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is to find a sharp flint among the rocks: with this he undertakes to fell the trees of the forest: he {hapes his bow, sheads his arrows, builds his cottage, and hollows his canoe, and from that time lives in a state of plenty and prosperity: he is sheltered from the storms; he is fortified against beasts of prey; he is enabled to pursue the fish of the sea, and the deer of the moun. tains; and, as he does not know, does not envy the happiness of polithed nations, where gold can supply the want of fortitude and skill, and he, whose labori. ous ancestors have made him rich, may lie ftretched upon a couch, and see all the treasures of all the ele. ments poured down before him.

This picture of a savage life, if it shews how much individuals may perform, shews likewise how much fo. ciety is to be defired. Though the perseverance and address of the Indian excite our admiration, they nevertheless cannot procure him the conveniences which are enjoyed by the vagrant beggar of a civilized coun. try: he hunts like a wild beast to satisfy his hunger; and when he lies down to rest after a successful chace, cannot pronounce himself secure against the danger of perishing in a few days: he is, perhaps, content with his condition, because he knows not that a better is attainable by man; as he that is born blind does not tong for the perception of light, because he cannot conceive the advantages which light would afford him: but hunger, wounds, and weariness, are real evils, though he believes them equally incident 'to all his fellow-creatures: and when a tempest compels him to lie starving in his hut, he cannot juftly be concluded equally happy with those whom art has exempted from the power of chance, and who make the foregoing year provide for the following.



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To receive and to communicate affiftance, constitutes the happiness of human life : man may, indeed, preferve his existence in folitude, but can enjoy it only in fociety: the greatest understanding of an individual, doomed to procure food and clothing for himself, will barely supply him with expedients to keep off death from day to day; but as one of a larger community, performing only his share to the common business, he gains leisure for intellectual pleasures, and enjoys the happinefs of reason and reflection.

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No. LXVIII. Saturday, June 30. 1753.

Nocet empta dolore voluptas.

OviD. How vain the joy for which our pain must pay.

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It has been remarked, that the play of brutes is always a mock fight; and, perhaps, this is equally true of all the fports that have been invented by reason for the amusement of mankind.

The celebrated games of antiquity wete fumething more; the conflict was often fatal, and the pleasure of the spectators seems to have been proportioned to the danger of the combatants : nor does it appear that any sport has been fince con

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trived, which can gratify pure benevolence, or entertain, without producing an opposition of interest. There are, indeed, many external advantages, which it has never been thought immoral to acquire, though an opposition of interest is necessarily implied; advan. rages, which, like a stake at cards, one party can only gain by the loss of the other : for wealth and poverty, obscurity and distinction, command and servitude, are mutually relative; and the existence of each is by cach reciprocally derived and given.

Play, therefore, is not unlawful, merely as a con test; nor can the pleasure of them that win be imputed to a criminal want of benevolence, in this state of im. perfe&tion, merely because it is enjoyed at the expence of those who lofe. But, as in business, it has never been held lawful to circumvent those whom we defire to excel: so in play, the chance of loss and gain ought to be always equal; at least, each party should be apprized of the force employed against him; and if then he plays against odds, no man has a right to inquire his motive, though a good man would decline to ea.

gage him.

There is, however, one species of diversion which has not been generally condemned, though it is produced by an attack upon those who have not volunta rily entered the lifts, who find themselves buffeted in the dark, and have neither means of defence nor pofli. bility of advantage.

These feats are atchieved by the knights-errant of Mirth, and known by the name of Frolics: under this name, indeed, many species of wanton cruelty have been practised, without incurring the infamy, or rail ing the indignation which they deserve; and it is ex


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tremely difficult to fix upon any certain criterion, by which frolics may be distinguished into criminal and innocent. If we could discern effects while they are involved in their causes, and ascertain every remote consequence of our own actions, perhaps these fallies might be allowed under the same restrictions as rail. lery: the false alarms and ridiculous distress into which others are betrayed to make us sport, should be such only as will be subjects of merriment, even to the sufferer, when they are past, and remembered neither with resentment nor regret : but as every


may: produce effects over which human power has no influence, and which human sagacity cannot foresee, we should not lightly venture to the verge of evil, nors strike at others, though with a reed, left, like the rock of Moses, it become a serpent in our hands.

During the hard frost in the year 1740, four young gentlemen, of confiderable rank, rode into an inn, near one of the principal-avenues to this city, at ele. ven o'clock at night, without any attendant; and having expressed uncommon concern about their horses, and overlooked the provision that was made for them, called for a room; ordering wine and tobacco to be. brought in, and declaring, that as they were to set out very early in the morning, it was not worth while to go to bed. Before the waiter returned, each of them had laid a pocket pistol upon the table; which, when he entered, they appeared to be very folicitous to conceal, and shewed some confusion at the surprise. They perceived, with great satisfaction, that the fellow was alarmed at his discovery; and having, upon various pretences, called him often into the room, one of them contrived to pull out a mask, with his handkerchief


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from the pocket of a horseman's coat. They discoursed in dark and ambiguous terms, affected a busy and anxious circumspection, urged the man often to drink, and seemed defirous to render him fubservient to some purpose which they were unwilling to discover. They endeavoured to conciliate his good-will, by extravagant commendations of his dexterity and diligence; and encouraged him to familiarity, by asking him many questions. He was, however, fill cautious and reserved. One of them therefore, pretending to have known his mother, put a crown into his hand, and foon after took an opportunity to ask him at what hour a stage.coach, the passengers of which they intended to humbug, fet out in the morning; whether it was full; and if it was attended with a guard.

The man was now confirmed in his suspicions; and, though he had accepted the bribe, resolved to discover the secret. Having evaded the questions with as much art as he could, he went to his master, Mr. Spiggot, who was then in bed, and acquainted him with what he had observed.

Mr. Spiggot immediately got up, and held a consultation with his wife, what was to be done. She ad. vised him immediately to send for the constable, with proper amiftants, and secure them: but he confidered, that, as this would probably prevent a robbery, it would deprive him of an opportunity to gain a very confiderable fum, which he would become entitled to upon their conviction, if he could apprehend them after the fact: he therefore very prudently called up four or five of the oftlers that belonged to the yard; and, having communicated his suspicions and design, engaged. them to inlift under his command, as an escort to the



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