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Jesus Christ are truly and substantially comprehended under the form of bread and wine, together with his soul and divinity; the body under the form of bread, and the blood under the form of wine, by virtue of the words : but the body itself under the form of wine, and the blood under the form of bread, and the soul in both, by virtue of a natural connexion and concomitance, whereby the parts of the Lord Christ are united together, and the divinity by reason of its admirable hypostatic union with the body and soul; thus that they are as fully comprehended under one form as under both ;, in a word, that the whole and entire Christ exists under the form of the bread and under every part of that form; and the whole of him also under the form of the wine and all its parts; that therefore the two forms are separated, and the bread is given to the laity, and the wine to the clergy. That water is to be mixed with wine in the cup. That the laity are to receive the communion from the clergy, and the clergy from themselves. That the real body and the real blood of Christ, after consecration, is in the host in the consecrated particles; and that therefore the host is to be worshiped when it is shewn and carried about. That this wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into body, and of the whole substance of the wine into blood, is called transubstantiation. That the communication of both forms, under certain conditions, may be granted by the pope. It is called supersubstantial bread, and the bread of angels, which these eat without any veils : it is called moreover spiritual food; also the antidote by which they are released from their sins.
“III. ON Masses. It is called the sacrifice of the mass, because the sacrifice by which Christ offered up himself to God the Father, is represented thereby under the form of bread and wine; that thence it is a sacrifice truly propitiatory, pure, and altogether holy. That if the people do not communicate sacramentally, but only the minister, in such case the people communicate spiritually, because the ministers do it, not for themselves only, but for all the faithful who appertain to the body of Christ. That mass ought not to be performed in the vulgar tongue, because it contains the great learning of the faithful people; but that the ministers may declare something concerning it on the Lord's day. That it is ordained, that some things which are mystical should be pronounced with a lower, and other things with a louder, voice; and, for the purpose of giving
a majesty to so great a sacrifice which is offered to God, there should be lights, incense, garments, and other things of a like nature for the occasion. That it is to be offered up for the sins, penalties, satisfactions, and all the necessities of the living; and also for the dead. That masses in honor of the saints are thanksgivings for their intercession when they are implored.
“IV. ON REPENTANCE. That besides baptism there is a sacrament of repentance, whereby the benefit of the death and merit of Christ is applied to those who lapse after baptism; therefore it is called a kind of laborious baptism. That the parts of repentance are contrition, confession, and satisfaction. That Contrition is the gift of God, and the impulse of the Holy Ghost, not yet inhabiting, but only moving the contrite person, therefore it is a disposing. That Confession ought to be made of all mortal sins, even the most secret, and of the intentions; that sins which are withheld from confession are not forgiven, but that those which after search do not occur, are included in confession ; that confession ought to be made at least once a year; that absolution of sins is to be given by the ministers of the keys, and that they are remitted on their saying, I ABSOLVE; that absolution is like the act of a judge when sentence is pronounced'; that the more grievous sins are to be absolved by bishops, and the still more grievous by the pope. That SATISFACTION is made by satisfactory punishments imposed by the minister at discretion, according to the measure of the offence ; that when eternal punishment is remitted, then temporal punishment is remitted also. That the power of Indulgences is left by Christ to the church, and that the use of them is highly salutary.
« V. ON JUSTIFICATION. That a translation cannot be effected from that state in which man is born a son of Adam, to a state of grace through the second Adam the Saviour, without the washing of regeneration and faith, or without baptism. That the second beginning of justification is from preventing grace, which is a calling, with which man coöperates by converting himself. That disposition is produced by faith, when man believes those things to be true which are revealed, to which he is freely moved ; also by hope, when he believes that God is propitious for the sake of Christ; and by charity, in consequence whereof he begins to love his neighbor, and to hate sin. That justification, which follows, is not only remission of sins, but
sanctification, and renovation of the inner man ; that at this time the justified are not reputed just, but that they are jusst receiving righteousness in themselves; and because they accept the merit of Christ's passion, justification is inserted by faith, hope, and charity. That faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation and root of justification, and that this is to be justified by faith : and because none of those things which precede justification, whether they be of faith or works, merit the grace of justification, that this is to be justified gratis, for there is a preventing grace; and that still man is justified by works, and not by faith alone. That the just may fall into light and venial sins, and that still they are just; and that therefore the just ought continually to labor by prayers, oblations, alms, fastings, lest they should fall, because they are born again to the hope of glory, and not to glory. That the just, if they fall from the grace of justification, may be justified again by the sacrament of repentance; that by any mortal sin
grace is lost, but not faith, but that faith also is lost by infidelity, which is recession from religion. That the works of a justified man are merits; and that the justified, by such, which are done by them through the grace of God and the merit of Christ, merit everlasting life. That FREE-WILL was not lost and extinguished after the sin of Adam; and that man may coöperate, by assenting to the calling of God; and that otherwise he would be an inanimate body. They establish Predestination, by saying, that no one knows whether he is in the number of the predestinate, and among those whom God has chosen to himself, except by special revelation.
“VI. ON PURGATORY. That all the guilt from which men are to be purified by temporal punishment is not blotted out by justification, that therefore all go to purgatory to be purified, before they can be admitted into heaven. That the souls there detained are assisted by the suffrage of the faithful, and particularly by the sacrifice of the mass; and that this is diligently to be taught and preached." The torments there endured are variously described, but they are mere inventions and fictions.
“ VII. ON THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS. That there are seven sacraments,-baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, repentance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony; that there are neither more nor less; that one is of greater dignity than another; that they contain grace; and that from
the work operated by them grace is conferred : that there were the same number of sacraments of the ancient law. Baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, and repentance have been treated of above. ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME Unction: That it is founded on the epistle of James, chap. v. 14, 15; that it is to be administered to the sick at their lives' end, whence it is called the sacrament of the departing; that if they recover, it may be applied again; that it is to be performed with oil consecrated by the bishop, and with these words : ‘May God grant thee his indulgence for whatsoever offence thou hast committed through the fault of the eyes, of the nostrils, or of the feeling. On THE SACRAMENT OF Order: That there are seven orders in the ministry of the priesthood, which differ in dignity, and all together are called the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is like the order of an encampment; that inaugurations into the ministry are to be effected by unctions, and by transferring of the Holy Spirit upon them. That the secular power or consent, calling or authority of the magistrate is not requisite for the ordination of bishops and priests; that they who ascend to the ministry only by the appointment of their calling, are not ministers, but thieves and robbers, who do not enter in by the door.
ON THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY. That a dispensation of degrees and divorces belongs to the church. That the clergy are not to contract matrimony. That all of them
have the gift of chastity, and if any one saith he cannot, when nevertheless he had made a vow, let him be anathema, because God doth not refuse it to those who ask it properly, and doth not suffer
any one to be tempted beyond what he is able to bear. That a state of virginity and celibacy is to be preferred to the conjugal state; besides other things of the same nature.
" VIII. ON THE SAINTS. That the saints reigning together with Christ offer up their prayers to God for men; that Christ is to be adored, and the saints to be invoked ; that the invocation of saints is not idolatrous, nor derogatory to the honor of the one Mediator between God and men; it is called Latria. That images of Christ, of Mary the mother of God, and of the saints, are to be revered and honored, not that it is to be supposed they possess any divinity or virtue, but because the honor which is paid to them is referred to the prototypes which they represent; and that by the images which they kiss, and before which
6 DOCTRINES OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC RELIGION.
they kneel and uncover their heads, they adore Christ and venerate the saints. That miracles of God are performed by the saints.
“IX. ON POWER. That the Roman Pontiff is the successor of the apostle Peter, and vicar of Jesus Christ, the head of the church, and the universal bishop; that he is superior to councils; that he hath the keys for opening and shutting heaven, consequently the power of remitting and retaining sins; that therefore he, as keeper of the keys of everlasting life, hath a right at once to earthly and heavenly empire; that moreover bishops and priests have such a power from him, because it was given also to the rest of the apostles, and that therefore they are called ministers of the keys. That it belongs to the church to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the sacred scriptures, and that they who oppose them are to suffer punishments established by law. That it is not proper for the laity to read the sacred scriptures, because the sense of them is only known to the church; thence its ministers boast that it is known to them."
X. The above doctrinals are selected from their councils and bulls, particularly from the council of Trent, and the papal bull confirming it, wherein all who think, believe, and act contrary to what was there decreed, which in general is as above adduced, are condemned to be excommunicated.