. (10 Car. II.)-On General Monk's march to London in this year, one Rhodes, a bookseller, at Charing Cross, and formerly wardrobe keeper to the King's company of comedians at the Blackfriars, obtained a grant from the ruling powers to set up a company of players at the Cockpit in Drury Lane, which was an old play-house. There were, in this year, three play-houses :
1. The above-mentioned one of Rhodes's at the Cockpit.
3. One under William Bastus, in Salisbury Court. 1660. (11 Car. II.)-On the 15th November, Sir William Davenant's company commenced playing at the house in Salisbury Court; and played there till the sth of April, 1662.
Killigrew's company played in Gibbon's Tennis Court, in Vere Street, during this year and till the 8th of April, 1663.
1662. (14 Car. II.)—In this year the patent, dated 15th January, was granted by Charles II. to Davenant and Killigrew. After reciting as above the former one, it further recites that, in the preceding May, (1661) it was exemplified, and that this patent and exemplification were now both surrendered to be cancelled.
The second patent then proceeds to make a similar grant to Sir W. Davenant, of a license to erect a new theatre in any place in London, Westminster, or the suburbs, to be assigned and allotted out by the surveyor of the royal works, “wherein tragedies, comedies, plays, operas, musical scenes, and all other entertainments of the stage whatsoever may be shewn and presented;" and to gather together and regulate a company to act either “ within the house in Lincolu’s Inu Fields," or elsewhere; that this company shall be the servants of the King's brother, the Duke of York." Then, after some unimportant clauses with regard to the receipt of money and the regulation of the company, follows the important passage by which it has been contended a monopoly was created : it premises that divers companies have acted in London, Westminster, and the suburbs, “ without any authority for that purpose,” and proceeds thus :
“ We do hereby declare our dislike of the same, and will and grant that only the said company erected and set up, or to be erected and set up, by the said Sir William Davenant, his heirs and assigns, by virtue of these presents, and one other company erected and set up, or to be erected and set up, by Thomas Killigrew, Esq., his heirs or assigns, and none other, shall from henceforth act or represent comedies, tragedies, plays, or entertainments of the stage within our said cities of London and Westminster, or the suburbs thereof; which said company to be erected by the said Thomas Killigrew, his heirs or assigns, shall be subject to his and their government and authority, and shall be styled the company of us and of our royal consort." Then follow regulations for the preservation of " amity and corre