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Lay floating many a rood

Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool
His mighty Stature; on each hand the flames
Driv'n backwardflope their pointing Spires, and rowl'd
In Billows, leave /' th' midst a horrid vale.
Then with expanded wings he sleers his flight
Aloft, incumbent on the dusky Air
That felt unusual weight-

-His pondrous Shield

Ethereal temper, maffie, large and round
Behind him cast; the broad circumference
Hung on his Shoulders like the Moon, whose orb
Thro' Optick Glass the Tuscan Artists view
At Ev'ning from the top ofFesole,
Or in Valdarno to descry new Lands,
Rivers or Mountains on her spotty Globe.
His Spear to equal which the talleflpine
Hewn on Norwegian Hills to be the Mast
Of some great Ammiral, were but a wand
He zvalk'd with to support uneafie Steps
Over the burning Marl

To which we may add his Call to the fallen Angels that lay plunged and flupified in the Sea of Fire.

He call'dso loud, that all the hollow deep
Of Hell resounded

But there is no single Passage in the whole Poem worked up to a greater Sublimity, than that wherein his Person is described in those celebrated Lines:

He, above the rest

In shape and gesture proudly eminent
Stood like a Tower, &c.

His Sentiments are every way answerable to his Character, and are* suitable to a created Being of the most exalted and most depraved Nature. Sui;h is that in which he takes Possession of his Place of Torments.

Hail Horrors, hail

Infernal World, and thou profoundest Hell
Receive thy new Poffeffor, one who brings
A mind not to be changed by place or time.

And afterwards,

Here at least

Weshall be free; t/i' Almighty hath not built
Here for his envy, will not drive us hence:
Here we may reign secure, and in my choice
To reign is worth ambition, tho' in Hell:
Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven.

Amidst those Impieties which this Enraged Spirit utters in other Places of the Poem, the Author has taken care to introduce none that is not big with absurdity, and incapable of shocking a Religious Reader; his Words, as the Poet himself describes them, bearing only a semblance of Worth, not Substance. He is likewise with great Art described as owning his Adversary to be Almighty. Whatever perverse Interpretation he puts on the Justice, Mercy, and other Attributes of the Supreme Being, he frequently confesses his Omnipotence, that being the Perfection he was forced to allow him, and the only Consideration which could support his Pride under the Shame of his Defeat.

Nor must I here omit that beautisul Circumstance of his bursting out in Tears, upon his Survey of those innumerable Spirits whom he had involved in the fame Guilt and Ruin with himself.

-He now prepared

To speak; whereat their doubled ranks they bend
From wing to wing, and half enclose him round
With all his Peers: Attention held them mute.
Thrice he assay'd, and thrice in spite of Scorn
Tears such as Angels weep, burst sorth

The Catalogue of Evil Spirits has a great deal [Abundance] of Learning in it, and a very agreeable turn of Poetry, which rises in a great measure from his describing the Places where they were worshipped, by those beautisul marks of Rivers so frequent among the Ancient Poets. The Author had doubtless in this place Homer1s Catalogue of Ships, and Virgil's Lift of Warriors in his view. The Characters of Moloch and Belial prepare the Reader's Mind for their respective Speeches and Behaviour in the second and sixth Book. The Account of Thammuz is finely Romantick, and suitable to what we read among the Ancients of the Worship which was paid to that Idol.

{t Thammuz came next behind,

Whofe annual Wound in Lebanon allur'd
The Syrian Damsels to lament his fate,
In am'rous Ditties all a. Summer's day,
While smooth Adomssrom his native Rock
Ran purple to the Sea, suppos'd with Blood
Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the Love-tale
Infecled Sion'j Daughters with like Heat,
Whose wanton Passions in the sacred Porch
Ezekiel saw, when by the Vision led
His Eye survey 'd the dark Idolatries
Of alienated Judah.

The Reader will pardon me if I insert as a Note on this beautisul Passage, the Account given us by the late ingenious Mr. Maundrell of this Antient Piece of Worship, and probably the first Occasion of such a Superstition. 'We came to a fair large River .... 'doubtless the Antient River Adonis, so famous for the 'Idolatrous Rites perform'd here in Lamentation of 'Adonis. We had the Fortune to see what may be 'supposed to be the Occasion of that. Opinion which 'Lucian relates, concerning this River, viz. That this 'Stream, at certain Seasons of the Year, especially about 'the Feast of Adonis, is of a bloody Colour; which the 'Heathens looked upon as proceeding from a kind of 'Sympathy in the River for the Death of Adonis, who 'was killed by a wild Boar in the Mountains, out of 'which this Stream rises. Something like this we saw 'actually come to pass; for the Water was stain'd to 'a surprising redness; and, as we observed in Travelling, 'had discolour'd the Sea a great way into a reddish 'Hue, occasion'd doubtless by a sort of Minium, or 'red Earth, washed into the River by the violence .of 'the Rain, and not by any stain from Adonis's Blood.'} The Passage in the Catalogue, explaining the manner how Spirits transform themselves by Contraction, or Enlargement of their Dimensions, is introduced with great Judgement, to make way for several surprizing Accidents in the Sequel of the Poem. There follows one, at the very End of the First Book, which is what the French Critics call Marvellous, but at the same time probable by reason of the Passage last mentioned. As soon as the Infernal Palace is finished, we are told the Multitude and Rabble os Spirits immediately shrunk themselves into a small Compass, that there might be Room for such a numberless Assembly in this capacious Hall. But it is the Poet's Refinement upon this Thought, which I most admire, and which is indeed very noble in its self. For he tells us, that notwithstanding the vulgar, among the fallen Spirits, contracted their Forms, those of the first Rank and Dignity still preserved their natural Dimensions.

t This passage was added in the author's life-time, but subsequent to the second edition. The earliest issue with it in that I have seen, is Notes upon the Twelve Books of'*Paradise Lost.' London 17x9- p. 43.


Thus incorporeal Spirits tosmallest Forms
Reduc'd their Shapes immense, and were at large,
Though without Numberstill amidst the Hall
Of that infernal Court. But far within,
And in their own Dimensions like themselves,
The Great Seraphick Lords and Cherubim,
In close recess and Secret conclave sate,
A thousand Demy Gods on Golden Seats,
Frequent and full

The Character of Mammon, and the Description of the Pandæmonium, are sull of Beauties.

There are several other Strokes in the First Book wondersully poetical, and Instances of that Sublime Genius so peculiar to the Author. Such is the Description of Azazess Stature, and of the Infernal Standard, which he unsurls; and [as also] of that ghastly Light, by which the Fiends appear toone anotherin their Place of Torments. The Seat of Desolation, void of Light, Save what the glimmering of those livid Flames

Cash pale and dreadful

The Shout of the whole Host of fallen Angels when drawn up in Battle Array:

The Universal Host up sent

A Shout that tore Hells Concave, and beyond
Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night.

The Review, which the Leader makes of his Infernal Army:

He thro' the armed files

Darts his experienc'd eye, and soon traverse
The whole Battalion views, their order due,
Their Vizages and Stature as of Gods,
Their number last he sums. And now his Heart
Distends with Pride, and hard'ning in his strength

The Flash of Light, which appeared upon the drawing of their Swords;

He spake; and to confirm his words outslew
Millions of flaming Swords, drawn from the Thighs
Of mighty Cherubim/ the sudden blaze
Far round illumin'd Hell

The sudden Production of the Pandæmonium;

Anon out of the Earth a Fabrick huge
Rose like an Exhalation, with the Sound
Of dulcet Symphonies and Voices sweet.
The Artificial Illuminations made in it,

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