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PROVINCIAL OCCURRENCES IN THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND, AND IN WALES, SCOTLAND,
LONDON. The London and Greenwich Railway.—This railway is the germ of an immense line of railroad stretching to Dover, with its continuation from Calais to Paris, and throughout the whole of France, to the Mediterranean at Marseilles, the whole of which vast extent of lines of road are about to be covered with railways by jointstock companies in England, and in France by the government of the country. We give, in the following calculations, a view of the advantages, and savings of time and expense, resulting from the railways, thus reaching from Liverpool to the metropolis of France :
Viaduct, or Railway (the plans for the continuation of this line
being now in the Private Bill Office in the House of Commons) 72
25 almost all the time now occupied in travelling from Liverpool to London, per coach, the whole distance at an expense of less than 31. ; whilst the intercourse between Liverpool and Dublin, by steam navigation, is secured to the port of Liverpool by ten hours' sail. Thus, therefore, the disadvantages of distance will be, as it were, annihilated by the railway system, and nations will become as pro. vinces of the same territory.
University of London.-A meeting of the proprietors has taken place to sanction the Councii in mortgaging part of the estate of the University. The debts and engagements of the Unirersity amount to 37151. With a view to discharge this debt, the Council have entered into a treaty for a loan by way of mortgage on the estate of the University for 40001., for a period of five years, with interest at 41 per cent., to be increased to 5 per cent. in default of payment within two months after the stipulated time. This mortgage will constitute the entire and only charge on the estate. The proceedings of the Council were unanimously confirmed.
The long-projected opening in the Strand, from Waterloo-bridge to Charles-street, and thence to Long-acre, is about to be carried into effect. The inhabitants of such houses as must be removed in consequence have received notice to quit their habi. tations without delay.
The Public Walks Committee state their regret at hearing that it is in contemplation to inclose and build upon that pleasant rising ground called Primrose Hill, situate to the north of the Regent's Park. It is understood that it belongs to Eton College ; and the committee suggests that means should be taken by Government to secure it in its present open state.
The Public Walks Committee point ont three eligible places to be thrown open to the public as proper for public walks. The first is Copenhagen Fields, about fifty acres, which is to be disposed of; the second place is Hackney Downs, or Bonner's Fields ; and the third an extension and improvement of the embankment along the river side to the east of London, from Limehouse to Blackwall, called the Mid Wall. This place, say the Committee, if laid out as a public terrace or a walk, would command a view of the opposite coast of Kent, and all the vessels passing up and down the river to the port of London. The flowing tide gives great freshness to the air at this spot, which appears very eligible for a reserved public walk; and the evidence of eminent surveyors shows that this might be effected at a very moderate expense. They also suggest the laying ont and plantivg, round the edge of Kennington Common, of a handsome public walk.
Roman Antiquities.-A most interesting discovery of Roman antiqnities has lately been made at Carrvorren, near Gilsland. The following account of it has been published by a gentleman who has visited the place :-“ As Mr. John Carrick, of Carrvorren, in the parish of Haltwhistle, lying, as a crow would Ay, about midway between Gilsland and the town of Haltwhistle, was digging a drain, he discovered, in the field adjoining his house, in the direction of the Roman wall
, which goes across the chain of rocks called the Devil's Teeth, about four feet from the surface of the earth, several square flags, beautifully wrought and chisselled, and about twelve or fifteen square stones, about three feet square and nine inches thick, of the hardest granite. In the field adjoining, I also saw the remains of a Roman temple. The sanctuary itself appeared about thirteen feet square: a stone altare piece was standing at the east end; the remaining walls are about thirty inches high. This communicated with an ante-room, the same length, (viz. thirteen feet,) but only about four feet wide ; another door immediately opposite leads you to another apartment, now covered with rubbish, at the side of which there is the begin. ning of an excavation. The earth above is two feet, or less. I perceived, by stooping and looking in, one or two standing round pillars, supporting the roof, of about three feet high : one of them was lying down at the mouth of the entrance, below the surface. I found the old Roman cement still perfect on the wall, a piece of which I send for your inspection. Near this compartment a well was discovered, filled with old pieces of iron—such as the point of a wild boar spear, two feet long, with a tremendous barb at one end, and a socket to receive a shaft at the other ; also, a hoop of a bucket (no ways rusty), a rusty short dagger or crease, a copper coin (the size of a farthing), on one side of wbich was a square, upright gateway, with an arch in the centre: at the top stood a crowing cock; on the other side the head of one of the Roman emperors. There are several upright, square stones, with inscriptions ; also, numerous bones of animals-among the rest, those I now send you for examination : the head, in my humble opinion, is that of an elk, or red deer; the thigh-bone is the largest for its length I ever saw, and if it does not belong to the same animal, I must leave it to others to discover. These relics must have been buried there seventeen or eighteen centuries. The well, for about nine feet from the top, was of round masonry ; below that, square : altogether, about sixteen or twenty feet deep.”
Discovery of Antique Remains in the Isle of Sheppy.-Lately, as the sexton of the parish of Minster was digging a grave, when about five feet and a half from the surface of the ground, he came to a large quantity of stone ; after having removed this from the grave, he discovered a figure or statue of a man, in two pieces, separated near the middle of the body. Twenty men were required to raise this immense weight from the place where it was deposited. The figure is of stone, and measures six feet three inches in length, and two feet across the shoulders. It is of the size of a stout, muscular, well-proportioned man, and appears to have lain upon a square tablet of stone, with the arms across the breast, the hands then drawn up, and placed perpendicularly towards the head. Between the two little fingers is a small image, quite perfect, exactly in the same position as the form itself. On each side of the head are the representations of a seraph or cherub, and at each side of the feet are the remains of the image of a lion. On the feet are spurs. Near to the spot in the same grave was found a small figure representing (apparently) the head of a nun, which in all probability had been placed over the tomh; her countenance is of a most grievous cast, her teeth decayed, and her tongue lying out upon her lower lip. From the form of the pieces of stone which have been found, some of which are fluted, there appears to have been an arch over the tomb, similar to some which are now in the church ; there is no doubt it has lain many centuries. A nunnery, formerly connected with the building, extended much beyond the site of the present church. It was demolished by the Danes about the ninth century. In 852 the Danes went up the Thames, at which period the destruction of the fabric may plausibly be laid. Traces of encampment may be distinctly seen not far distant from the spot. The figure has been cleansed and placed in the parish church for the inspection of the curious; the antiquary will no doubt avail himself of an opportunity of paying a visit to the spot, and much interesting information on this subject will thus be obtained.
Opening of the New Pier at Gravesend.-The new grand Stone Pier at Gravesend, erected for the accommodation of passengers to and from the steamers, has been opened. The day passed off without any attempt having been made on the part 9 the watermen, who destroyed a short time since a portion of the projection, the Mayor having taken the precaution to swear in 200 special constables to prevent any collision. The new pier extends 100 feet from the grand stone pier, and a further addition of 40 feet will shortly be made. It is said that an additional sixpence will be made by the steamers to the fare to cover the expenses. The water. men, who have refused all offers of accommodation, and even rejected the compensa. tion offered by the Corporation, have announced their intention of landing and embarking passengers at 2d. per head, one-half of the fare allowed by the Act.
SOMERSETSHIRE. Bristol and London Railway.-A respectable meeting to promote this undertaking has been held at the Guildhall. Some of the principal merchants in the city took part in the proceedings. The report holds out very strong inducements for accomplishing the object ; and it cannot be denied that Bristol requires some powerful stimulus to place her upon a footing with Liverpool and other commercial towns. We know nothing more likely to promote our commercial prosperity on an extended scale than this project.-Bristol Puper.
The following is a scale of the debts for which persons were imprisoned in the National Gaol of Scotland, at Edinburgh, during the undermentioned years :
506 The amount of the debts of the 499 prisoners in 1824 was 32191. 3s. 6.. ; the 619 prisoners in 1827, 79151. 198. 2d. ; the 494 prisoners in 1828, 40191. 18s. Id.
Ancient Remains.— There was lately dug up in Shielforky Moss, near Blackford, by some people “ casting peats,” a box of a very singular kind, and believed to be ancient-since it must have been constructed in a very primitive state of society. It appeared to have been joined together by thongs of leather passing through perforations in the sides, ends, and bottom; and the lid, which projected a little over the front and ends, had been fixed in the same way. As frequently happens in similar cases of discovery, the curiosity was hewn in pieces by the spades of the work men, before any attention was paid to its contents. They state, however, that it appeared to them to have contained a mass of greasy matter, along with some bones, and a
clumsy lump of brass ;” and, according to the description of one of the men, a
queer airn thing," the only article which any of them had the curiosity to carry home. We shall, perhaps, have something more to communicate regarding these reliques, so soon as our correspondent can communicate more particular information on the subject. We can only add, that the “ box” was found embedded in the loam, eight feet below the present surface of the moss. - Stirling Advertiser.
Possil Remains.-A specimen of the head of the fossil elk was lately discovered in moss, resting on marl, about six miles from Belfast. The specimen was in a fine state of preservation ; the head was entire, and the teeth were perfect, and the immense horns were also complete. The head and horns weigh about 2 cwt. Each horn measures from the base to the tip five feet six inches. The measurement between the tips of the horns is seven feet six inches. The whole specimen is twelve feet in circumference. This beautiful and valuable specimen has been acquired by the Andersonian Museum, of which it forms one of the finest ornaments.-Glasgow Herald.
Petrisaction. The remains of a tree has been found at Newfaulds quarry, near Tullibody, embedded in a kind of clay, about eleven feet under the surface, seven of which is surface ground, and four of solid rock. It appears to have been a very large tree, and, judging from the remains, to have been about six or eight feet in circumference. It seems to have been cut through, and the solid rock lies over the place where it has been cut. It lies in a slanting direction. The length of the body of the tree which remains is two feet, six inches; a projecting part of the root is one foot, four inches; the breadth at the top is one foot, three inches; and the breadth at the root two feet, one inch. The remains of the root is one foot in length, and one foot, five inches in breadth. The root sends forth a small fibre, one foot in length. It is one of the finest specimens of petrifaction.
National Education. The Synod of Ulster have adopted three resolutions on the subject of national education. The principal points on which the Synod insist are, that the patrons and conductors of schools shall fix the time of teaching in the schools, and shall appropriate a given portion of this time to the reading of the Scriptures; and also, that during this appropriated time the Roman Catholic children may retire if they please-at all events, that they shall not be compelled to remain or to join in the Scripture classes, unless they or their guardians choose that they should do so. The giving up of the compulsory principle sets aside the claims of the Kildare-place Society, at least in a national view; and the admission that a particular part of each day may be exclusively appropriated to literary exercises, and another portion to scriptural reading, brings the difference between the National Board and the Synod to a mere question as to the quantity of time to be employed ; and this being altogether a matter of local arrangement, the general principle is evidently given up.
Lately, upwards of 300 reapers, from different parts of the country, amongst whom were several of the better class of farmers, assembled at Monart-house, the seat of E. R. Cookman, Esq., and voluntarily cut down all that gentleman's crop which was fit for the sickle, to testify the respect and affection his virtues and excellent qualities as a resident landlord have gained for him amongst all classes. Mr. Cookman entertains his tenantry to dinner after each rent-day.
The new board under the Irish Church Bill will be composed of the following persons, in addition to those who ex officio are to have seats at it :- The Archbishop of Cashel, the Bishop of Derry, the Bishop of Meath, the Bishop of Killaloe, Dr. Sadlier, and Messrs Quinn and Erck. The two latter are to receive salaries.
The Dublin papers advert to the retirement of the Marquis of Anglesey from the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland. We believe the whole affair depends upon health; but were it even otherwise, what is to be inferred from a desire to retire after so long and critical an exercise of office? The Evening Mail names the Duke of Richmond for a successor, all which, we apprehend, amounts to nothing beyond tolerably rational guess-work.
[A further return of the assessment at which certain houses in the country are assessed has been laid before the House of Commons, from which we extract the following items :- In the county of Derby, Kedleston, the magnificent mansion of Lord Scarsdale, is only rated at 1001. a year, and pays but 141. 3s. 4.l. for inhabited house-duty; the Duke of Devonshire's the same ; the Earl of Harrington's, at Elvastine, at 601. ; Lord Chesterfield's, at Brodby, at 80%. ; Mr. Mundy, at Shipley, 501. In York, Mr. John Gully, for Ackworth, is rated at 80/. ; the Duke of Leeds, 1001. ; Lord Wharncliffe, for Wortley, 100%. In the Isle of Wight, Lord George Seymour, for Norris Castle, 1001.; Mr. George Ward, for Northwood, 1001.)
NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE.
MY TRAVELLING ACQUAINTANCE,
BY THE AUTHOR OF
HIGH-WAYS AND BY-WAYS."
THE HERO OF WATERLOO, The Hero may sound invidious to those who attach the title indiscriminately to the thousands of bravc fellows who fought and fell on the field of Waterloo. At any rate, it may be insisted that the distinctive epithet appertains, par excellence, to him who commanded and conquered on the glorious day, in honour of which so many a ton of pow. der has exploded, and so many a pipe of port been drained. But if I can prove, as I think I can, that one great unknown exists, greater than the greatest of all who have been slain or sung, buried or bepraised, it will be admitted that I do an act of individual justice, in placing at the head of Fame's muster-roll the name to which the real place of honour, the greenest laurel wreath belongs. Let the many who lie covered with glory and quicklime find their bards, as Achilles found his. My hero shall be honoured in plain prose!
There are few travellers, with any pretensions to research or sentiment, who have failed to make a pilgrimage to Waterloo ; a shrine from which mementos are carried away, instead of being hung up there; an uncovered temple, over which Fame will flap her noisy wings. as long as memory may cheer or imagination brighten the human mind. Yet few, according to my theory, see Waterloo aright.
To him who has visited the place as it ought to be visited, --in silencé and solitude, at least with no sounds but the moaning blast sweeping from the forest, and no society but the carrion crows wheeling round and round, as if tradition had told them the tale of former feasting,-to him who thus sees Waterloo, how disgusting is it to mark the carriageloads of unsympathizing entity that rattle along the road, and trip across the cornfields and meadows which compose the awful spot! There has not been one given day during seventeen summers that has seen Waterloo left free from the intrusion of crowds, heterogeneous in all the mixture of worldly distinctious, yet essentially alike in that empty curiosity which each individual possesses in common with the rest. This moral idiopathy, which neither proceeds from nor depends on any other disease,--this itch for seeing memorable places, from which its possessors relieve themselves instinctively, as cattle rub against a post, is peculiarly English. It is like the celebrated sweating sickness of Queen Elizabeth's days, by which, it is said, all Britons were attacked at the same time, and they alone,—be they in what part of the world they might. But that was a passing epidemic,-this is a chronic malady ; -and it is as much our own as the “ home,” and the com
Oct.-VOL. XXXIX. NO. CLIV.